Panenka (penalty kick)

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In association football, the Panenka is a technique used while taking a penalty kick in which the taker, instead of kicking the ball to the left or right of the goalkeeper, gives a light touch underneath the ball, causing it to rise and fall within the centre of the goal, deceiving the goalkeeper who is counted on by the taker to have guessed a side and committed to a dive away from the centre.

The technique was invented by Czech player Antonín Panenka, who introduced it to the world in the UEFA Euro 1976 final in Belgrade, when he beat West German goalkeeper Sepp Maier to claim the title for the Czechoslovakian national team.[1][2] After its much publicised debut in the tournament, the Panenka kick has been used on rare occasions and mostly by highly respected players who can deal with the consequences of missing such an attempt.[3][4] This style of penalty kick is also called Il cucchiaio ("the spoon") in Italy,[5] cavadinha ("little dig") in Brazil and penal picado ("poked penalty kick") in Argentina and elsewhere in South America.[6]


The aim of the technique is not to chip the ball over the goalkeeper, but to take advantage of the fact that many goalkeepers will dive to either side of the goal in anticipation, rather than waiting to see in which direction the ball is going. It is a very risky technique, because the subtle touch on the ball gives it a very slow speed, thus allowing the goalkeeper to move back from where they jumped, or even to simply remain in the same spot and wait for the ball to fall easily into their hands. In addition, the subtle touch is most easily applied by a taker who slows down as he or she is about to strike the ball, making it possible for the goalkeeper to recognize what the taker is intending. The move is known for only being used by confident penalty takers who dare to risk missing the kick.[3] Some players that have used the Panenka kick have been criticized by the specialized media or their team's members and supporters, especially if they miss it.[7]

According to studies, a Panenka has a lower scoring probability over placement or power, though it is alleged that if successful, a Panenka's psychological impact on the opposite team may be profound, which may be why penalty takers elect to use it. Antonín Panenka, though, saw the penalty as a reflection of his own personality.[8]


The original penalty[edit]

"I saw myself as an entertainer and I saw this penalty as a reflection of my personality. I wanted to give the fans something new to see, to create something that would get them talking."

—Antonin Panenka[8]

Antonín Panenka came to international prominence playing for Czechoslovakia in the 1976 European Championship; Czechoslovakia reached the final, where they faced West Germany. After extra time, the result was 2–2, and so the first penalty shootout in a European Championships final ensued. The first seven kicks were converted, until West Germany's fourth penalty taker, Uli Hoeneß, ballooned his shot over the bar. With the score 4–3, Panenka stepped up to take the fifth Czechoslovakian penalty, to win the match under immense pressure. He feigned shooting to the side of the goal, causing West German goalkeeper Sepp Maier to dive to his left, and then gently chipped the ball into the middle of the net.[9] The perceived impudence of the shot, in addition to its success, led a watching French journalist to dub Panenka "a poet", and his winning kick is one of the most famous ever, making Panenka's name synonymous with that particular style of penalty kick.[10] After the game, Panenka was told that he could have been punished if he missed, as it may have been seen as disrespecting the Communist system in place at the time in his home country.[8] On viewing the penalty Pelé described Panenka as being "either a genius or a madman".[2]

Since 1976[edit]

Panenka in 2013. His original penalty technique has been imitated by many other players.

As well as winning the 1976 European Championship, Panenka helped Czechoslovakia come third in the 1980 tournament, after scoring once again in a 9–8 penalty shootout win.[11] In the finals of the 1982 World Cup, Panenka scored twice with penalties, but these were the only Czechoslovakian goals, and the team did not progress beyond the first group stage.[12][13]

The Panenka penalty has since been successfully performed by many other players in a wide range of competitions. Only a small number of these have been, like Panenka's original, in major cup finals – Zinedine Zidane in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final,[10] Alexis Sánchez in the 2015 Copa América Final,[14] and Odsonne Édouard in the 2020 Scottish Cup final.[15] Examples of Panenkas outside finals include Andrea Pirlo for Italy in their Euro 2012 quarter-final shoot-out against England, Lionel Messi with the winner in a UEFA Champions League game for Paris Saint-Germain against RB Leipzig in 2021,[16][17] and Karim Benzema for Real Madrid against Manchester City in a UEFA Champions League semi-final in 2022.

As with all penalty attempts, not every one is successful. In the 2019 A-League Grand Final Perth Glory player Brendon Santalab, who had scored multiple Panenka penalties previously in his career, played his last game as a professional. The match ended in a penalty shootout between Sydney FC and Santalab's club Perth Glory. With the score at 3 to 1 in favour of Sydney FC, Santalab took Perth's third penalty, attempting a Panenka, but Sydney FC goalkeeper Andrew Redmayne was expecting it. The keeper stood upright and easily saved the weak kick. Sydney FC scored their next penalty, winning the shootout and the A-League Championship 4 to 1.[18] Former England captain Gary Lineker infamously failed a Panenka which at the time, would have put him level with Bobby Charlton for the England team's top scorer, the missed penalty instead leaving him one goal behind on 48 for the rest of his career.


  1. ^ "The footballers who have moves named after them". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Antonin Panenka - the footballer Pele described as "either a genius or a madman"". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Euro 2012: Pirlo's courage to kick a penalty like Panenka helped Italy's 4-2 win over England". The Star. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Andrea Pirlo explains THAT Panenka penalty which bamboozled Joe Hart at Euro 2012". The Mirror. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Il rigore di Panenka" (in Italian). Storie di Calcio. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  6. ^ "¿Cómo nació el penal picado a lo Panenka?". Pasión Fútbol. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  7. ^ "14 of the best and worst Panenkas ever". Planet Football. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Ingle, Sean (10 May 2021). "Was Aguero's Panenka really a mistake? Analysing the art and science of penalties". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021.
  9. ^ Tom Bryant. "Football - Knowledge: the footballers who have moves named after them". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b "The cult of the Panenka penalty". 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  11. ^ "UEFA EURO 1980 - History - Czechoslovakia-Italy -". 4 October 2003. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  12. ^ "1982 FIFA World Cup Spain - Statistics - Players - Top goals". FIFA. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  13. ^ "1982 FIFA World Cup Spain - Groups". FIFA. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Chile 0-0 Argentina (4-1 pens): Hosts claim first Copa America title with shoot-out victory". Sky Sports. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  15. ^ "Celtic win Scottish Cup on penalties to complete quadruple treble". BBC. 20 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Lionel Messi's Panenka wins it for PSG after RB Leipzig threaten upset". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  17. ^ "The trickery of Panenka Penalty". Yahoo. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Perth Glory A-League Grand Final offside controversy". The West Australian. 19 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.