Non-binary gender

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Pangender)

Non-binary
A genderqueer pride flag held aloft with the words "El Futuro No Es Binario – Genderqueer" written across it
A genderqueer pride flag in Valencia reading "The future is not binary" in Spanish
ClassificationGender identity
Abbreviations
  • Enby
  • NB
Other terms
SynonymsGenderqueer
Associated terms

Non-binary[a] and genderqueer are umbrella terms for gender identities that are not solely male or female (identities outside the gender binary).[2][3] Non-binary identities often fall under the transgender umbrella since non-binary people typically identify with a gender that is different from the sex assigned to them at birth,[3] though some non-binary people do not consider themselves transgender.[4][5]

Non-binary people may identify as an intermediate or separate third gender,[6] identify with more than one gender,[7][8] no gender, or have a fluctuating gender identity.[9] Gender identity is separate from sexual or romantic orientation:[10] non-binary people have various sexual orientations.[11]

Being non-binary is also not the same as being intersex; most intersex people identify as either men or women[12] though some identify as only non-binary, some identify as non-binary and genderfluid, such as Hida Viloria, while others identify as non-binary men or non-binary women.

Non-binary people as a group vary in their gender expressions, and some may reject gender identity altogether.[13] Some non-binary people are medically treated for gender dysphoria with surgery or hormones, as trans men and trans women often are.[14]

Terms, definitions, and identities

A non-binary pride flag at a parade in Paris reading "Mon genre est non-binaire" ("My gender is non-binary")

The term genderqueer originated in queer zines of the 1980s as a precursor to the term non-binary.[15] It gained wider use in the 1990s among political activists,[16] especially Riki Anne Wilchins.[17] Wilchins used the term in a 1995 essay published in the first issue of In Your Face to describe anyone who is gender nonconforming, and identified as genderqueer in their 1997 autobiography.[18][19] Wilchins was also one of the main contributors to the anthology Genderqueer: Voices Beyond the Sexual Binary published in 2002.[20] The internet allowed the term genderqueer to spread even further than zines, and by the 2010s the term was introduced to the mainstream via celebrities who publicly identified under the genderqueer umbrella.[16]

People who challenge binary social constructions of gender often self-identify as genderqueer.[21] In addition to being an umbrella term for non-binary gender identities, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to people who are perceived to transcend or diverge from traditional distinctions of gender, regardless of their gender identity. People may express gender non-normatively by not conforming into the binary gender categories of "man" and "woman".[22]

The term genderqueer has also been applied by those describing what they see as gender ambiguity.[23][page needed] Androgynous (also androgyne) is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category. This is because the term androgyny is closely associated with a blend of socially defined masculine and feminine traits.[24][page needed] Not all genderqueer people identify as androgynous; some identify as a masculine woman or a feminine man, or combine genderqueer with another gender option.[25] Some people use enby (from the letters NB) as a short form of non-binary.[26][27] Being non-binary is not the same as being intersex, and most intersex people identify as either male or female.[12]

Many references use the term transgender to include genderqueer/non-binary people.[13][28][29] This use of the word as a broad term for various kinds of gender variation dates to at least 1992 and the publication of Leslie Feinberg's Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come.[16] In 1994, non-binary author Kate Bornstein wrote, "All the categories of transgender find a common ground in that they each break one or more of the rules of gender: What we have in common is that we are gender outlaws, every one of us."[30] The Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum use the term gender-expansive to convey "a wider, more flexible range of gender identity and/or expression than typically associated with the binary gender system".[31]

Agender

Agender people ("a-" meaning "without"), also called genderless, gender-free, non-gendered, or ungendered,[32][33] are those who identify as having no gender or gender identity.[34][35][13] This category includes a broad range of identities that do not conform to traditional gender norms, but scholar Finn Enke has said that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender.[36] Agender people have no specific set of pronouns; singular they is typically used, but it is not the default.[37] Neutrois and agender were two of 50 available custom genders added to Facebook in February 2014.[38] Agender has also been a gender option on OkCupid since November 2014.[39]

Bigender

Bigender (also bi-gender or dual gender) people have two gender identities and behaviors. Identifying as bigender is typically understood to mean that one identifies as both male and female or moves between masculine gender expression and feminine gender expression, having two distinct gender identities simultaneously or fluctuating between them.[40][41][42] This is different from identifying as genderfluid, as those who identify as genderfluid may not go back and forth between any fixed gender identities and may experience an entire range or spectrum of identities over time.[43][44] The American Psychological Association calls bigender identity part of the umbrella of transgender identities.[45] Some bigender people express two distinct personas, which may be feminine, masculine, agender, androgyne, or other gender identities; others find that they identify as two genders simultaneously. A 1999 survey conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Health observed that, among the transgender community, 3% of those who were assigned male at birth and 8% of those assigned female at birth identified as either "a transvestite, cross-dresser, drag queen, or a bigendered person".[46] A 2016 Harris poll conducted on behalf of GLAAD found that 1% of millennials identify as bigender.[47][48] Trigender people shift among male, female, and third gender.[49]

Demigender

Demigender people identify partially or mostly with one gender and at the same time with another gender.[50][51] There are several subcategories of the identity. A demi-boy or demi-man, for example, identifies at least partially with being a boy or a man (no matter the sex and gender they were assigned at birth) and partly with other genders or with no other gender (agender). A demiflux person feels that the stable part of their identity is non-binary.[51]

Pangender

Pangender (also polygender or omnigender) people have multiple gender identities.[52] Some may identify as all genders simultaneously.[53]

Genderfluid

Genderfluid people often express a desire to remain flexible about their gender identity rather than committing to a single definition.[54] They may fluctuate among differing gender expressions over their lifetime, or express multiple aspects of various gender markers at the same time.[54][55] A genderfluid person may also identify as bigender, trigender, or pangender.[7][8]

Transfeminine or transmasculine

Transfeminine is a term for any person, binary or non-binary, who was assigned male at birth and has a predominantly feminine gender identity or presentation; transmasculine is the equivalent term for someone who was assigned female at birth and has a predominantly masculine gender identity or presentation.[56]

Two-spirit

In a 1990 Indigenous LGBT gathering in Winnipeg, the term two-spirit, which refers to third-gender or gender-variant people from Indigenous North American communities, was created "to distinguish and distance Native American/First Nations people from non-Native peoples".[57]

Xenogender

Xenogender is an umbrella term for gender identities that are described with terms outside standard human understandings of gender. These gender identities are typically defined metaphorically in relation to nonhuman animals, plants, foods, objects or sensory characteristics rather than male or female.[58][59]

History

Drag queen and musician Shea Couleé identifies as gay and non-binary, using "they/them" pronouns offstage[60][61]
Judith Butler, American philosopher, published Gender Trouble in 1990 and publicly declared themself non-binary in 2019[62]

Non-binary gender has been included within the third gender concept, but the history of identities now classified as third gender extends beyond that of nonbinary gender in particular.[63]

In 1776, the Public Universal Friend identified as a genderless evangelist, and afterward shunned both birth name and gendered pronouns,[64][65] an early American instance of public non-binary gender expression.[66]

In 1781, Jens Andersson of Norway, assigned female at birth but identifying as male, was imprisoned and put on trial after marrying Anne Kristine Mortensdotter in a Lutheran church. When asked about his gender, the response was "Hand troer at kunde henhøre til begge Deele" ("He believes he belongs to both").[67]

In 1990, the American gender theorist and philosopher Judith Butler published their book Gender Trouble, questioning both the naturalness and the exclusive dichotomy of the male/female binary. Gender Trouble concludes by arguing that expanding cultural understandings of sex and gender contradicts the idea of sex and gender as binaries and reveals these binaries as unnatural.[68] Butler has publicly identified as non-binary since 2019.[69][62] They use they/them and she/her pronouns, but prefer the former.[70]

In the mid-1990s, the term "gender queer" emerged in connection with the American transgender rights activist Riki Wilchins, who in 2002 co-edited a collection of articles, GenderQueer: Voices from beyond the Sexual Binary.[71] Wilchins used the expression as early as 1995 in the In Your Face newsletter to argue against gender discrimination.[72] In 1997, Wilchins announced they identify as genderqueer in their autobiography.[73] In 2017, they published a collection of articles titled Burn the Binary![74]

In 1997, autism-rights movement activist Jim Sinclair, one of the founders of Autism Network International (ANI), publicly declared themself gender-neutral, writing, "I remain openly and proudly neuter, both physically and socially" in their 1997 self-introduction to the Intersex Society of North America.[75]

In Japan, the expression "X-gender" (x-jendā) has been used since the late 1990s as a definition of gender outside of the binary of male and female.[76] Notable people identifying as X-gender include manga artists Yūki Kamatani and Yuu Watase.[77]

In 2012, the Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project began to advocate for expanding gender options on official documentation.[78][failed verification] In 2016, Elisa Rae Shupe was the first person to have a non-binary gender on official U.S. documents.[79]

In 2015, legislator Estefan Cortes-Vargas came out as non-binary in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta during a debate over the inclusion of transgender rights in the provincial human rights code.[80]

Pronouns and titles

Pronoun pin badges from a 2016 art and tech festival

Some non-binary or genderqueer people use gender-neutral pronouns. In English, usage of singular "they", "their" and "them" is the most common;[81][82] nonstandard pronouns—commonly called neopronouns[83]—such as xe, ze, sie, co, and ey are sometimes used as well. Some others use the conventional gender-specific pronouns "he" or "she", alternate between "he" and "she", or use only their name and no pronouns at all.[84] Many use additional neutral language, such as the title Mx.[85][86]

A 2015 National Center for Transgender Equality study surveyed nearly 28,000 transgender people in the United States, 35% of whom identified as non-binary or genderqueer. 84% of respondents reported using pronouns that did not match the gender given on their birth certificates. 37% of respondents preferred he/him, 37% preferred she/her, and 29% preferred they/them. 20% of respondents did not ask others to use certain pronouns to refer to them, and 4% used pronouns not given in the survey choices.[87]

The 2023 Gender Census, an annual survey of people "whose genders are not adequately described, expressed or encompassed by the restrictive gender binary," found that 63.1% of respondents said the word "nonbinary" best described how they thought of themselves in English.[88]

Legal recognition

Many non-binary/genderqueer people use the gender they were given at birth to conduct everyday business, as many institutions and forms of identification—such as passports and driver's licenses—only accept, in the sense of recorded recognition, binary gender identities. But with the increasing acceptance of non-binary gender identities and the rise in wider societal recognition, this is slowly changing, as more governments and institutions recognize and allow non-binary identities.[2]

Multiple countries legally recognize non-binary or third gender classifications. Some non-Western societies have long recognized transgender people as a third gender, though this may not (or may only recently)[89] include formal legal recognition. In Western societies, Australia may have been the first country to legally recognize a classification of sex outside of "male" and "female" on legal documentation, with the recognition of Alex MacFarlane's intersex status in 2003.[90] The wider legal recognition of non-binary people—following the recognition of intersex people in 2003—in Australian law followed between 2010 and 2014, with legal action taken against the New South Wales Government Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages by transgender activist Norrie May-Welby to recognize Norrie's legal gender identity as "non-specific". India's Supreme Court formally recognized transgender and non-binary people as a distinct third gender in 2014, following legal action taken by transgender activist Laxmi Narayan Tripathi.[91] In July 2021, Argentina incorporated non-binary gender in its national ID card, becoming the first country in South America to legally recognize non-binary gender on all official documentation; non-binary people in the country will have the option to renew their ID with the letter "X" under gender.[92][93]

While the United States does not federally recognize a non-binary gender, in 2016 Oregon became the first state to recognize a non-binary gender identity.[94] In 2017, California passed an act allowing citizens to identify as "non-binary" on official documents.[94] As of 2019, eight states have passed acts that allow "non-binary" or "X" designations on certain identifying documents.[94] One of the main arguments against the inclusion of a third gender identifier in the U.S. is that it would make law enforcement and surveillance harder, but countries that have officially recognized a third gender marker have not reported these issues.[94] In the U.S. there are no explicit laws to protect non-binary people from discrimination, but under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, it is illegal for an employer to require employees to conform to gender stereotypes,[95] or to fire them merely for being transgender.[96]

Discrimination

Various countries throughout history have criminalized transgender and non-binary gender identities.[97][98]

In the U.S., 13% of respondents to the 2008 National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose "A gender not listed here".[b] The "not listed here" respondents were 9 percentage points more likely to report forgoing healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample (36% compared to 27%). 90 percent reported experiencing anti-trans bias at work, and 43 percent reported having attempted suicide.[99]

The reported discrimination non-binary people face includes disregard, disbelief, condescending interactions, and disrespect.[94] Non-binary people are also often viewed as partaking in a trend and thus deemed insincere or attention-seeking. As an accumulation, erasure is often a significant form of discrimination non-binary people face.[94]

Misgendering, intentional or not, is also a problem that many face. In the case of intentional misgendering, transphobia is a driving force. Additionally, the use of they/them pronouns is lumped into[clarification needed] the larger, controversial, subject of safe spaces and political correctness,[100] causing pushback and intentional misgendering by some people.[101]

Non-binary and transgender identifying people also face discrimination in sports participation. Non-binary identifying athletes have an immediate barrier as most sports competitions are divided into men's and women's categories.[102]

Healthcare

Nonbinary people may report significantly less well-being and overall health than binary transgender people, though current research demonstrates conflicting perspectives on this topic.[103] These health disparities may be exacerbated by minority stress by breaking gender and social norms.[104][105]

Healthcare professionals are often uninformed about nonbinary people's specific health needs, sometimes requiring nonbinary patients to educate them.[106] Some providers may believe that nonbinary people do not require transition-related treatment,[107] while others may not understand the difference between their identity and the identities of binary transgender patients.[108] Nonbinary patients report lower rates of respect from healthcare providers than binary transgender people.[109]

Transgender health care

Some nonbinary people desire gender-affirming health care, including hormone replacement therapy or surgery.[110] Others do not,[111] and the ratio of those who desire care to those who do not is unclear. The factors that lead to this decision are complex and unique to each person.[112]

Nonbinary patients seeking gender-affirming care typically begin treatment earlier than binary transgender patients.[113]

Mental health care

Nonbinary people are likely to face more mental stress than binary transgender individuals.[87][114]

Symbols and observances

Anjali Gopalan and Gopi Shankar Madurai inaugurating Asia's first Genderqueer Pride Parade at Madurai with a rainbow and genderqueer flag[115][116]

Many flags have been used in non-binary and genderqueer communities to represent various identities. There are distinct non-binary and genderqueer pride flags. The genderqueer pride flag was designed in 2011 by Marilyn Roxie. Lavender represents androgyny or queerness, white represents agender identity, and green represents those whose identities which are defined outside the binary.[117][118][119] The non-binary pride flag was created in 2014 by Kye Rowan.[120] Yellow represents people whose gender exists outside the binary, purple represents those whose gender is a mixture of—or between—male and female, black represents people who have no gender, and white represents those who embrace many or all genders.[121]

Genderfluid people, who fall under the genderqueer umbrella, also have their own flag. Pink represents femininity, white represents lack of gender, purple represents mixed gender or androgyny, black represents all other genders, and blue represents masculinity.[118][122]

Agender people, who also sometimes identify as genderqueer, have their own flag. This flag uses black and white stripes to represent an absence of gender, and a green stripe to represent non-binary genders.[123]

International Non-Binary People's Day is celebrated on July 14.[124][125][126][127] Other observances with non-binary participation include International Transgender Day of Visibility, observed on March 31,[128][129] and International Day Against Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia, observed on May 17.[130]

Population figures

Argentina

On July 20, 2021, President Alberto Fernández signed Decreto 476/2021, mandating that the National Registry of Persons (RENAPER) allow a third gender option on all national identity cards and passports, marked as "X". The measure also applies to non-citizen permanent residents who possess Argentine identity cards.[133] The 2022 national census, carried out less than a year after the resolution was implemented, counted 8,293 (roughly 0.12%) of the country's population identifying with the "X / other" gender marker.[134]

Brazil

A 2021 survey published in Scientific Reports concluded that 1.19% of Brazilian adults are non-binary, but the study did not ask whether they self-identified as non-binary. Because the authors considered most Brazilians unfamiliar with North American gender terminology, more open-ended questions about gender were asked.[135][136]

Canada

In April 2022, Statistics Canada released findings from the 2021 census, making Canada the first country to ask a core question about gender identity, and found that 41,355 Canadians aged 15 and over identified as nonbinary.[137]

A 2019 survey of the two-spirit and LGBTQ+ population in Hamilton, Ontario, called Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton showed that 19% of the 906 respondents identified as non-binary.[138]

A 2017 survey of Canadian LGBT+ people called LGBT+ Realities Survey found that 4% of the 1,897 respondents identified as non-binary transgender and 1% identified as non-binary outside of the transgender umbrella.[139]

Switzerland

A 2021 survey found that 0.4% of adults in Switzerland describe themselves as non-binary.[140] The survey of 2,690 Swiss residents was weighted to be reflective of the entire population.[141]

United Kingdom

According to the 2021 United Kingdom census, 0.06% of the population in England and Wales identified as non-binary.[142] The proportion was highest among people aged 16 to 24 years (0.26% or 17,000).[143]

United States

According to a 2021 study by the Williams Institute, an estimated 1.2 million American adults aged between 18 and 60 identify as non-binary, making up 11% of the LGBTQ population in that age bracket.[144]

A 2020 survey by The Trevor Project found that 26% of LGBTQ youth (ages 13–24) in the U.S. identify as non-binary.[5][145]

According to The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, 35% of the nearly 28,000 transgender respondents to the anonymous online survey identified as non-binary.[146][147]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Also spelled nonbinary. The term enby, from the abbreviation NB, is also used.[1]
  2. ^ Q3 asked "What is your primary gender identity today?". Possible answers were male, female, "part time as one gender, part time as another", and "a gender not listed here, please specify".

References

  1. ^ Bergman, S. Bear; Barker, Meg-John (2017). "Non-binary Activism". In Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Barker, Meg-John (eds.). Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders. Critical and Applied Approaches in Sexuality, Gender and Identity. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-137-51052-5.
  2. ^ a b Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O.; T'Sjoen, Guy (2016). "Non-binary or genderqueer genders". International Review of Psychiatry. 28 (1): 95–102. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1106446. hdl:1854/LU-7279758. PMID 26753630. S2CID 29985722. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Supporting & Caring for Transgender Children" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2021. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "Trans + Gender Identity". The Trevor Project. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Ennis, Dawn (July 13, 2021). "New Research Reveals Insights Into America's Nonbinary Youth". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 6, 2022. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  6. ^ Beemyn, Brett Genny (2008). "Genderqueer". glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Chicago, Illinois: glbtq, Inc. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2012.[page needed]
  7. ^ a b Bosson, Jennifer K.; Vandello, Joseph A.; Buckner, Camille E. (2018). The Psychology of Sex and Gender. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-5063-3134-8. OCLC 1038755742. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2019 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ a b Whyte, Stephen; Brooks, Robert C.; Torgler, Benno (September 25, 2018). "Man, Woman, "Other": Factors Associated with Nonbinary Gender Identification". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media. 47 (8): 2397–2406. doi:10.1007/s10508-018-1307-3. PMID 30255409. S2CID 52823167. 2 out of 7479 (0.03 percent) of respondents to the Australian Sex Survey, a 2016 online research survey, self-identified as trigender.
  9. ^ Winter, Claire Ruth (2010). Understanding Transgender Diversity: A Sensible Explanation of Sexual and Gender Identities. Scotts Valley, California: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4563-1490-3. OCLC 703235508.[page needed]
  10. ^ "Transgender Glossary of Terms". GLAAD Media Reference Guide. Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  11. ^ Stryker, Susan (2008). Transgender History. Berkeley, California: Seal Press. ISBN 978-1-58005-224-5. OCLC 183914566.[page needed]
  12. ^ a b "Understanding Non-Binary People: How to Be Respectful and Supportive". National Center for Transgender Equality. July 9, 2016. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Schorn, Johanna. "Taking the 'Sex' out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media" (PDF). Inter-Disciplinary.Net. Cologne, Germany: University of Cologne. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2014. The term transgender is an umbrella term 'and generally refers to any and all kinds of variation from gender norms and expectations' (Stryker 19). Most often, the term transgender is used for someone who feels that the sex assigned to them at birth does not reflect their own gender identity. They may identify as the gender "opposite" to their assigned gender, or they may feel that their gender identity is fluid, or they may reject all gender categorizations and identify as agender or genderqueer.
  14. ^ Hastings, Jennifer (June 17, 2016). "Approach to genderqueer, gender non-conforming, and gender nonbinary people". UCSF Transgender Care. Archived from the original on October 6, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
  15. ^ Hendrie, Theo, ed. (2019). X Marks the Spot: An Anthology of Nonbinary Experiences. Independently Published. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-0809-6803-9.
  16. ^ a b c Tobia, Jacob (November 7, 2018). "InQueery: The History of the Word 'Genderqueer' As We Know It". them. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on April 4, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  17. ^ Wilchins, Riki (March 14, 2017). "Get to Know the New Pronouns: They, Theirs, and Them". Pride. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  18. ^ "Genderqueer History". Archived from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  19. ^ Wilchins, Riki (Spring 1995). "A Note from your Editrix" (PDF). In Your Face (1): 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 5, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  20. ^ Nestle, Joan; Howell, Clare; Wilchins, Riki Anne, eds. (2002). GenderQueer: voices from beyond the sexual binary (1st ed.). New York City: Alyson Books. ISBN 978-1-55583-730-3. OCLC 50389309.
  21. ^ Shaw, Susan; Lee, Janet (April 23, 2014). Women's Voices Feminist Visions: Classic and Contemporary Readings (Sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 130, 135. ISBN 978-0-07-802700-0. OCLC 862041473.
  22. ^ Dahir, Mubarak (May 25, 1999). "Whose Movement Is It?". The Advocate. San Francisco, California: Here Media. p. 52.
  23. ^ Girshick, Lori B. (2008). Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-645-6. OCLC 183162406.
  24. ^ Shaw, Susan M.; Lee, Janet (April 23, 2014). Women's Voices Feminist Visions: Classic and Contemporary Readings (Sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-802700-0. OCLC 862041473.
  25. ^ Walsh, Reuben (December 2010). "More T, vicar? My experiences as a genderqueer person of faith". All God's Children. Vol. 2, no. 3. Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement.
  26. ^ Sheridan, Vanessa (2018). Transgender in the Workplace: The Complete Guide. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 11. ISBN 978-1440858062.
  27. ^ Hope, Sam (2019). Person-Centred Counselling for Trans and Gender Diverse People. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 218. ISBN 978-1784509378.
  28. ^ Vargo, Marc E. (November 30, 2011). "A Review of Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism". Journal of GLBT Family Studies. 7 (5): 2 (493). doi:10.1080/1550428X.2011.623982. ISSN 1550-4298. S2CID 142815065. up to three million U. S. citizens regard themselves as transgender, a term referring to those whose gender identities are at odds with their biological sex. The term is an expansive one, however, and may apply to other individuals as well, from the person whose behavior purposely and dramatically diverges from society's traditional male/female roles to the "agender", "bigender" or "third gender" person whose self-definition lies outside of the male/female binary altogether. In short, those counted under this term constitute a wide array of people who do not conform to, and may actively challenge conventional gender norms.
  29. ^ Cronn-Mills, Kirstin (2014). "IV. Trans*spectrum. Identities". Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4677-4796-7. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2014 – via Google Books. Many different individuals fall under what experts call the trans* spectrum, or the trans* umbrella."I'm trans*" and "I'm transgender" are ways these individuals might refer to themselves. But there are distinctions among different trans* identities. [...] Androgynous individuals may not identify with either side of the gender binary. Other individuals consider themselves agender, and they may feel they have no gender at all.
  30. ^ Bornstein, Kate (2013). Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women and the Rest of Us. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-60373-0. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2020 – via Google Books.
  31. ^ "Supporting and Caring for our Gender-Expansive Youth" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  32. ^ "LGBTQ Needs Assessment" (PDF). Encompass Network. April 2013. pp. 52–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  33. ^ "Gender alphabet" (PDF). Safe Homes. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  34. ^ Vargo, Marc E. (2011). "A Review of "Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism"". Journal of GLBT Family Studies. 7 (5): 493–494. doi:10.1080/1550428x.2011.623982. S2CID 142815065.
  35. ^ Cronn-Mills, Kirstin (2014). Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-1-4677-4796-7. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ Anne Enke, ed. (2012). "Note on terms and concepts". Transfeminist Perspectives In and Beyond Transgender and Gender Studies. Temple University Press. pp. 16–20 [18–19]. ISBN 978-1-4399-0748-1.
  37. ^ Sojwal, Senti (September 16, 2015). "What Does 'Agender' Mean? 6 Things to Know About People With Non-Binary Identities". Bustle. Archived from the original on February 22, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2016.
  38. ^ Sparkes, Matthew (February 14, 2014). "Facebook sex changes: which one of 50 genders are you?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on May 21, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  39. ^ "OkCupid expands gender and sexuality options". PBS NewsHour. November 17, 2014. Archived from the original on November 19, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  40. ^ Edwards, Ruth Dudley (August 17, 2014). "Asexual, bigender, transexual or cis, can't we all just be kind to each other?". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  41. ^ Persio, Sofia Lotto (June 16, 2017). "Oregon becomes first state to allow option "X" to end gender binary". Newsweek. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  42. ^ "Everything you ever wanted to know about being nonbinary". The Daily Dot. September 28, 2017. Archived from the original on September 28, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  43. ^ "Billy Dee Williams: What is gender fluid?". Monsters and Critics. December 2, 2019. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  44. ^ "This is the term for people who aren't exclusively male or female". PinkNews. April 26, 2018. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  45. ^ "Sexual orientation and gender identity". Archived from the original on January 2, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  46. ^ Clements, K. San Francisco Department of Public Health Archived September 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, 1999
  47. ^ "EEOC now gives nonbinary people a way to be counted in workplace". ThinkProgress. August 20, 2019. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  48. ^ "Accelerating Acceptance 2017" (PDF). GLAAD. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 6, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  49. ^ Bosson, Jennifer K.; Vandello, Joseph A.; Buckner, Camille E. (January 17, 2018). The Psychology of Sex and Gender. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-5063-3134-8. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  50. ^ Gibson, Sarah; Fernandez, J. (2018). Gender Diversity and Non-Binary Inclusion in the Workplace: The Essential Guide for Employers. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-78450-523-3.
  51. ^ a b Brill, Stephanie; Kenney, Lisa (2016). The Transgender Teen. Berkeley, California: Cleis Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-1627781749.
  52. ^ Ginicola, Misty M.; Smith, Cheri; Filmore, Joel M. (February 10, 2017). Affirmative Counseling with LGBTQI+ People. John Wiley & Sons. p. 366. ISBN 978-1-119-37549-4. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  53. ^ "Queer Undefined". Queer Undefined. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
  54. ^ a b Cronn-Mills, Kirstin (2015). Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7613-9022-0.
  55. ^ McGuire, Peter (November 9, 2015). "Beyond the binary: what does it mean to be genderfluid?". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  56. ^ Mardell, Ashley (2016). The ABC's of LGBT+. Coral Gables, Florida: Mango Media Inc. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-63353-408-7. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2019 – via Google Books.
  57. ^ de Vries, Kylan Mattias (2009). "Berdache (Two-Spirit)". In O'Brien, Jodi (ed.). Encyclopedia of gender and society. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 64. ISBN 9781412909167. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015 – via Google Books.
  58. ^ Beattie, Michael; Penny Lenihan; Robin Dundas; Christiane Sanderson (2018). Counselling skills for working with gender diversity and identity. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78450-481-6. OCLC 1028945173.
  59. ^ Morin, Florentin Félix (April 3, 2017). "EGO HIPPO: the subject as metaphor". Angelaki. 22 (2): 87–96. doi:10.1080/0969725X.2017.1322822. ISSN 0969-725X. S2CID 149400086. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  60. ^ "THE Q LIST Shea Coulee's drag revolution will be televised – Windy City Times News". Windy City Times. January 15, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  61. ^ "Shea Couleé Opens Up About Embracing Their Non-Binary Identity". Them. May 30, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  62. ^ a b McManus, Matthew (July 21, 2020). "Matt McManus Interviews Judith Butler". YouTube. Zero Books. 37:01. Archived from the original on August 11, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  63. ^ Towle, Evan B; Morgan, Lynn Marie (2002). "Romancing the Transgender Native: Rethinking the Use of the "Third Gender" Concept". GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 8 (4): 469–497. doi:10.1215/10642684-8-4-469. ISSN 1527-9375. S2CID 143201735.
  64. ^ Wisbey, Herbert A. Jr. (2009) [1964]. Pioneer Prophetess: Jemima Wilkinson, the Publick Universal Friend. Cornell University Press. pp. 7–14. ISBN 978-0-8014-7551-1. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Google Books.
  65. ^ Moyer, Paul B. (2015). The Public Universal Friend: Jemima Wilkinson and Religious Enthusiasm in Revolutionary America. Cornell University Press. pp. 12, 18, 100. ISBN 978-0-8014-5413-4.
  66. ^ Samantha Schmidt, A genderless prophet drew hundreds of followers long before the age of nonbinary pronouns Archived December 31, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, January 5, 2020, The Washington Post
  67. ^ "Et besynderligt givtermaal mellem tvende fruentimmer" [A strange gift term between two women's hours]. Skeivt arkiv (in Norwegian). December 16, 2014. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  68. ^ Butler, Judith (1990). "Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity" (1st ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 0415900433.
  69. ^ Interviews by Kian (December 27, 2019). "Judith Butler on her Philosophy and Current Events". Interviews by Kian. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  70. ^ Fischer, Kathryn (July 13, 2020). "Das Pronomen ist frei vom Körper – aber es ist nicht frei vom Geschlecht" [The Pronoun is free from the Body – but it is not free from Gender]. Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved December 24, 2021. Welches Pronomen bevorzuge ich? Butler lacht ... 'Es ist they', sagt Butler ... Wir haben das Jahr 2020 und Butler outet sich als 'they' – ein wahrhaft historischer Moment. [Which pronoun do I prefer? Butler laughs ... 'It is they', Butler says ... It is the year 2020, and Butler outs theirself as 'they' – a truly historic moment.]
  71. ^ Nestle, Joan; Howell, Clare; Wilchins, Riki Anne, eds. (2002). GenderQueer: voices from beyond the sexual binary (First ed.). Los Angeles: Alyson Books. ISBN 1-55583-730-1. OCLC 50389309.
  72. ^ Wilchins, Riki Anne (Spring 1995). "In Your Face No. 1 (Spring 1995)". Digital Transgender Archive.
  73. ^ "Genderqueer History". Tumblr. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  74. ^ Wilchins, Riki (2017). Burn the Binary! Selected Writings on the Politics of Trans, Genderqueer and Nonbinary. Riverdale, NY: Riverdale Avenue Books. ISBN 978-1626014077.
  75. ^ "Brief Biography". February 7, 2009. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  76. ^ "Intersections: An Introduction to X-Jendā: Examining a new gender identity in Japan". intersections.anu.edu.au. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  77. ^ Watase, Yuu [@wataseyuu_] (May 20, 2019). "Burogu demo koko demo tsubuyaitakedo, saido. Manga ni mo eikyō shi teru to omoukara. Watashi wa X jendā to ishi ni shindan sa re tete, nakami wa, otoko ni mo on'na ni mo yorerushi otoko demo on'na demonai. Mitame wa chanto (20-dai kōhan kara shakai ni awa sete) dōse yarunara yarude meiku mo oshare mo suru, sore dake. Josei no karada wa hitei shinaiga →" ブログでもここでも呟いたけど、再度。漫画にも影響してると思うから。私はXジェンダーと医師に診断されてて、中身は、男にも女にも寄れるし男でも女でもない。見た目はちゃんと(20代後半から社会に合わせて)どうせやるならやるでメイクもオシャレもする、それだけ。女性の身体は否定しないが→ [I muttered it on my blog and here, but again. I think it affects comics too. I've been diagnosed as X-gender by a doctor, and I'm neither male nor female. If you want to look good (in your late 20s and in line with society), do it anyway, make up and be fashionable, that's all. I don't deny the female body, but] (Tweet) (in Japanese). Retrieved November 21, 2022 – via Twitter.
  78. ^ "About Us – Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project (IGRP)". igrp. Archived from the original on April 4, 2020. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  79. ^ O'Hara, Mary Emily (December 16, 2016). "Movement for third gender option 'exploding' in U.S." NBC News. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  80. ^ "An Alberta MLA on battling gender identity". Maclean's, December 1, 2015
  81. ^ "Gender Census 2021: Worldwide Report". Gender Census. April 1, 2021. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  82. ^ Hekanaho, Laura (December 8, 2020). Generic and Nonbinary Pronouns: Usage, Acceptability and Attitudes (PDF) (PhD). University of Helsinki. p. 221. ISBN 978-9515168313. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  83. ^ Marcus, Ezra (April 8, 2021). "A Guide to Neopronouns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  84. ^ Feinberg, Leslie (1996). Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-7940-9. OCLC 33014093.
  85. ^ "A gender neutral honorific, 'Mx', could be added to the Oxford English Dictionary very soon". The Independent. May 3, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  86. ^ Pearce, Ruth (July 21, 2011). "Non-gendered titles see increased recognition". Lesbilicious. Archived from the original on September 18, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  87. ^ a b James, S.E.; Herman, J.L.; Rankin, S.; Keisling, M.; Mottet, L.; Anafi, M. The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality.
  88. ^ "Gender Census 2023: Worldwide Report – Gender Census". Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  89. ^ "Pakistani eunuchs to have distinct gender". BBC News. December 23, 2009. Archived from the original on May 18, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  90. ^ "Newsletter of the Sociology of Sexualities Section of the American Sociological Association" (PDF). American Sociological Association Sexualities News. 6 (1). Summer 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  91. ^ McCarthy, Julie (April 15, 2014). "In India, Landmark Ruling Recognizes Transgender Citizens". NPR. Archived from the original on April 30, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  92. ^ "Alberto Fernández pone en marcha el DNI para personas no binarias en un paso más por la igualdad de género" [Alberto Fernández launches the DNI for non-binary people in one more step for gender equality]. www.clarin.com (in Spanish). July 21, 2021. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  93. ^ Westfall, Sammy (July 22, 2021). "Argentina rolls out gender-neutral ID". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 3, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  94. ^ a b c d e f "They, Them, and Theirs". harvardlawreview.org. January 10, 2019. Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  95. ^ Cecka, Dale Margolin; Chamallas, Martha (2016). "Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989)". Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Opinions of the United States Supreme Court. pp. 341–360. doi:10.1017/cbo9781316411254.020. ISBN 978-1-107-12662-6. See Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228, 250 (1989 (holding that an employer who punishes employees who fail to conform to stereotypical expectations of members of his or her sex discriminates on the basis of sex).
  96. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 15, 2020). "Civil Rights Law Protects Gay and Transgender Workers, Supreme Court Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  97. ^ Wareham, Jamie. "New Report Shows Where It's Illegal To Be Transgender In 2020". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 30, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  98. ^ "Trans Legal Mapping Report". ILGA. September 28, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  99. ^ Harrison, Jack; Grant, Jaime; Herman, Jody L. "A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  100. ^ Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Barker, Meg-John (2017). Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-51053-2. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  101. ^ "Misgendering". California Law Review. Archived from the original on December 22, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  102. ^ Erikainen, Sonja; Vincent, Ben; Hopkins, Al (October 9, 2020). "Specific Detriment: Barriers and Opportunities for Non-Binary Inclusive Sports in Scotland". Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 46 (1): 75–102. doi:10.1177/0193723520962937. hdl:2164/18985. S2CID 225167557.
  103. ^ Price-Feeney, Myeshia; Green, Amy E.; Dorison, Samuel (June 2020). "Understanding the Mental Health of Transgender and Nonbinary Youth". Journal of Adolescent Health. 66 (6): 684–690. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.11.314. ISSN 1054-139X. PMID 31992489. S2CID 210947113.
  104. ^ Burgwal, Aisa; Gvianishvili, Natia; Hård, Vierge; Kata, Julia; García Nieto, Isidro; Orre, Cal; Smiley, Adam; Vidić, Jelena; Motmans, Joz (July 3, 2019). "Health disparities between binary and non binary trans people: A community-driven survey". International Journal of Transgenderism. 20 (2–3): 218–229. doi:10.1080/15532739.2019.1629370. ISSN 1553-2739. PMC 6831016. PMID 32999608.
  105. ^ Harrison, Jack; Grant, Jaime; Herman, Jody L. (April 1, 2012). "A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey". LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School. 2 (1): 13.
  106. ^ Kcomt, Luisa; Gorey, Kevin M.; Barrett, Betty Jo; McCabe, Sean Esteban (August 1, 2020). "Healthcare avoidance due to anticipated discrimination among transgender people: A call to create trans-affirmative environments". SSM – Population Health. 11: 100608. doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100608. ISSN 2352-8273. PMC 7276492. PMID 32529022.
  107. ^ Vincent, Ben (2020). Non-Binary Genders: Navigating Communities, Identities, and Healthcare. Policy Press. doi:10.56687/9781447351931. ISBN 9781447351931.
  108. ^ Taylor, Jessica; Zalewska, Agnieszka; Gates, Jennifer Joan; Millon, Guy (July 3, 2019). "An exploration of the lived experiences of non-binary individuals who have presented at a gender identity clinic in the United Kingdom". International Journal of Transgenderism. 20 (2–3): 195–204. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1445056. ISSN 1553-2739. PMC 6831017. PMID 32999606.
  109. ^ Kattari, Shanna K.; Bakko, Matthew; Hecht, Hillary K.; Kattari, Leonardo (April 1, 2020). "Correlations between healthcare provider interactions and mental health among transgender and nonbinary adults". SSM – Population Health. 10: 100525. doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100525. ISSN 2352-8273. PMC 6909214. PMID 31872041.
  110. ^ Beek, Titia F.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Steensma, Thomas D. (November 1, 2015). "Partial Treatment Requests and Underlying Motives of Applicants for Gender Affirming Interventions". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 12 (11): 2201–2205. doi:10.1111/jsm.13033. ISSN 1743-6109. PMID 26553507.
  111. ^ Burgwal, Aisa; Motmans, Joz (November 2021). "Trans and gender diverse people's experiences and evaluations with general and trans-specific healthcare services: a cross-sectional survey". International Journal of Impotence Research. 33 (7): 679–686. doi:10.1038/s41443-021-00432-9. hdl:1854/LU-8704468. ISSN 1476-5489. PMID 33854204. S2CID 233225133.
  112. ^ Vincent, Ben (July 3, 2019). "Breaking down barriers and binaries in trans healthcare: the validation of non-binary people". International Journal of Transgenderism. 20 (2–3): 132–137. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1534075. ISSN 1553-2739. PMC 6831034. PMID 32999601.
  113. ^ Kattari, Shanna K.; Atteberry-Ash, Brittanie; Kinney, M. Killian; Walls, N. Eugene; Kattari, Leonardo (October 21, 2019). "One size does not fit all: differential transgender health experiences". Social Work in Health Care. 58 (9): 899–917. doi:10.1080/00981389.2019.1677279. ISSN 0098-1389. PMID 31618117. S2CID 204757090.
  114. ^ Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Day, Jack K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L. (September 2017). "Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation Among Transgender Youth in California: Findings From a Representative, Population-Based Sample of High School Students". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 56 (9): 739–746. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.06.010. PMC 5695881. PMID 28838578.
  115. ^ "One Who Fights For an Other". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
  116. ^ "Worldwide gay rights as a social movement picks up". merinews.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  117. ^ Deater, Lynn (April 29, 2015). "He, She or They? » The Commuter". ncccommuter.org. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  118. ^ a b "Flags and Symbols" (PDF). Amherst, Massachusetts: Amherst College. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  119. ^ "Gender and Sexuality Awareness Flags". David Mariner. October 26, 2015. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  120. ^ "8 Things Non-Binary People Need to Know". Let's Queer Things Up!. March 15, 2015. Archived from the original on December 22, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  121. ^ "After counting up all the 'votes' for each variation of my nonbinary flag (to be separate from the genderqueer flag), it seems this is the most loved! Yay!". genderweird. Tumblr. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  122. ^ "Gender-fluid added to the Oxford English Dictionary". LGBTQ Nation. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  123. ^ Manzella, Samantha (October 7, 2017). "Beyond The Rainbow: Your Guide To LGBT Flags". NewNowNext. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  124. ^ Mathers, Charlie (July 13, 2018). "Prepare for International Non-binary Day by learning how to be a better ally". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on July 14, 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  125. ^ Hirst, Jordan (July 10, 2018). "Inclusive Brisbane Party To Mark International Non-Binary Day". QNEWS Magazine. Archived from the original on July 14, 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  126. ^ "Important LGBT Dates". LGBT LifeWestchester. White Plains, NY. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  127. ^ "International Non-Binary People's Day". Pride Inclusion Programs. acon. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  128. ^ Fowlkes, A. C. "Transgender Day Of Visibility: Honoring The Visible And The Invisible". Forbes. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  129. ^ "Opinion | A time to celebrate". The Hamilton Spectator. March 27, 2014. ISSN 1189-9417. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  130. ^ "Home". May17.org. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  131. ^ Gray, Emma; Vagianos, Alanna (July 27, 2017). "We Have A Navy Veteran To Thank For The Transgender Pride Flag". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  132. ^ LB, Branson (July 26, 2017). "The Veteran Who Created The Trans Pride Flag Reacts To Trump's Trans Military Ban". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  133. ^ "Decreto 476/2021". Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina (in Spanish). July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  134. ^ Censo nacional de población, hogares y viviendas 2022: resultados provisionales (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INDEC. January 2023. p. 33. ISBN 978-950-896-632-2. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  135. ^ Spizzirri, Giancarlo; Eufrásio, Raí; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar (January 26, 2021). "Proportion of people identified as transgender and non-binary gender in Brazil". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 2240. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-81411-4. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7838397. PMID 33500432.
  136. ^ Sampaio, Jana; Cerqueira, Sofia; de Barros, Duda Monteiro (June 26, 2021). "Nem ele nem ela: os não binários ganham espaço e voz na sociedade". VEJA (in Portuguese). Retrieved January 28, 2023.
  137. ^ Easton, Rob (April 27, 2022). "'Historic' census data sheds light on number of trans and non-binary people for first time". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  138. ^ "Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton" (PDF). June 11, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  139. ^ "The values, needs and realities of LGBT people in Canada in 2017". 2017. Archived from the original on July 27, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  140. ^ "Only 0.4% of Swiss residents describe themselves as non-binary". SWI swissinfo.ch. December 29, 2021. Archived from the original on January 6, 2022. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  141. ^ "Geschlechtergerechter: Studie #1 Geschlecht und Identität" [Gender Equitable: Study #1 Gender and Identity] (PDF) (in German). Sotomo. December 2021. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  142. ^ "Gender identity, England and Wales". Office for National Statistics.
  143. ^ "Gender identity: age and sex, England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved November 4, 2023.
  144. ^ Wilson, Bianca D.M.; Meyer, Ilan H. (June 2021). "Nonbinary LGBTQ Adults in the United States". Williams Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  145. ^ "Diversity of Nonbinary Youth". The Trevor Project. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on January 6, 2022. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  146. ^ Cummings, William (June 21, 2017). "When asked their sex, some are going with option 'X'". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 4, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  147. ^ "The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey" (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality. 2016. p. 45. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2019.

Further reading

External links