|Geographical range||Southern High Plains |
primarily Oklahoma, Texas
|Period||Middle Ceramic Period|
|Preceded by||Woodland period|
Panhandle culture is a prehistoric culture of the southern High Plains during the Middle Ceramic Period from AD 1200 to 1400. Panhandle sites are primarily in the panhandle and west central Oklahoma and the northern half of the Texas Panhandle.
The culture was likely an outgrowth of the Woodland phase or a migration of people from north-central Kansas.
Panhandle focus divisions
Antelope Creek focus is the primary, and to some the only, cultural tradition of the Panhandle culture. The Optima focus was defined for sites in west central Oklahoma, but after further study, these sites were defined as Antelope Creek focus. In 1975 Robert G. Campbell defined the Apishapa culture of southeastern Colorado's Chaquaqua Plateau as a Panhandle culture, which is disputed by other noted archaeologists.
Difficulty defining Panhandle culture
Several contributing factors have made it difficult to define the Panhandle culture, such as discrepancies in reporting carbon dating of artifacts, variations in interpretation of dating information, spotty information, and a lack of published material about the Panhandle culture.
- Great similarity to the Central Plains complexes
- Some, but much less, evidence of trading or influence of Southwestern pueblo cultures. Their material goods also indicated other trading influences, such as plains pottery, sea-shells, and Smoky Hill jasper from northwestern Kansas.
- Single or multi-roomed stone structures, often with altars at the back of the structures and posts at four corners of the structure for support. People also camped or used sites with limited purposes.
- People were hunter-gatherers of large and small mammals and wild plants, nuts and fruit. Some farmed.
Location of Panhandle sites
Most of the sites are centered on the Canadian River and North Canadian River or its tributaries, primarily Antelope Creek and also Cottonwood Creek, Dixon Creek, and Tarbox Creek. Panhandle culture sites were also found on the Archie King Ranch.
- Gunnerson, James H. (1987). Archaeology of the High Plains. Denver: United States Forest Service. p. 87.
- Gibbon, Guy E.; Ames, Kenneth M. Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. 1998. p. 20. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X.