NATO reporting name: SA-22 "Greyhound"
Pantsir-S1 on 8×8 Truck KAMAZ-6560 TLAR
|Type||Transportable gun/SAM system|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See list of operators|
|Designer||KBP Instrument Design Bureau|
|Manufacturer||Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant|
|Unit cost||US$ 13.15–14.67 million (export)|
|Variants||Pantsir-S (prototype), Pantsir-S1, Pantsir-S1-O (or Pantsir-S1E), Pantsir-S2|
|Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns|
Pantsir-S1 (Russian: Панцирь-С1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of 2K22 Tunguska (NATO reporting name: SA-19/SA-N-11) and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.
The Pantsir-S1 was designed to provide point air defence of military/industrial/administrative installations against aircraft, helicopters, precision munitions, cruise missiles and UAVs and to provide additional protection to air defence units from enemy air attacks employing precision munitions especially at the low to extremely low ranges.
- 1 Design
- 2 Development
- 3 Operations
- 4 Multi-sensor system
- 5 Operational history
- 6 Operators
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The first finished version was completed in 1995 with the 1L36 radar, later was designed another. It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defense consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance.
Its purpose is protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. The system has capability for anti-munitions missions. Can hit targets on the overwater/above-water. Can operate in fully automatic mode. Ability to work in a completely passive mode. The probability of hitting a target for 1 rocket is not less than 0.7. The reaction time of 4–6 seconds. Can fire missiles and gun armament in motion. For main radar station, early detection in height may be between 0-60 ° or 26-82 ° depending on the mode. The system has significant advantages over other systems, such as Krotal NG (France), Roland-3 (France + USA), Rapier 2000 (UK), Searam (Germany + USA). This is not confirmed by comparative testing, but clearly follows from declared limit of possibilities of systems (2010). Since 2013, a variant with two radar station for early detection * standing back to back *. The system has a modular structure, that is fast and easy replacement of any part. After receiving target coordinates (from any source) may defeat the purpose (using all the radar except the early detection radar) within a range from -5 to +85 (82) degrees (vertical). The interval between missile launches 1-1.5 seconds (a world record for the analogues).
Originally Soviet strategic missile systems had been placed in fixed, hardened sites. Newer systems such as the S-300PS/PM (SA-10/20) on the other hand was much more mobile which reduced its vulnerabilities to attack, However, once the S-300 unit was found by enemy forces it was still very vulnerable to precision weapon systems. One of the roles for the Pantsir-S is to provide air defence to the S-300 missile systems.
It was also decided that a wheeled chassis would be better suited for the Pantsir-S rather than a tracked chassis. The reasoning being that wheeled vehicles are faster, less prone to breakdowns, easier to maintain, and cheaper to produce.
Development as Pantsir-S started in 1990 planned to be successor of Tunguska M1. A prototype was completed in 1994 and displayed at the MAKS-1995. The program soon ran into difficulties which resulted in a halt in funding. However, KBP continued development of the program using its own funds. This resulted in a complete re-design of both the turret and radar systems and removal of any older Tunguska equipment.
Some sources[weasel words] refer to this redesign as Pantsir-S1-O or Pantsir-S1E but it is, as of August 2007, not offered by KBP as a separate variant. The system has two new radars with increased range, capable of tracking more air targets but also land targets and has an integrated IFF system. Within the cabin two new LCD multi-function displays have replaced the multiple CRT display and a new central computer system greatly decreased the reaction time, single operator operation can be achieved when needed. Due to the new technologies adopted, the overall volume of the weapon station is reduced by a third while the overall weight is reduced by half. The system also has enhanced missiles (from type 57E6 to type 57E6-E probably interchangeable) and guns (from type 2A72 to type 2A38M).
Live firing tests took place in June 2006 at the Kapustin Yar firing range, Astrakhan Region, Russia. Final test series prior to delivery in May 2007 at Kapustin Yar included a forced march of 250 km to an unprepared launch position simulating the accomplishing of a typical air-defence mission.
The Pantsir-S1 air-defence missile-gun system was adopted for service with the Russian Army by an order of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev on 16 November 2012. Modernized Pantsir-S2 entered service in 2015.
Russia is developing a track-based Pantsir system to be more maneuverable with Russian Ground Forces and Airborne Troops. A next-generation Pantsir system is announced for 2017, with "absolutely superior" technical characteristics compared to the existing system.
A version called the Pantsir-SM is projected with improved interception capabilities for unmanned aerial vehicles and shall be adapted to operate in Arctic climates. It comprises a new missile with an extended engagement range from 20 km (12 mi) to 30 km (19 mi). The Pantsir-SM is to enter service in 2016–2017.
On 19 October 2012, two missiles fired from a Pantsir shot down a live cruise missile in a test in Russia. In 2014 tests, targets moving as fast as 1,000 metres per second (3,300 ft/s; Mach 2.9) were shot down with Pantsir.
Pantsir systems will be deployed on the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov. Russian destroyers and other large ships will be modernized to accommodate the system. Entered series production in 2015. Russia's Defense Ministry has purchased three Naval "Pantsir-M"s. The Pantsir-M differs from the land-based version by having two GSh-6-30K/AO-18KD 30 mm six-barrel rotary cannons, as found on the Kashtan CIWS, in place of the single-barrel autocannons, and an additional radar separate from the one fitted on top of the turret itself. One Pantsir-M combat module can simultaneously engage four targets with four missiles and has an ammunition supply of 32 missiles. The ship-based complex may include several combat modules, with module ammunition supply stored in the storage and reloading system under the deck. The system may also be armed with the 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi)-range Hermes-K missile. The Pantsir-M will be mounted aboard the Karakurt-class corvette.
The Arctic version can operate at a temperature of −50 °C (−58 °F). After testing, it was decided to design a new version specifically for the Arctic, to use at temperatures below −50° Celsius.
The Pantsir-SM variant incorporates a multifunctional targeting station, increasing target detection range from 40 to 75 km (25 to 47 mi) and engagement range from 20 to 40 km (12 to 25 mi).
The specific feature of the Pantsir-S1 system is the combination of a multiple-band target acquisition and tracking system in conjunction with a combined missile and gun armament creating a continuous target engagement zone from 5 m height and 200 m range up to 15 km height and 20 km range, even without any external support.
Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.
- Stand alone combat operation: All the combat sequence from detecting a target to its engagement is fulfilled by a single Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle without employing other assets.
- Operation within a battery ("master-slave"): One Pantsir-S1 operates both as combat vehicle and as "master" command post. 3 to 5 Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles acting as "slave" receive target designation data from the "master" and subsequently fulfil all the combat operation stages.
- Operation within a command post: The command post sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfill the designation order.
- Operation within a battery with command post and early warning radar: The command post receives air situation picture from a connected early warning radar and sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfil the designation order.
- Pantsir-S prototype from 1994 was built on Ural-5323 8×8 truck.
- Actual Pantsir-S1 is built on KAMAZ-6560 8x8 38t truck with 400 hp.
- UAE Pantsir-S1 is built on German MAN SX 45 8×8 truck.
- Pantsir-S1 is also proposed to be built on an MZKT-7930 8×8 truck with 680 hp from the Belarus company "Minsk Wheeled Tractor Plant"
- A further Pantsir-S1 option is a tracked chassis type GM-352M1E from the Belarus company "Minsk Tractor Plant".
- KBP offers also a stationary variant built on a container probably able to be mounted on ships also.
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See list of operators|
|Designer||KBP Instrument Design Bureau|
|Variants||57E6, 57E6-E, 57E6Y|
|Weight||90 kg and 74 kg without container packing and storage of missiles|
|Warhead||frag-HE and multiple continuous rod|
|Warhead weight||20 kg|
|Contact and proximity|
|20 kilometres (12 mi)|
|Flight altitude||15 kilometres (9.3 mi)|
|Boost time||2 s|
|Speed||Start 1,300 m/s (Mach 3.8), 780 m/s (Mach 2.3) to 18 km distance|
Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve 57E6 or 57E6-E two-stage solid fuel radio-command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch containers. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body in tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 seconds of flight, after which it is separated from the sustainer-stage. The sustainer is the highly agile part of the missile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous rod and fragmentation warhead, contact and proximity fuses as also radio transponder and laser responder to be localised for guidance. The missile is not fitted with seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Instead high-precision target and missile tracking is provided via the system's multiband sensor system and guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight. Missiles can be fired at up to four targets, but more often in salvos of two missiles at one target. Missile is believed to have a hit probability of 70–95% and have a 15-year storage lifetime in its sealed containers. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.
Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns are fitted with 700 rounds of a variety of ammunition—HE (High Explosive) fragmentation, fragmentation tracer, and armour-piercing with tracer. Ammunition type can be selected by the crew depending on the nature of the target. Maximum rate of fire is 2,500 rounds per minute per gun. Range is up to 4 km. The combined gun-missile system has an extremely low altitude engagement capability (targets as low as 0 m AGL can be engaged by this system).
Wheeled combat vehicles have to be jacked up to keep the machine in the horizontal position and be able to fire the gun with full accuracy. The KAMAZ-6560 has four oil hydraulic jacks for this purpose.
- Designation: 2A38M
- Type: twin-barrel automatic anti-aircraft gun
- Calibre: 30 mm
- Maximum rate of fire: 2,500 rounds per minute per gun
- Muzzle velocity: 960 m/s
- Projectile weight: 0.97 kg
- Ammunition: 700 rounds per gun
- Minimum range: 0.2 m
- Maximum range: 4 km
- Minimum altitude: 0 m AGL
- Maximum altitude: 3 km
The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Detection range is 32–36 km and tracking range is 24–28 km for a target with 2 m2 RCS. Can also reliably achieve more, to 45 km. This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight. Minimum target size 2 – 3 cm sq (0.0004 m2)
As well as radar, the fire control system also has an electro-optic channel with long-wave thermal imager and infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of Pantsir-S1 is also being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted.
The two independent guidance channels—radar and electro-optic—allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. And 4 for more recent options (2012). Maximum engagement rate is up to 10-12 targets per minute.
- Command Posts: The unit Command Post is responsible for the automated control over combat operations of AD units and subunits. The tasks accomplished by the regimental CP include: planning of combat operations and development of combat documents; assigning of operating frequencies of regiment radio electronic assets (acquisition radar, battalions, radio assets of the CP); calculation of coverage angles for selected positions of an acquisition radar and its detection zones and, battalion firing sectors; routing and displaying of battalion routes during redeployment; and, survey control and orientation of regiment assets (CP, acquisition radar).
CP Capabilities: Battalion CP – up to six launchers (battalion); Regimental CP – up to three bns; 24 hour continuous operations; Time of shutting down/deployment – 5 min; Number of work stations – 4; Crew – combat crew (3); driver-mechanic (1).
- Transporting-loading Vehicle: One TLV per two combat vehicles. The TLV ensures rapid replacement of ammunition during combat operations and carries two complete ammunition loads for combat vehicle (24 missiles and 2,800 30 mm rounds).
- Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle: MMV carries out unit vehicles maintenance including launcher mechanical systems and carries spare parts components
- Electronic Maintenance Vehicle (Launcher): Maintenance of launcher radio-electronic and optronic systems including automated diagnostics of faulty equipment and its replacement. The vehicle carries a load of common spare parts.
- Electronic maintenance vehicle (Command Post): Responsible for maintenance and repair of the CP radio-electronic systems. Carries a stock of common spare parts.
- Adjustment Vehicle: Carries out calibration of launchers radio-electronic and optronic systems.
- Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle (CP): Responsible for maintenance and repair of the CP mechanical systems and chassis. Carries a stock of common spare parts.
- Spare Parts Vehicle: This vehicle carries the common kit of spare parts, tools and accessories for the launchers.
- Mobile Trainer: Designed to train the combat vehicle crews in field conditions on the weapon system.
Target acquisition radar:
Target tracking radar:
Autonomous Optoelectronic System:
A Pantsir-S1 unit of the Syrian Armed Forces reportedly scored the first combat kill of the type by downing a Turkish Air Force RF-4E carrying out a reconnaissance flight over the Syrian coast near Latakia on 22 June 2012.
Various independent experts believe Pantsir-S1 was operated on the rebel side during the War in Donbass. It was filmed in Luhansk and photographed in Makiivka on the rebel-held territories in early 2015. Its used rocket components were also reported to be observed in Ukraine in November 2014.
The system has also been deployed by the Russian armed forces in Syria to guard its deployment during the Russian intervention in the Syrian Civil War.
- People's national army – An estimated 38 on order; signed March 2006 as part of an arms package worth about US$8 billion. Whereas Moscow Times reported in February 2006 that Algeria had ordered Tunguskas. RIA Novosti later reported in March 2007 that Algeria had ordered Pantsir-S1 instead.
- Brazilian armed forces – Brazil and Russia have been in discussion since early 2013 about Brazil's acquisition of three batteries (18 launchers) worth 1 Billion dollars. In 2015 the acquisition had been postponed to 2016. 
- Iraqi armed forces – 42–50 on order. Deal was thought to be cancelled by the Iraqi government due to corruption concerns, but the deal was later confirmed to be going ahead. On September 2014, Iraq received first batch of Pantsir-S1. Russia finished supplying 24 Pantsir-S1 systems to Iraq in February 2016.
- Jordanian armed forces – According to what Jane's Defence Weekly reported in 2007 a complete Russian Pantsir-S1 short-range air-defence system was being field tested in Jordan and that the kingdom is set to place an order. It was reported that Jordan placed an order for an undisclosed number of systems. Russia Today reported Jordan as being a customer for Pantsir-S1, and that they were likely to purchase between 50–75 combat vehicles.
- Russian armed forces – 62 Pantsir-S1 units in service in March 2015. It will eventually replace the Tunguska-M1 currently used by the Russian Air Force. 6 additional systems were delivered in July-September 2016. 6 Pansir-S2 units in service in May 2016.
- Syrian armed forces – 36 to 50 on order; signed 2006 as part of arms package worth about US$1 billion; deliveries began in August 2007; Jane's Defence Weekly reported in May 2007 that 50 systems are on order by Damascus and that at least ten of those Pantsirs would be handed over to Iran by the end of 2008. According to Jane's Defence Weekly, Iran is reported to be the main sponsor of the deal and is paying Syria for its services as intermediary. Deliveries to Iran are categorically denied by a range of top Russian officials including First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov.
- Emirati military – 50 on order; Launch customer of Pantsir-S1. Ordered in May 2000, half of them tracked, the other half wheeled. Due to deliver in three batches by the end of 2005–12 in 2003, 24 in 2004 and 14 in 2005. Prices given where US$ 734 million ( including a US$ 100 million pay in advance to complete R&D ), with the price per single unit being about US$15 million. Delivery postponed after new design decisions were taken and UAE is said to have paid additional US$66 Million to cover major improvements. All 50 systems will now be wheeled on MAN SX 45 8x8 trucks from Germany, as well as the support vehicles. Delivery of the prototype occurred in 2007. With that the MAN SX45 is the only "western" vehicle that can accommodate the S1 system and has a worldwide logistics and support network through their importer network. Delivery of the 50 systems ordered in 2000 began in 2007 with the first two serially produced systems. British Jane's Defence Weekly reported on October 30 delays in further deliveries. Based on test-firing data, some further optimisation of the systems is required. Deliveries will take place over the next three years under an amended schedule. As reported by Kommersant in June 2006 UAE has expressed interest in acquiring an additional 28 systems and has likely signed an option for the delivery in 2009–2010.
- Vietnam People's armed forces – Some unconfirmed images cited on Chinese People's Daily have shown a Pantsir-S1 system which has been alleged to be operated by the Vietnamese Army.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
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