Pantethine

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Pantethine
Pantethine structure.png
Names
IUPAC name
N-[2-[2-[2-[3-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-butanoyl)aminopropanoylamino ]ethyldisulfanyl]ethylcarbamoyl]ethyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-butanamide
Other names
Bis-pantethine
Co-enzyme pantethine
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.037.114
UNII
Properties
C22H42N4O8S2
Molar mass 554.72 g·mol−1
Pharmacology
A11HA32 (WHO)
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oilHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
1
2
0
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Pantethine (bis-pantethine or co-enzyme pantethine) is a dimeric form of pantetheine, which is produced from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) by the addition of cysteamine. Pantethine is composed of two molecules of pantetheine linked by a bridging disulfide. Pantetheine is an intermediate in the production of coenzyme A by the body. Most vitamin B5 supplements are in the form of calcium pantothenate, a salt of pantothenic acid, with doses in the range of 5 to 10 mg/day. In contrast, pantethine is sold as a dietary supplement for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides at doses of 500 to 1200 mg/day.

Dietary supplementation[edit]

Pantethine is available in the United States as a dietary supplement because of evidence of its health benefits for lowering elevated LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and raising HDL-cholesterol (the 'good' cholesterol). In multiple clinical trials of patients with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol were decreased by an average of 12%, triglycerides decreased by 19%, and HDL cholesterol was increased by 9%.[1][2][3] These clinical trials were conducted with daily intakes ranging from 600 to 1200 mg/day. Within this dose range there is no evidence of a dose-effect relationship, i.e. changes in lipid concentrations overlapped across the range of doses. Direct dose-response evidence is not available because no trial tested more than one dose. A few trials conducted in Japan tested 300 mg/day and reported decreases in total cholesterol of about 4%, increases in HDL-cholesterol of 5% and inconsistent results for triglycerides.[4] Most of the literature on pantethine and lipids is 20–30 years old, but recent carefully controlled trials of 600 and 900 mg/d doses have shown similar statistically significant lowering of LDL cholesterol in individuals with greatly or moderately elevated levels of blood lipids.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Binaghi, P; Cellina, G; Lo Cicero, G; Bruschi, F; Porcaro, E; Penotti, M (1990). "Evaluation of the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of pantethine in women in perimenopausal age". Minerva Medica. 81 (6): 475–9. PMID 2359503.
  2. ^ Arsenio, L; Bodria, P; Magnati, G; Strata, A; Trovato, R (1986). "Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia". Clinical Therapeutics. 8 (5): 537–45. PMID 3094958.
  3. ^ Chen, Ya-qin; Zhao, Shui-ping; Zhao, Yu-hong (2015). "Efficacy and tolerability of coenzyme A vs pantethine for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study". Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 9 (5): 692–697. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2015.07.003. ISSN 1933-2874. PMID 26350816.
  4. ^ Gaddi, A; Descovich, GC; Noseda, G; Fragiacomo, C; Colombo, L; Craveri, A; Montanari, G; Sirtori, CR (1984). "Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia". Atherosclerosis. 50 (1): 73–83. doi:10.1016/0021-9150(84)90009-1. PMID 6365107.
  5. ^ Rumberger, JA; Napolitano, J; Azumano, I; Kamiya, T; Evans, M (2011). "Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B(5) used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation". Nutr Res. 31 (8): 608–15. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2011.08.001. PMID 21925346.
  6. ^ Evans M, Rumberger JA, Azumano I, Napolitano JJ, Citrolo D, Kamiya T (2014). "Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation". Vasc Health Risk Manag. 10: 89–100. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S57116. PMC 3942300. PMID 24600231.