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For the release of the Ubuntu Linux variant operating system of this name, see Precise Pangolin.
"Pholidota" and "Manis" redirect here. For the orchid, see Pholidota (plant). For other uses of "Manis", see Manis (disambiguation).
Temporal range: Paleocene–Present
Pangolin borneo.jpg
Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Class: Mammalia
(unranked): Ferae
Order: Pholidota
Weber, 1904
Family: Manidae
Gray, 1821
Manis ranges.png

Pangolins are mammals of the order Pholidota. The one extant family, Manidae, has three genera: Manis, which comprises four species living in Asia, Phataginus, which comprises two species living in Africa, and Smutsia, which comprises two species also living in Africa.[1] These species range in size from 30 to 100 centimetres (12 to 39 in). A number of extinct pangolin species are also known. The name pangolin comes from the Malay word "pengguling", meaning "something that rolls up". It is found in tropical regions throughout Africa and Asia.

Pangolins have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin; they are the only known mammals with this adaptation. They live in hollow trees or burrows, depending on the species. Pangolins are nocturnal, and their diet consists of mainly ants and termites which they capture using their long, specially adapted tongues. They tend to be solitary animals, meeting only to mate and produce a litter of one to three offspring which are raised for about two years. Pangolins are threatened by hunting (for their meat and scales) and heavy deforestation of their natural habitats, and are the most trafficked mammal in the world.[2] Of the eight species of pangolin, four species (Phataginus tetradactyla, P. tricuspis, Smutsia gigantea, and S. temminckii) are listed as vulnerable, two species (Manis crassicaudata and M. culionensis) are listed as endangered, and two species (M. pentadactyla and M. javanica) are listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[3]


The physical appearance of a pangolin is marked by large, hardened, overlapping plate-like scales. The scales, which are soft on newborn pangolins but harden as the animal matures,[4] are made of keratin, the same material of which human fingernails and tetrapod claws are made. The pangolin's scaled body is comparable to a pine cone or globe artichoke. It can curl up into a ball when threatened, with its overlapping scales acting as armour while it protects its face by tucking it under its tail. The scales are sharp, providing extra defense from predators.[5]

Pangolins can also emit a noxious-smelling chemical from glands near the anus, similar to the spray of a skunk.[6] They have short legs, with sharp claws which they use for burrowing into termite and ant mounds, as well as climbing.[7]

The tongues of pangolins are extremely long like those of the giant anteater and the tube-lipped nectar bat; the root of the tongue is not attached to their hyoid bone but is located in the thorax[8] between the sternum and the trachea. Large pangolins can extend their tongues as much as 40 centimetres (16 in), with a diameter of only 0.5 centimetres (0.20 in).[9]


Most pangolins are nocturnal animals that use their well-developed sense of smell to find insects. The long-tailed pangolin is also active by day, while other species of pangolins spend most of the daytime sleeping, curled up into a ball.[9]

Arboreal pangolins live in hollow trees, whereas the ground dwelling species dig tunnels underground, to a depth of 3.5 metres (11 ft).[9]

Some pangolins walk with their front claws bent under the foot-pad, although they use the entire foot-pad on their rear limbs. Furthermore, some exhibit a bi-pedal stance for some behaviours and may walk a few steps bi-pedally.[10] Pangolins are also good swimmers.[9]


Indian pangolin defending itself against Asiatic lions

Pangolins are insectivorous. Most of their diet consists of various species of ants and termites and may be supplemented by other insects, especially larvae. They are somewhat particular and tend to consume only one or two species of insects, even when many species are available to them. A pangolin will consume an average of 140 to 200 g (4.9 to 7.1 oz) of insects per day.[11]

Pangolins have a very poor sense of vision, and therefore rely heavily on smell and hearing. Pangolins use their powerful front claws to dig into trees, ground and other vegetation to find prey,[12] then proceed to use their long tongues to probe inside the insect tunnels and retrieve their prey. Pangolins have specialized glands in their chest that coat their tongues with saliva, making it easier to trap ants for consumption. Pangolins lack teeth and, therefore, the ability to chew; however, they ingest small stones while foraging, which accumulate in the animal's stomach and help to grind up ants.

Some species, such as the tree pangolin, use their strong, prehensile tails to hang from tree branches and strip away bark from the trunk, exposing insect nests inside.


Pangolins are solitary and meet only to mate. Males are larger than females, weighing up to 50% more. While there is no defined mating season, they typically mate once each year, usually during the summer or autumn months. Rather than the males seeking out the females, males mark their location with urine or feces and the females will find them. If there is competition over a female, the males will use their tails as clubs to fight for the opportunity to mate with her.[13]

Gestation periods differ by species, ranging from roughly 70–140 days.[14] African pangolin females usually give birth to a single offspring at a time, but the Asiatic species may give birth from one to three.[9] Weight at birth is 80 to 450 g (2.8 to 15.9 oz) and the average length is 150 millimetres (5.9 in). At the time of birth, the scales are soft and white. After several days, they harden and darken to resemble those of an adult pangolin. During the vulnerable stage, the mother stays with her offspring in the burrow, nursing it, and will wrap her body around it if she senses danger. The young cling to the mother's tail as she moves about, although in burrowing species, they remain in the burrow for the first two to four weeks of life. At one month, they first leave the burrow riding on the mother's back. Weaning takes place at approximately three months of age, at which stage the young begin to eat insects in addition to nursing. At two years of age, the offspring are sexually mature and are abandoned by the mother.[15]


A coat of armor made of pangolin scales, an unusual object, was presented to George III in 1820

Pangolins are hunted and eaten in many parts of Africa and are one of the more popular types of bush meat, while local healers use the pangolin as a source of traditional medicine.[16] They are also in great demand in Southern China and Vietnam because their meat is considered a delicacy and some believe that pangolin scales have medicinal qualities.[17][18][19][20] Over the past decade, it is believed that over one million pangolins have been illegally trafficked, making it the most trafficked animal in the world.[21] This, coupled with deforestation, has led to a large decrease in the numbers of pangolins. Some species, such as Manis pentadactyla have become commercially extinct in certain ranges as a result of over hunting.[22] In November 2010, pangolins were added to the Zoological Society of London's list of genetically distinct and endangered mammals.[23] All eight species of pangolin are classified by the IUCN as threatened to extinction, while two are classified as critically endangered.[18][24]

Though pangolins are protected by an international ban on their trade, populations have suffered from illegal trafficking due to unfounded beliefs in East Asia that their ground-up scales can stimulate lactation or cure cancer or asthma.[25] In the past decade there have been numerous seizures of illegally trafficked pangolin and pangolin meat in Asia.[26][27][28][29] In one such incident in April 2013, 10,000 kilograms (11 short tons) of pangolin meat was seized from a Chinese vessel that ran aground in the Philippines.[30][31] In another case in August 2016, an Indonesian man was arrested after police raided his home and found over 650 pangolins in freezers on his property.[32]


As a result of increasing threats to pangolins, mainly in the form of illegal, international trade in pangolin skin, scales, and meat, these species have received increasing conservation attention in recent years. For example, in 2014, the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) re-categorised all eight species of pangolin on its Red List of Threatened Species, and each species is now properly listed as being threatened with extinction.[33] Also, the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group launched a global action plan to conserve pangolins, dubbed 'Scaling up Pangolin Conservation' in July 2014. This action plan aims to improve all aspects of pangolin conservation with an added emphasis on combating poaching and trafficking of the animal while educating communities in its importance.[21]

Many attempts have been made to reproduce pangolins in captivity, but due to their reliance on wide ranging habitats and very particular diets, these attempts are often unsuccessful.[14] Pangolins are susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia and the development of ulcers in captivity, complications which can lead to an early death.[14] In addition, pangolins rescued from illegal trade often have a higher chance of being infected with parasites such as intestinal worms, further lessening their chance for rehabilitation and reintroduction to the wild.[14] Recently, researchers have been able to improve artificial pangolin habitats to allow for reproduction of pangolins, providing some hope for future reintroduction of these species into their natural habitats.[4]


Pangolins were formerly classified with various other orders, for example Xenarthra, which includes the ordinary anteaters, sloths, and the similar-looking armadillos. Newer genetic evidence, however, indicates their closest living relatives are the Carnivora with which they form the clade Ferae.[34][35] Some palaeontologists placed Ernanodonta in a separate suborder of Cimolesta near Pholidota,[36] have classified the pangolins in the order Cimolesta, together with several extinct groups indicated (†) below, though this idea has fallen out of favor since cimolestids have been determined to have not been placental mammals.[37]

Until recently, all species of pangolin had been attributed to the genus Manis. Recent research has supported the splitting of pangolins into three genera: Manis, Phataginus, and Smutsia.[1]










 Artiodactyla (includes Cetacea (whales and dolphins), also called Cetartiodactyla)


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