Panopea (bivalve)

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Temporal range: Triassic - Recent
Panopea zelandica.JPG
Panopea zelandica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Myoida
Family: Hiatellidae
Genus: Panopea
Ménard, 1807

Panopea is a genus of large marine bivalve molluscs or clams in the family Hiatellidae.[1] There are 10 described species in Panopea.[1] Many of them are known under the common name geoduck.

Extant species[edit]

Extinct species[edit]

Fossil shell of Panopea intermedia

Extinct species within this genus' include:[4]

The fossil record of the genus dates back to the Cretaceous (and maybe the Triassic) (age range: 242.0 to 0.012 million years ago). These fossils have been found all over the world.


  1. ^ a b Serge Gofas (2012). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. "Panopea Ménard, 1807". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  2. ^ Rocha-Olivares, A., L. E. Calderon-Aguilera, E. A. Aragón-Noriega, N. C. Saavedra-Sotelo, and V. M. Moreno-Rivera (2010). "Genetic and morphological variation of Northeast Pacific Panopea clams: evolutionary implications". Journal of Shellfish Research. 29 (2): 327–335. doi:10.2983/035.029.0207.
  3. ^ Powell A. W. B. (1979). New Zealand Mollusca. Auckland, New Zealand: William Collins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-00-216906-1.
  4. ^ Paleobiology Database: Panopea
  5. ^ Vadopalas B., Pietsch T. W. & Friedman C. S. (2010). "The proper name for the geoduck: resurrection of Panopea generosa Gould, 1850, from the synonymy of Panopea abrupta (Conrad, 1849) (Bivalvia: Myoida: Hiatellidae)" (PDF). Malacologia. 52 (1): 169–173. doi:10.4002/040.052.0111. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-09.
  6. ^ "Fossilworks: Panopea dockensis". Retrieved 2016-03-13.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Panopea at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Panopea at Wikispecies