Pantropical spotted dolphin
|Pantropical spotted dolphin|
|Dolphin skipping on its tail over the water|
|Size compared to an average human|
|Pantropical spotted dolphin range|
The pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) is a species of dolphin found in all the world's temperate and tropical oceans. The species was beginning to come under threat due to the killing of millions of individuals in tuna purse seines. In the 1980s, the rise of "dolphin-friendly" tuna capture methods saved millions of the species in the eastern Pacific Ocean and it is now one of the most abundant dolphin species in the world.
The species was first described by John Gray in 1846. Gray's initial analysis included the Atlantic spotted dolphin in this species. They are now regarded as separate. Both the genus and specific names come from Latin words meaning thin or thinning.
Three subspecies are recognised in Rice's 1998 survey of cetacean taxonomy. Two of these have not been formally named.
- S. a. subspecies A, the off-shore form found in the eastern Pacific
- S. a. subspecies B, a form found around the Hawaiian Islands
- S. a. graffmani, a coastal form found from Mexico to Peru
- S. a. attenuata.
The pantropical spotted dolphin varies significantly in size and coloration throughout its range. The most significant division is between coastal and pelagic varieties. The coastal form is larger and more spotted. (These two forms have been divided into subspecies only in eastern Pacific populations).
Spots are key defining characteristics in adults, though immature individuals are generally uniformly colored and susceptible to confusion with the bottlenose dolphin. Populations around the Gulf of Mexico may be relatively spot-free even in adulthood. In the Atlantic, confusion is possible with the Atlantic spotted dolphin.
Broadly speaking, the dolphin has a long, thin beak. The upper and lower jaws are darkly colored, but are separated by thin, white "lips". The chin, throat, and belly are white to pale grey with a limited number of spots. The flanks are separated into three distinct bands of color — the lightest at the bottom, followed by a thin, grey strip in the middle of the flank, and a dark-grey back. The tall concave dorsal fin is similarly colored. The thick tail stock matches the color of the middle band.
The pantropical spotted dolphin is very active and is prone to making large, splashy leaps from the sea. It is a common breacher and will often clear the water for a second or more. Bow-riding and other play with boats is common.
In the eastern Pacific, the dolphin is often found swimming with yellowfin tuna (hence the problem with dolphin deaths caused by tuna fishing). However, they do not feed on that fish. In fact, the two species have similar diets of small epipelagic fish. In other areas, the species may also feed on squid and crustaceans.
Birth length is 80–90 cm. Adults are about 2.5 m long and weigh 120 kg. Sexual maturity is reached at 10 years in females and 12 years in males. The average lifespan is around 40 years.
Population and distribution
The pantropical spotted dolphin, as its name implies, is found across all tropical and subtropical waters around the world — roughly speaking all oceans and seas between 40°N and 40°S. The total world population is in excess of three million — the second-most abundant cetacean after the bottlenose dolphin — of which two million are found in the eastern Pacific. However, this represents a decrease from at least 7 million since the 1950s.
Centres of highest population density are the shallow warmest waters (water temperature in excess of 25 °C). They also tend to concentrate where a high temperature gradient is found.
The pantropical spotted dolphin's propensity for associating with tuna, particularly in the eastern Pacific, has in recent history been a very real danger. In the 1960s and 1970s, fishermen would capture thousands of dolphin and tuna at once using purse seine nets. The dolphins all died. Over a period of about 25 years, 75% of this region's population, and over half the world's total were wiped out. The issue has received wide public attention. Many major supermarkets have found it economically expedient to use tuna suppliers whose fisherman catch tuna by more discriminatory means, and thus advertise their tuna product as dolphin-friendly. Some such products are approved by the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Trust.
Negative impacts from fishing activities remain, despite broad "dolphin safe" practices. Instead of reducing numbers through direct mortalities, fishing activities have disrupted the reproductive output of the northeastern pantropical spotted dolphin. The fishing had a negative impact on calf survival rates and/or birth rates. This could be caused when fishing operations separate mothers from their suckling calves, interfere with the conception or gestation of calves, or a combination of the two.
The eastern tropical Pacific and Southeast Asian populations of the pantropical spotted dolphin are listed in Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As the pantropical spotted dolphin can be divided into three subspecies, studies of these distinct populations would be needed to assess conservation efforts.
In addition, the pantropical spotted dolphin is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia (Western African Aquatic Mammals MoU) and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).
- The use of Order Cetartiodactyla, instead of Cetacea with Suborder Odontoceti, is favored by most evolutionary mammalogists working with molecular data  and is supported the IUCN Cetacean Specialist Group and by Taxonomy Committee  of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world. See Cetartiodactyla and Marine mammal articles for further discussion.
- Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R.L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. (2008). Stenella attenuata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- Agnarsson, I.; May-Collado, LJ. (2008). "The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 48 (3): 964–985. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.046. PMID 18590827.
- Price, SA.; Bininda-Emonds, OR.; Gittleman, JL. (2005). "A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals – Cetartiodactyla". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80 (3): 445–473. doi:10.1017/s1464793105006743. PMID 16094808.
- Montgelard, C.; Catzeflis, FM.; Douzery, E. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution 14 (5): 550–559. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025792. PMID 9159933.
- Spaulding, M.; O'Leary, MA.; Gatesy, J. (2009). "Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution". PLoS ONE 4 (9): e7062. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7062S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007062. PMC 2740860. PMID 19774069.
- Cetacean Species and Taxonomy. iucn-csg.org
- "The Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Species and subspecies".
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia Of North American Mammals: A Comprehensive Guide to Mammals of North America. MobileReference. 2009. ISBN 9781605012797.
- University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (November 24, 2008). "Dolphin Population Stunted by Fishing Activities". Newswise, Inc. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- "Appendix II" of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5 March 2009.
- Convention on Migratory Species page on the Pantropical spotted dolphin, Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia
- Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region
- Pantropical Spotted Dolphin by William F. Perrin in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals pp. 865–867. ISBN 978-0-12-551340-1
- Whales Dolphins and Porpoises, Mark Carwardine, Dorling Kindersley Handbooks, ISBN 0-7513-2781-6
- National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World, Reeves, Stewart, Clapham and Powell, ISBN 0-375-41141-0
- Variation of spotted and spinner porpoise (genus Stenella) in the Eastern Pacific and Hawaii William F. Perrin