|• Total||64 km2 (25 sq mi)|
|Elevation||219 m (719 ft)|
|• Density||6,900/km2 (18,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Haryanvi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||HR 06|
Panipat pronunciation (help·info) (Hindi: पानीपत) is an ancient and historic city in Haryana, India. It is 90 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The battles fought at the city in 1526, 1556 and 1761 were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of Weaver". The first verse of the Bhagavad Gita is possibly referring to Panipat as 'Dharmakshetra'.
- 1 History
- 2 In Marathi Verbs
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Industries
- 6 Transport
- 7 Places Of Interest
- 8 Panipat Elevated Expressway
- 9 Education
- 10 Gallery
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to the legend, Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name being Pandavaprastha (Sanskrit: पाण्डवप्रस्थ, lit. city of Pandavas) Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in the Indian history. Panipat is first recorded in the Mahabharata as one of the five villages that the Pandavas demanded from Duryodhana. The five villages are the "panch pat"
- Pandavaprastha (Now known as Panipat)
- Sonaprastha (Now known as Sonipat)
- Indraprastha (Now known as Delhi)
- Bahakprastha (Now known as Baghpat)
- Tilprastha (Now known as Tilpat)
The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi, and the Turco-Mongol warlord Babur, who later established Mughal rule in Northern Indian subcontinent. Babur's force defeated Ibrahim's much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers. This First battle of Panipat thus ended the 'Lodi Rule' established by Bahlul Lodhi in Delhi.
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Hemu, a Hindu King of North India, also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and had captured the large states of Agra and Delhi defeating Akbar's forces. This king, also known as Vikramaditya had won 22 battles against the Afghan rebels from 1553–1556 from Punjab to Bengal, and had his coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556 and had established 'Hindu Raj' in North India, before the 2nd battle of Panipat.Hem Chandra had a large army, and initially his forces were winning, but suddenly Hemu was struck by an arrow in the eye and he lost his senses and died instantaneously. On not seeing him in his howdah on the back of an elephant, his army fled. His head was sent to Kabul to be hanged outside Delhi Darwaza and torso was hanged outside Purana Quila in Delhi. This Second battle of Panipat thus ended the 'Hindu Raj' established by Hemu in north India, albeit for a short period.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought on 14th January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan and Baloch invaders. The Maratha Empire led by Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa and Afghans led by Ahmadshah Abdali. Afghans having total strength 1,25,000 soldiers and Marathas having 1,00,000 soldier and 25,000 pilgrims. Maratha soldiers were unable to get food because of non-cooperation of other Empires of Hindustan (India and Pak were not separated) and was unable to get food resulted into eating leaves of trees to live. Both the sides fought their heart out. Afghans were supported by Najib and Sujaudolla for the supply of food. Maratha had pilgrims along with theme who were unable to fight consisting of female pilgrims also. On single day of 14th January More than lac of soldiers died resulting in the victory of Afghans.
In Marathi Verbs
There are some verbs in the Marathi language originated from Third Battle of Panipat related to loss as "Panipat zale" (पानिपत झाले) [a major loss has happened]. This verb is even today used in Marathi language. A common pun is " Aamchaa Vishwaas Panipataat gela " (आमचा विश्वास पानीपतात गेला) [we lost our (Vishwas) Trust since Panipat]. Vishwas ~ son of nanasaheb peshwa & Maratha commander
Panipat is situated on G.T. road or NH-1, 90 km north of Delhi. On three sides, Panipat district boundaries touch other districts of Haryana – Karnal in the north, Jind in the west and Sonipat in the south. Panipat district borders the state of Uttar Pradesh across the Yamuna river in the east.
Panipat was a part of Karnal district until 31 October 1989. It was separated from Karnal, along with another subdivision, the Assandh tehsil. When the district was re-formed on 1 January 1992, the Assandh tehsil was excluded. The newly constructed flyover across the Grand Trunk Road completed in the year 2008 is one of the longest flyovers in India.
As per provisional data of 2011 census Panipat urban agglomeration had a population of 442,277, out of which males were 237,006 and females were 205,271. The literacy rate was 81.75%.
Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest center for quality blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. In addition, Panipat city is the biggest centre of "Shoddy Yarn" in the World. Blankets prepared through Handloom and Power loom are sent to soldiers. The Samalkha subdivision of this district is famous for Foundry of Agriculture instruments. In this way, this district, which is continuously developing on the industrial base, has an unlimited employment capacity. Not only from Haryana but Businessmen and Engineers and unemployed worker artist Weavers and labour from other states of India visit here in search of employment and settle here permanently.
- Panipat railway station is on Delhi-Kalka line. It is also well connected by Haryana State Road Transport Corporation and Punjab Roadways buses, especially because it falls on the Delhi-Chandigarh route. National Highway 1 (known as GT road locally) passes through Panipat, and a substantial amount of trade and commercial activities are carried in and around the GT road settlements.
Places Of Interest
The main places of attraction are
- Panipat Museum
- Hemu 'Samadhi Sthal'(Village Sodhapur)
- The grave of Ibrahim Lodhi
- The Dargah (mausoleum or shrine) of the 13th century Sufi saint Bu Ali Shah Qalandar
- Kabuli Bagh
- Shri Devi Mandir
- Kala Amb
- Shri Ram Sharnam
- Salar Gunj Gate
- Insaar Bazaar
- Shopping Malls in Panipat
- Gandhi Park and Library at Quila
- Ram Lal Chowk
The Battle of Panipat Memorial society set-up by the Government of Haryana, highlights the major events that took place for over two hundred years which made Panipat a place of great historical importance.
Panipat Museum has been especially established for disseminating information about archaeology, history, art and crafts of Haryana with special emphasis on the Battles of Panipat which marked the turning point in Indian history, The display of antiquities, inscription, sculptures, arms and armors, Pottery, old and valuable documents, jewellery and art and craft objects, have been augumented by maps, writeups photographs and translides, etc. Through display an attempt has been made to provide an insight into the acts of bravery of some valiant and patriotic Maratha warriors who sacrificed their lives at Panipat. These include, Sadashivrao Bhau, Vishwasrao Peshwa, Jankoji Shinde, Samsher sing - Son of Bajirao I and Mastani, Ibrahim khan lodhi - Artillery chief of Maratha's, Tukoji Shinde, Hemu-a local hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya called so after winning 22 continuous battles and who belonged to Haryana, Raja SurjaMal of Bharatpur, Vikramaditya (Vikramajit) of Gwalior, Maharaja of Patiala, Sher Shah SURI. Enlarged photographs of a large number of important miniatures, mostly from Babur-Nama and Akbar-Nama, relating to these battles and personalities connected therewith, have been obtained from the National Museum of New Delhi, The British Library, Victoria and Albert Museum of London. A Large number of contemporary weapons, armory, guns, etc. have been acquired through loan from the Archaeological Survey of India, The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Haryana is also associated with this project, has donated a large number of items for display in this Museum. These include replicas of a large number of artifacts in the form of status, pottery, coins, etc. which were collected from the excavated sites in Haryana besides a number of blow-ups of building and sites of historical and archaeological importance. In addition, a large number of items of traditional art have been procured from various districts of haryana with the help of District Administration which exhibit a glimpse of haryana’s traditional art.
Hemu's Samadhi Sthal
After Hemu's beheading at the Camp of Akbar at Sodhapur on Jind Road at Panipat, his head was sent to Kabul to be hanged outside the 'Delhi Darwaza' and his torso was hanged on a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise locals. After few years Hemu's supporters, constructed a Samadhi over the place where he was beheaded. The place and its surroundings have been slowly encroached upon by local people. This is the only memorial of Hemu in Panipat but it is in a bad condition.
Grave of Ibrahim Lodhi
The tomb is situated near a Tehsil Office at Panipat. Ibrahim Lodhi fought fiercely with Babur, in the battle known to us today as the "First Battle of Panipat" and was slain and buried at this place. It was one of Sher Shah Suri’s dying regret that he could never fulfill his intention of erecting a tomb to the fallen monarch. Much later, the British erected a plain platform over the place, with a short Urdu inscription on it.
Another memorial of some kind, however, appears to have existed which used to form a place of pilgrimage for the people of Gwalior since Vikramaditya the last Raja of the old Towrebs dynasty of Gwalior, fell in the same battle. This memorial, according to general Cunningham, was destroyed when the Grand Trunk Road was made.
The garden of Kabuli Bagh along with the Kabuli Bagh Mosque and a tank was built by Babur after the First battle to commemorate his victory over Ibrahim Lodhi. Some years later when Humayun defeated Salem Shah near Panipat, he added a masonry Platform to it and called it ‘Chabutra" Fateh Mubarak, bearing the inscription 934 Hijri (A.D.1557). These buildings and the garden still exist under the name of Kabuli Bagh called so after Babur’s wife – Mussammat Kabuli begum.
Shri Devi Temple
A temple dedicated to a local deity exists on the bank of a large tank. A Shiva temple believed to have been built by a Maratha warrior named Mangal Raghunath who had remained in Panipat after the battle, also exists besides it.
According to the tradition, the site 8 km from Panipat and 42 km from Karnal, where Sadashiv Rao Bhau commanded his Maratha forces during the third battle of Panipat was marked by a black Mango Tree (Kala Amb) which has since disappeared. The dark colour of its foliage was probably the origin of the name. The site has a brick Pillar with an iron rod and the structure is surrounded by an iron fence. The site is being developed and beautified by a society with the Governor of Haryana as its President. Rod Maratha community of Haryana organises a programme every year in memory of Maratha warriors on the day of 14 January at kala amb in which lots of people participate from Haryana and Maharashtra.
Salar Gunj Gate
This gate is situated in the middle of Panipat city. The gate still denoting its archaeological interest. A local market has developed around this gate.
Panipat Elevated Expressway
Panipat Elevated Expressway is a six-lane, 10 km (6.2 mi) expressway to decongest the busy Delhi-Amritsar route. The Panipat Expressway is an uplift of the National Highway One.
Panipat is home to more than 50 senior secondary schools, most notable are DAV Cent. Public School, HUDA, Delhi Public School, Panipat Refinery and G D Goenka Public School. There are half a dozen colleges providing courses from undergraduate to graduate level, some of the well known are : Arya P.G. college, S.D.I.T.M and I.B(PG) College Panipat.
Pillar set up in memory of the Battle of Panipat (1556)
Mural of 2nd Battle of Panipat (1556) at battle-site, Kala Amb, Panipat
- Richards, John F., ed. (1995) . The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India (7th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521566032. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Kolff, Dirk H. A. (2002). Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market of Hindustan, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780521523059. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Panipat
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- Panipat travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "Panipat". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- List of Post Offices, Panipat