Pangkal Pinang

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Pangkal Pinang
City
Other transcription(s)
 • Chinese 邦加檳港 (檳港)
Street view of Pangkal Pinang
Street view of Pangkal Pinang
Official seal of Pangkal Pinang
Seal
Motto: Pangkal Kemenangan (Malay)
Base of Victory
Location within Bangka Belitung Islands
Location within Bangka Belitung Islands
Pangkal Pinang is located in Sumatra Topography
Pangkal Pinang
Pangkal Pinang
Pangkal Pinang is located in Indonesia
Pangkal Pinang
Pangkal Pinang
Location in Sumatra and Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117
Country  Indonesia
Province Coat of arms of Bangka Belitung Islands.svg Bangka Belitung Islands
Founded 17 September 1757
Government
 • Mayor Muhammad Irwansyah
 • Vice Mayor Muhammad Sopian
Area
 • Total 118.41 km2 (45.72 sq mi)
Elevation 0-13 m (−43 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 327,167
 • Density 2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Pinkong-Nyin (檳港人)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Malay
Javanese
Batak
Chinese
Batak[2]
 • Religion Islam 82.31%
Buddhism 6.18%
Confucianism 4.56%
Christian 3.41%
Catholic 3.21%
Hinduism 0.04%
Others 0.27% [3]
 • Languages Indonesian (official)
Chinese
Malay
English (regional)
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Area code (+62) 717
Vehicle registration BN
Website www.pangkalpinangkota.go.id
Pangkal Pinang
Traditional Chinese 邦加檳港
Simplified Chinese 邦加槟港

Pangkal Pinang (official writing style) (simplified Chinese: 邦加槟港; traditional Chinese: 邦加檳港; pinyin: Bāng jiā bīn gǎng, or Pîn-kóng (槟港) in Hakka), is the largest city on the Indonesian island of Bangka, and the capital of the province of Bangka Belitung Islands. It is located on Bangka's eastern coast. The city is divided into seven districts and has 42 wards.

Pangkalpinang has an area of 118.41 km2 and a population of 328,167 (2010 census). Its population density is approximately 2,800/km2. Muhammad Irwansyah is the current mayor; he was preceded by Zulkarnain Karim who served for two terms (2003-2013). The Rangkui river divides the city into two parts. The town is centered on Jalan Merdeka as the zero kilometer point of the city.

The populace of Pangkalpinang consists largely of ethnic Malays, as well as Chinese Hakka who came from Guangzhou. There are also some smaller immigrant communities of other ethnicities, such as Batak and Minangkabau.

Landmarks in the city include the Timah Museum, a Chinese temple, the Cathedral of St. Joseph, the Bangka Botanical Garden, and the Pasir Padi beach.

Etymology[edit]

Pangkalpinang is derived from the local words pengkal ("base") and pinang (Areca chatecu), a species of palm tree. In Bangka Malay, pengkal means centers or early, or it can be interpreted, in the beginning as a collection center of tin, which later developed as a district center, the town market place, berths or boat (junk) and the center of all activities and events. As the center of all activities, title or Pengkal. The base is also used by the Bangka people in the past to mention areas such as Pangkal Bulo, Pangkal Raya, Pangkal Menduk, Pangkal Mangas, Pangkal Lihat later became known as Sungailiat. Pinang is taken from the local name of the Areca catechu palm, which is widely grown on the island of Bangka.

History[edit]

Pre-colonial rule[edit]

Under the rule of Sriwijaya kingdom, Pangkalpinang was populated by Hindus. Aside from being a territory of Sriwijaya, Pangkalpinang was at times also a territory of the Kingdom of Majapahit and the Mataram Kingdom. In the kingdoms of Srivijaya, Majapahit and Mataram, Pangkalpinang received little attention, despite its proximity to international shipping routes. This resulted in Pangkalpinang becoming a hideout for pirates, from where they could prey on ships in the South China Sea

In an effort to secure the shipping routes around the Strait of Malacca, the Johor Sultanate deployed troops to Pangkalpinang. After succeeding initially, the Johor Sultanate began spreading Islam to the city. But this did not last long - the pirates returned to Pangkalpinang and the city was once again a safe haven for them.

Some years later, in another attempt to secure the area from piracy, the Sultan of Banten sent a regent of the archipelago to eradicate the pirates. Once he established control, the Regent of the archipelago ruled Bangka until his death, after which power passed to his only daughter. Because she was married to the Sultan of Palembang, Sultan Abdurrahman, then by itself back into power Pangkalpinang Palembang Sultanate.[clarification needed]

Colonial rule[edit]

Around the year 1709 tin was dug in the bank of the Olin river in Toboali District by the people of Johor on their experience in the Malay Peninsula. With the discovery of tin, merchants from China and other areas started flocked the city. Tin companies had advanced so much that the Sultan of Palembang sent people to China to seek tin experts for the benefit of the Sultanate. In 1717, the Palembang Sultanate started building trade relationships with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) With the help of the VOC, the Sultan of Palembang attempted to eradicate pirate and tin smuggling .

At the height of the Napoleonic War, the Netherlands was occupied by the France. The British seized all the areas in the Nusantara which is under the Dutch governance. In accordance with the Tuntang Agreement on 18 September 1811 the Dutch handed over the island of Java, Timor, Makassar, Palembang and the following areas of surrender to the British. Pangkalpinang become British colony. Under the British rule, Sir Stamford Raffles sent emissaries to Palembang to take over the Dutch fort in Sungai Aur, but they were rejected by the Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II because of the Dutch in Palembang has fled/ Raffles was not happy with the rejection and still wanted to take over Fort Sungai Aur. Raffles also demanded that the Sultan gave the tin mines in Pangkalpinang to the British.

On March 20, 1812 Raffles sent the Palembang expedition led by Major General Rollo Gillespie Roobert. But Gillespie failed to meet the Sultan, and the British began to implement political Divide et impera. Gillespie coronate Prince Adipati as the Sultan of Palembang Duke and was given the title Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin II. As a result of the British recognizing Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin II, the Palembang Sultanate handed over the island of Bangka and Belitung to the British. Both islands were now a British colony and were given the name “Duke of Island”.

On the basis of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the Netherlands received back areas once occupied in 1803 from the British, including Pangkalpinang. Fraud, extortion, used of forced labor of the native people by the Netherlands and the British finally ended up making the people lost patience. Moreover, after returning to the Dutch dug a massive tin and did not think about the fate of the people around. Guerrilla warfare was conducted in Musi Rawas against the Netherlands. For many years the people Pangkalpinang make a resistance and fought desperately to expel the Dutch from the city.

At the time of World War II, Bangka was occupied by Japanese troops. Although the period of Japanese rule in Pangkalpinang very short but suffering and misery suffered by the people of Pangkalpinang is extraordinary because of shortages of food and clothing for everyday life.

Independent Indonesia[edit]

After Japan surrendered to the Allies and the Indonesian proclamation of independence, Pangkalpinang became part of Indonesia. Pangkalpinang was initially part of South Sumatra province. After the changing of political landscape in Indonesia, Bangka and Belitung Islands was later separated from South Sumatra and was combined as a province with the name of Bangka-Belitung. Pangkalpinang also become part of Bangka Belitung province and acts as its capital city.

Demographics[edit]

A Chinese Temple in Pangkal Pinang

Pangkalpinang's population was 108,411 in 1990 and has risen to 174,838 at the 2010 Census.[4] The half population is the Malay which mainly speak Bangka Malay ("Bahasa Bangkak"), a variation of Malay dialects that used in Bangka and Belitung region and other half is the Chinese population, who originally immigrated from Guangdong province of southern China. They are called 'Peranakan' ("Children of the Indies") locally, and mainly speak a Hakka dialect with a small minority of Cantonese speakers. In conversation with another Chinese, they call themselves Thong Ngin (Tang People; 唐人) and Fan Ngin (Malay People; 番人) for local Malays.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

The topography of the city of Pangkapinang generally undulating and hilly with a height of 20–50 m above sea level and slope of 0-25%. Morphologically concave-shaped region where part of the city center located in the area is low. Hilly areas clustered in the west and south of the city Pangkalpinang. Some of the main hill is Mount Girimaya at an altitude of 50 m above sea level and Tower Hill. While the urban forest area of 290 ha located in the Old Village area Tunu Indah Based Pangkalpinang can be detailed land use; dry land area cultivated for agriculture (food crops, smallholder, fisheries and forestry) is an area of 1,562 hectares, which while not cultivated land area of 1,163 ha and dryland used for settlement covering an area of 4,130 Ha. While the remaining 2,085 hectares are in the form of swamps, forests and other countries.

Geology[edit]

Land in the City of Pangkalpinang has an average pH below 5 with red-yellow podzolic soil type, regosol, Gleisol and organosol which is weathering of parent rock. While on a small area of bog soil type Alluvial-Hydromorf associations and Glayhumus and light gray regosol derived from the deposition of sand and clay. Such soil conditions less suitable for rice, but still allows for arable crops. In the suburbs, the Village and the Village Air Itam Tuatunu potential yield of pepper and rubber. Geological conditions prevalent in this area; The oldest formations are limestone aged Permo Carbon, Slate following the Upper Triassic aged and aged granite intrusion last after Trias Jura. The composition of the granitic rocks range from granite to dioditik with dark-colored mineral inclusions are biotite and amphibole occasionally Green.

Hydrology[edit]

In the city of Pangkalpinang there are several rivers, in general, small rivers that exist in the region boils down to the Rangkui River. Beside the Rangkui River there are also the Pedindang River in the south. Both of these rivers serve as the main channel rain water disposal city which then flows into the Baturusa River and ends in the South China Sea. These rivers in addition to functioning as the main channel rain water disposal of the city, also functioned as a river transport infrastructure of the market to Baturusa river and on to the sea. Basically region Pangkalpinang judging morphologic concave shape in which the lower part of the town center, so that this situation had a negative impact, which is prone to flooding, especially during the rainy season or the influence of the tide through Rangkui River that divides the city of Pangkalpinang. The area that never stagnant located in the north, west and south of the city. While the Eastern regions bordering Rangkui River and South China Sea and the central part of the city is bordered by a river Rangkui often flooded by the tide (rob), the area flooded, especially the District Rangkui, Pangkal Balam and Taman Sari.

Climate[edit]

Climate Pangkalpinang City area classified as tropical wet type A with variation between 56.2 and 337.9 mm of rain per month during 2003, with the number of rainy days on average 16 days setaip month. The driest month is August. Eve in this area is influenced by the sea, both the wind and moisture. Temperatures during 2003, for example, varies between 23.3 and 32.4 degrees Celsius, while the humidity ranges between 76-88 percent. The wind moves every day with the direction of the East and of the West during the day at night. The average wind speed is quite varied each month is 3 knots in February and the highest was recorded in July, August and September, which is 5 knots.

Administration[edit]

The city is divided into five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their 2010 Census population:[4]

Name Population
Census 2010
Rangkui 39,938
Bukit Intan 43,325
Pangkal Balam 41,055
Taman Sari 13,117
Gerunggang 37,323
Gabek new district ("kecamatan")
Mujair VI 7

Tourism[edit]

Festivals[edit]

As part of the range and the soil clump wither, Pangkalpinang have diverse customs and cultures. The ethnic diversity of the various cultures that form the archipelago unique and attractive, as well as traditional art continues to grow rapidly.

  • Nganggung, is a tradition of mutual aid societies Pangkalpinang to bring a complete meal on a brass tray covered with the hood of food, Each door of the house (family) carries a tray made of brass, containing foods according to the status and capabilities of the family. Nganggung tradition are often also called customary Sepintu Sedulang. This tradition is usually performed at religious ceremonies, such as Idul Fitri and Idul Adha, Mauludan, Nisfu Sha'ban, and on the activities of Muharram. Ngganggung activities are usually conducted in the mosque and in Pangkalpinang often implemented Nganggung Akbar in the Home Office of the Mayor after the parade are held.
  • Qingming Festival or in Hakka known as Ceng Beng (清明) is a ritual manifestation of the attitude of the Chinese community who love and respect their ancestor, the whole family both in Pangkalpinang or overseas seeks to return and perform rituals. This ritual activity begins with cleaning the grave usually done 10 days before the Ching Ming. The main activity is carried out on each April 5 the Gregorian calendar. The activities carried out since early morning till dawn with prayers and put offerings in the form of a variety of fruits (cai choi), paper money (kim cin) and burn rakes (hio), the atmosphere with lanterns and scented incense that sting the nose and accompanied by the strains of Belaz music band or Tajidor.
  • Ta'aruf parade is the traditional parade followed by all layers of society and is held to welcome the day - a great day of Islam, which is where the majority of people marched through the city using diverse Muslim clothes. While chanting salawat and Islamic songs, carrying a replica of the Koran and a poster containing the message away from the immoral.

Landmarks[edit]

  • The Tin Museum, which became the pride of the community, especially the people of Pangkalpinang, is the only museum of tin in Indonesia, even in Asia. Although Bangka Belitung Province's beaches are the main tourist destinations, the museum is also a popular tourist destination. Precisely Tin Museum is a favorite tourist attraction in addition to the various beaches located in Pangkalpinang. Previously the building of this museum is the home of the employee Bangka Tin Winning (BTW). Once also used as a venue for the Roem-van Roijen Agreement, an agreement between the premises and the Netherlands on 7 May 1949. At that time the Indonesian delegation was represented by Mr. Moh. Roem, while the Dutch delegation was represented by H.J. van Roijen. The result of the agreement is still kept in this museum as historical evidence premises.
  • Jamik Mosque, located in Jalan Masjid Jamik, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in Pangkalpinang. Jamik Mosque was built on the 3rd of Shawwal 1355 H or on December 18, 1936, as evidenced from writings can still be seen on the white table made of marble, which is located west and shifted to the front yard of the mosque now. The mosque was built by the people of Kampung Dalam One of the uniqueness of this mosque is between the neighboring front (semicircular) with its roof adorned by a pillar (small size) amounted to 5 pole, can be defined as the Five Pillars of Islam and the wall next to the roof is decorated by a pillar little as 6 pieces (3 next right and 3 left), can be interpreted Pillars of Faith. The mosque has four main pillars according to the number Khalifaturrasyidin, five entrances 3 at the front and one on the left and one right, and consists of three steps or levels with one dome and four minarets. Jamik Mosque is one of the cultural object of Pangkalpinang.
  • Kwan Tie Miaw temple is one of the oldest temples in the island of Bangka. This temple is located on the Jalan Mayor Muhidin, Pangkalpinang. Formerly known as the Kwan Tie Bio Temple, this temple is estimated to be made in 1841 AD (from the Chinese characters on an iron bell in the temple). The construction itself is done by mutual cooperation by various groups Kongsi tin mining in Pangkalpinang, and inaugurated in 1846. In the temple there are fruit garnish Pumpkin (Gourd) atop the roof of the temple and the emblem Patkwa (Pakua) in front of the temple which is in the middle there is a circle of black and white (Ying and Yang), Patkwa (Pakua) symbolizes good luck, fortune or happiness, The name of the temple has been twice amended, in the New Order is named Amal Bhakti temple. In 1986 the front of the temple affected by the road widening so that the front yard, the front door and the wall back a few meters, part altar Tie Kuan remained intact and the front section was built into 2 floors. As of February 22, 1998 a fire which destroyed the entire building of the temple except on the left side of the building, since it perform the restoration again led by Jamal an expert in the temple and making sculpture and rehabilitation was completed as the present form and was inaugurated on August 5, 1999 with the name of the temple Kwan tie Miau. The temple is now coupled with the location and Markets Mambo Gang Singapur being conditioned as one of the objects and attractions Pangkalpinang i.e. cultural tourism, shopping and culinary tours. This location is pursued into Chinatown (to remind the face of the old city Pangkalpinang highly influenced by houses and Chinese temples) and serve also as the center of the memorial service the day Lunar New Year, the peak of the feast of Cap Go Meh, activities Prayer Capture and activities Pot Ngin Bun. This activity is conducted to refuse reinforcements and every plague outbreak in society like the Beriberi plague outbreak in Bangka circa 1850-1860
  • GPIB Maranatha, originally named Kerkeraad der Protestansche Gemeente to Pangkalpinang, was built during the reign of Resident J.E. Eddie in 1927, along with the construction of a water tower in Bukit Mangkol. After independence, through Indische Kerk (GPI), the church's name was changed to Western Indonesian Protestant Church (GPIB) Maranatha Pangkalpinang. The Dutch government put a priest first named J.N. Beiger to serve and take care of the church GPIB Maranatha.[5]

Cuisine[edit]

  • Tai Fu Sui (豆腐水) is a typical drink very popular in Bangka, especially in the city of Pangkalpinang. In the Bangka community, the drink is often called fu sui (腐水). Tai Fu Sui is actually a drink mixed with the main ingredient of soy beans. Although similar to soy milk, it is said to have a distinct flavor.
  • Pantiaw or kwetiaw (盤条) is one of the culinary food Bangka Belitung which has high carbohydrate and is made with basic ingredients sago and rice flour. Pantiaw are usually served with fish soup.
  • Martabak Bangka, also known in Hakka as Hok Lo Pan (福佬粄) is already well known everywhere in Indonesia. It is served in various flavors such as red bean, banana, raisin, and cheese.
  • Lempah

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Depati Amir Airport is currently the largest airport in the Bangka-Belitung province. It served daily flights to Jakarta, Palembang, Tanjung Pandan and Batam, operated by different airlines such as Garuda Indonesia, Citilink, Lion Air and Sriwijaya Air. A new terminal started operating on 11 January 2017. The new terminal has a capacity to accommodate 1,500,000 passengers annually and has an area of 12,000 m2.

Sea[edit]

Pangkalbalam Port is the main seaport in the city, serving the transportation of goods such as export / import and inter-island trade and passenger transport to and from Jakarta and Tanjungpandan through every day. There are other smaller seaport such as the Muntok port which serves speedboats to and from Palembang. There are other ports in the southern part of the island of Bangka, namely Sadai the airport ferry from Port Cigading, Banten.

Public Transit[edit]

There are currently no public transit in the city. However, there are minibus known as Angkot that serves as a public transport within the city. Angkot also serves as a transportation to other districts outside the city limit.

Economics[edit]

In general, agricultural enterprises do Pangkalpinang City community is agricultural food crops, livestock, fisheries and little effort smallholder plantations (rubber, pepper and coconut). In the fisheries sector, as part of the area of Bangka island surrounded by the sea, the city of Pangkalpinang bordering the South China Sea, then made one of the central areas of marine fish production. In addition there is still a small portion of fishermen who undertake fishing in the river. While in the tourism sector, Pangkalpinang has the potential to be reliable. A visit to the district of Bangka and Belitung generally through or transit of this area. Travel Attraction that stands out is the beach, which has stunning scenery.

Notable people[edit]

Antasari Azhar, mantan ketua KPK

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference kemenkesehat was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M. Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi Handayani; dan Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies dan BPS – Statistics Indonesia. 
  3. ^ Data Sensus Penduduk 2010 - Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia <http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321&wid=8100000000>
  4. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  5. ^ WISATA SEJARAH & PERIBADATAN

External links[edit]