Panthenol

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Panthenol
Stereo, skeletal formula of panthenol (R)
Names
IUPAC name
2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide[1]
Other names
  • Pantothenol
  • Pantothenyl alcohol
  • N-Pantoylpropanolamine
  • Bepanthen (trade name)
  • Dexpanthenol (D form)
Identifiers
16485-10-2 N
81-13-0 R N
3DMet B00882
1724945, 1724947 R
ChEBI CHEBI:27373 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL1200979 N
ChemSpider 4516 YesY
115991 R N
4677984 S N
EC Number 240-540-6
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
Interactive image
KEGG D03726 YesY
MeSH dexpanthenol
PubChem 4678
131204 R
5748487 S
RTECS number ES4316500
UNII 1O6C93RI7Z YesY
Properties
C9H19NO4
Molar mass 205.25 g·mol−1
Appearance Highly viscous, colourless liquid
Density 1.2 g mL−1 (at 20 °C)
Melting point 66 to 69 °C (151 to 156 °F; 339 to 342 K) [contradictory]
Boiling point 118 to 120 °C (244 to 248 °F; 391 to 393 K) at 2.7 Pa
log P −0.989
Acidity (pKa) 13.033
Basicity (pKb) 0.964
+29° to +30°
1.499
Pharmacology
A11HA30 (WHO) D03AX03 (WHO), S01XA12 (WHO)
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
10,100 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneal, mouse); 15,000 mg kg−1 (oral, mouse)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5. In organisms it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. It is a viscous transparent liquid at room temperature. Panthenol is used as a moisturizer and to improve wound healing in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

Uses[edit]

Bepanthen eye and nose ointment (Germany)

In pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and personal-care products, panthenol is a moisturizer and humectant, used in ointments, lotions, shampoos, nasal sprays, eye drops, lozenges, and cleaning solutions for contact lenses.

In ointments it is used for the treatment of sunburns, mild burns, minor skin injuries and disorders (in concentrations of up to 2–5%).[2] It improves hydration, reduces itching and inflammation of the skin, improves skin elasticity, and accelerates epidermal wounds' rate of healing.[3] For this purpose, it is sometimes combined with allantoin.

It binds to the hair shaft readily; so, it is a common component of commercial shampoos and hair conditioners (in concentrations of 0.1–1%). It coats the hair and seals its surface,[citation needed] lubricating the hair shaft and giving it a shiny appearance.

It is also recommended by tattoo artists as a post-tattooing moisturising cream.

Adverse effects[edit]

Panthenol is generally well tolerated. In rare cases, skin irritation and contact allergies have been reported.[2][3]

Pharmacology[edit]

Panthenol readily penetrates into the skin and mucous membranes (including the intestinal mucosa), where it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is extremely hygroscopic,[4] that is, it binds water effectively. It is also used in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, which plays a role in a wide range of enzymatic reactions and thus in cell growth.[2][3]

Physical and chemical properties[edit]

Dexpanthenol

Panthenol is an odourless, slightly bitter, highly viscous, transparent and colourless liquid at room temperature,[5] but salts of pantothenic acid (for example sodium pantothenate) are powders (typically white). It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, moderately soluble in diethyl ether, soluble in chloroform (1:100),[5] in propylene glycol, and slightly soluble in glycerin.

Panthenol's expanded chemical formula is HO–CH2–C(CH3)2–CH(OH)–CONH–CH2CH2CH2–OH.

Stereochemistry[edit]

Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturizing properties. For cosmetic use, panthenol comes either in D form, or as a racemic mixture of D and L (DL-panthenol).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dexpanthenol – Compound summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 25 March 2005. Identification. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Haberfeld, H, ed. (2015). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. Bepanthen Creme. 
  3. ^ a b c Ebner F, Heller A, Rippke F, Tausch I (2002). "Topical Use of Dexpanthenol in Skin Disorders". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 3 (6): 427–433. doi:10.2165/00128071-200203060-00005. PMID 12113650. 
  4. ^ Dinnendahl, V; Fricke, U, eds. (1991). Arzneistoff-Profile (in German) 7 (8 ed.). Eschborn, Germany: Govi Pharmazeutischer Verlag. Pantothensäure. ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3. 
  5. ^ a b List, PH; Hörhammer, L, eds. (1969). Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis (in German) 2. Springer. p. 699. 

External links[edit]