Panipat

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Panipat district.
Panipat
पानीपत
Metropolitan city
Panipat is located in Haryana
Panipat
Panipat
Location in Haryana, India
Coordinates: 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97Coordinates: 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97
Country  India
State Haryana
District Panipat
Area
 • Total 64 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation 219 m (719 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 442,277
 • Density 6,900/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Haryanvi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 132103
Telephone code 0180
Vehicle registration HR 06
Website [1]

Panipat About this sound pronunciation  (Hindi: पानीपत) is an ancient and historic city in Haryana, India. It is 90 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The battles fought at the city in 1526, 1556 and 1761 were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of Weaver" and "Textile City". The first verse of the Bhagavad Gita is possibly referring to Panipat as 'Dharmakshetra'.

History[edit]

Statue of the Hindu Emperor of India, Hemu, at Panipat, who lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat

According to the legend, Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name being Pandavaprastha (Sanskrit: पाण्डवप्रस्थ, lit. city of Pandavas) Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in the Indian history. Panipat is first recorded in the Mahabharata as one of the five villages that the Pandavas demanded from Duryodhana. The five villages are the "panch pat"

  • Pandavaprastha (Now known as Panipat)
  • Sonaprastha (Now known as Sonipat)
  • Indraprastha (Now known as Delhi)
  • Vyaghraprastha became Baghpath (Now known as Baghpat)
  • Tilprastha (Now known as Tilpat)

The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi, and the Turco-Mongol warlord Babur, who later established Mughal rule in Northern Indian subcontinent. Babur's force defeated Ibrahim's much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers. This First battle of Panipat thus ended the 'Lodi Rule' established by Bahlul Lodhi in Delhi.

The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, a native of Rewari in Haryana and Hindu Vikramaditya King at Delhi.[1][2] Hemu had a large army, and initially his forces were winning, but suddenly he was struck by an arrow in the eye and fell unconscious. On not seeing him in his howdah on the back of an elephant, his army fled. He was executed shortly thereafter. His head was sent to Kabul to be hanged outside Delhi Darwaza and torso was hanged outside Purana Quila in Delhi.

The Third Battle of Panipat was fought on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan and Baloch invaders. The Maratha Empire was led by Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa and the Afghans were led by Ahmadshah Abdali. The Afghans had a total strength 125,000 soldiers and the Marathas had 100,000 soldiers and 25,000 pilgrims. The Maratha soldiers were unable to get food because of non-cooperation of other Empires of Hindustan (India and Pak were not separated) and this resulted in having to eat the leaves off trees to survive. Both the sides fought their heart out. The Afghans were supported by Najib and Sujaudolla for the supply of food, and the Maratha had pilgrims along with them, who were unable to fight, including female pilgrims also. On the single day of 14 January, more than one lakh (100,000) of soldiers died resulting in the victory for the Afghans.

In Marathi Verbs[edit]

There are some verbs in the Marathi language originated from Third Battle of Panipat related to loss as "Panipat zale" (पानिपत झाले) [a major loss has happened]. This verb is even today used in Marathi language. A common pun is " Aamchaa Vishwaas Panipataat gela " (आमचा विश्वास पानीपतात गेला) [we lost our (Vishwas) Trust since Panipat]. Vishwas ~ son of nanasaheb peshwa & Maratha commander

Geography[edit]

Panipat is located at 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97.[3] It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 feet).

Panipat is situated on G.T. road or NH-1, 90 km north of Delhi. On three sides, Panipat district boundaries touch other districts of Haryana – Karnal in the north, Jind in the west and Sonipat in the south. Panipat district borders the state of Uttar Pradesh across the Yamuna river in the east.

Panipat was a part of Karnal district until 31 October 1989. It was separated from Karnal, along with another subdivision, the Assandh tehsil. When the district was re-formed on 1 January 1992, the Assandh tehsil was excluded. The newly constructed flyover across the Grand Trunk Road completed in the year 2008 is one of the longest flyovers in India.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Panipat urban agglomeration had a population of 442,277, out of which males were 237,006 and females were 205,271. The literacy rate was 81.75 per cent. .[4]

Industries[edit]

Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest center for quality blankets and carpets in India and has a hand loom weaving industry. In addition, Panipat city is the biggest centre of "Shoddy Yarn" in the World. Blankets prepared through Hand loom and Power loom are sent to soldiers. The Samalkha subdivision of this district is famous for Foundry of Agriculture instruments. In this way, this district, which is continuously developing on the industrial base, has an unlimited employment capacity. Not only from Haryana but Businessmen and Engineers and unemployed worker artist Weavers and labour from other states of India visit here in search of employment and settle here permanently.[5]

Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a Panipat Thermal Power station (plant) Corporation (h.p.g.c.l.)and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

Transport[edit]

  • Panipat railway station is on Delhi-Kalka line and Delhi-Atari/jammu line. It is also well connected by Haryana State Road Transport Corporation and Punjab Roadways buses, especially because it falls on the Delhi-Chandigarh route. National Highway 1 (known as GT road locally) passes through Panipat, and a substantial amount of trade and commercial activities are carried in and around the GT road settlements.

Places of interest[edit]

The main places of attraction

Panipat Museum[edit]

The Battle of Panipat Memorial society set-up by the Government of Haryana, highlights the major events that took place for over two hundred years which made Panipat a place of great historical importance.

A painting from Akbar's collection in the museum shows how Hemu's community and his supporters were beheaded and minaretts were built of their heads to terrorise Hindus of that period.

Panipat Museum has been especially established for disseminating information about archaeology, history, art and crafts of Haryana with special emphasis on the Battles of Panipat which marked the turning point in Indian history, The display of antiquities, inscription, sculptures, arms and armors, Pottery, old and valuable documents, jewellery and art and craft objects, have been augumented by maps, writeups photographs and translides, etc.

Through display an attempt has been made to provide an insight into the acts of bravery of some valiant and patriotic Maratha warriors who sacrificed their lives at Panipat. These include, Sadashivrao Bhau, Peshwa Vishwasrao, Jankoji Rao Scindia, Shamsher Bahadur I (Krishna Rao) - Son of Bajirao I and Mastani, Ibrahim Lodhi - Artillery chief of Maratha's, Tukoji Shinde, Hemu - a local hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya called so after winning 22 continuous battles and who belonged to Haryana, Raja SurjaMal of Bharatpur, Vikramaditya (Vikramajit) of Gwalior, Maharaja of Patiala, Sher Shah SURI.

Enlarged photographs of a large number of important miniatures, mostly from Babur-Nama and Akbar-Nama, relating to these battles and personalities connected therewith, have been obtained from the National Museum of New Delhi, The British Library, Victoria and Albert Museum of London.

A Large number of contemporary weapons, armory, guns, etc. have been acquired through loan from the Archaeological Survey of India,

The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Haryana is also associated with this project, has donated a large number of items for display in this Museum. These include replicas of a large number of artifacts in the form of status, pottery, coins, etc. which were collected from the excavated sites in Haryana besides a number of blow-ups of building and sites of historical and archaeological importance. In addition, a large number of items of traditional art have been procured from various districts of haryana with the help of District Administration which exhibit a glimpse of haryana’s traditional art.

Hemu's Samadhi Sthal[edit]

Main article: Hemu's Samadhi Sthal

The wounded Hemu (a Hindu hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya) was captured by Shah Quli Khan Second Battle of Panipat and carried to the Mughal camp at Shodapur on Jind Road at Panipat.[6] According to Badayuni,[7] Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied 'He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him'. After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise Indians.[8]

After Hemu's death, a massacre of Hemu's Hindu community and followers was ordered by Bairam Khan. Thousands were beheaded and towers of skulls were built with their heads, to instil terror among the Hindus and Afghans.

After few years Hemu's supporters, constructed a Samadhi (Hindu shrine) over the place where he was beheaded. The place and its surroundings have been slowly encroached upon by local people. This is the only memorial of Hemu in Panipat but it is in a bad condition.

Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb[edit]

Main article: Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb

It was one of Sher Shah Suri’s dying regret that he could never fulfill his intention of erecting a tomb to the fallen monarch. Much later, in 1866, the British relocated the tomb which was just a simple grave during construction of the Grand Trunk Road and added a platform to it with an inscription highlighting Ibrahim Lodhi’s death in the Battle of Panipat.[9][10][11]

Another memorial of some kind, however, appears to have existed which used to form a place of pilgrimage for the people of Gwalior since Vikramaditya the last Raja of the old dynasty of Gwalior, fell in the same battle. This memorial, according to Alexander Cunningham, was destroyed when the Grand Trunk Road was made.

Babur's Kabuli Bagh Mosque[edit]

Main article: Kabuli Bagh Mosque

The garden of Kabuli Bagh along with the Kabuli Bagh Mosque and a tank was built by Babur after the First Battle of Panipat to commemorate his victory over Ibrahim Lodhi. Some years later when Humayun defeated Sher Shah Suri near Panipat, he added a masonry Platform to it and called it ‘Chabutra" Fateh Mubarak, bearing the inscription 934 Hijri (1557 CE). These buildings and the garden still exist under the name of Kabuli Bagh called so after Babur’s wife – Mussammat Kabuli begum.

Shri Devi Temple[edit]

A temple dedicated to a local deity exists on the bank of a large tank. A Shiva temple believed to have been built by a Maratha warrior named Mangal Raghunath who had remained in Panipat after the battle, also exists besides it.

Kala Amb[edit]

Main article: Kala Amb

According to the tradition, the site 8 km from Panipat and 42 km from Karnal, where Sadashiv Rao Bhau commanded his Maratha forces during the third battle of Panipat was marked by a black Mango Tree (Kala Amb) which has since disappeared. The dark colour of its foliage was probably the origin of the name. The site has a brick Pillar with an iron rod and the structure is surrounded by an iron fence. The site is being developed and beautified by a society with the Governor of Haryana as its President. Ror Maratha community of Haryana organises a programme every year in memory of Maratha warriors on the day of 14 January at Kala Amb in which lots of people participate from Haryana and Maharashtra.

Salar Gunj Gate[edit]

This gate is situated in the middle of Panipat city. The gate still denoting its archaeological interest. A local market has developed around this gate.

Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji[edit]

Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji is one of the popular Sikh shrines of Panipat. People of Panipat visit this place regularly in huge numbers. There are many events and programs arranged by the followers in the premises of this Gurudwara to pay their devotion to god. This Gurudwara is a beautifully sculpted and artistically designed along with splendid interiors to mesmerize the onlookers. Devotees coming to this place get complete peace of mind in the house of Guru. People can attend regular bhajan and kirtan organized by saints at this Gurudwara.

Address: Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji, G.T. Road, Panipat, Haryana, India.[12]

Panipat Elevated Expressway[edit]

Panipat Elevated Expressway is a six-lane, 10 km (6.2 mi) expressway to decongest the busy Delhi-Amritsar route. The Panipat Expressway is an uplift of the National Highway One.

Education[edit]

Panipat is home to more than 50 senior secondary schools, most notable are DAV Cent. Public School, HUDA, Delhi Public School, Panipat Refinery and G D Goenka Public School. There are half a dozen colleges providing courses from undergraduate to graduate level, some of the well known are : Arya P.G. college, S.D.I.T.M and I.B(PG) College Panipat.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richards, John F., ed. (1995) [1993]. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India (7th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521566032. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  2. ^ Kolff, Dirk H. A. (2002). Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market of Hindustan, 1450-1850. Cambridge University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780521523059. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  3. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Panipat
  4. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  5. ^ http://panipat.nic.in/introduction.htm
  6. ^ Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals: Part I: Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). Har-Anand Publications. pp. 91–93. ISBN 9788124110669. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  7. ^ Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6
  8. ^ George Bruce Malleson (2001). Akbar and the rise of the Mughal Empire. Genesis Publishing Pvt. Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 9788177551785. 
  9. ^ Tomb of Ibrahim Lodi
  10. ^ Ibrahim Lodi's Tomb
  11. ^ The tale of the missing Lodi tomb The Hindu, Jul 04, 2005.
  12. ^ "Gurudwaras in Panipat, Gurudwara Sri Sant Bhawan Panipat". www.panipatonline.in. Retrieved 2016-03-27. 

External links[edit]