Paolo Gentiloni

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paolo Gentiloni
Paolo Gentiloni EC 2019 (cropped).jpg
Gentiloni in 2019
European Commissioner for Economy
Assumed office
1 December 2019
PresidentUrsula von der Leyen
Preceded byPierre Moscovici
Prime Minister of Italy
In office
12 December 2016 – 1 June 2018
PresidentSergio Mattarella
Preceded byMatteo Renzi
Succeeded byGiuseppe Conte
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
31 October 2014 – 12 December 2016
Prime MinisterMatteo Renzi
Preceded byFederica Mogherini
Succeeded byAngelino Alfano
Minister of Communications
In office
17 May 2006 – 8 May 2008
Prime MinisterRomano Prodi
Preceded byMario Landolfi
Succeeded byClaudio Scajola
President of the Democratic Party
In office
17 March 2019 – 22 February 2020
SecretaryNicola Zingaretti
Preceded byMatteo Orfini
Succeeded byValentina Cuppi
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
30 May 2001 – 2 December 2019
ConstituencyPiedmont (2001–2006)
Lazio (2006–2018)
Rome (2018–2019)
Personal details
Paolo Gentiloni Silveri

(1954-11-22) 22 November 1954 (age 68)
Rome, Italy
Political partyMLS (1976–1981)
PdUP (1981–1984)
Dem (1999–2002)
DL (2002–2007)
PD (since 2007)
Height1.77 m (5 ft 10 in)
Emanuela Mauro
(m. 1989)
EducationSapienza University of Rome

Paolo Gentiloni Silveri (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpaːolo dʒentiˈloːni]; born 22 November 1954) is an Italian politician who has served as European Commissioner for Economy in the von der Leyen Commission since 1 December 2019.[2] He previously served as prime minister of Italy from December 2016 to June 2018.[3][4]

After a lengthy career in local politics, Gentiloni was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2001. He served in the Cabinet under Romano Prodi as Minister of Communications from 2006 to 2008.[5] In 2007, he was one of the senior founding members of the Democratic Party, and went on to become Party President from 2019 to 2020.[6] Gentiloni later served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2014 to 2016 in the Cabinet of Matteo Renzi. Following Renzi's resignation in the wake of a failed constitutional referendum, the Democratic Party held discussions on his replacement. Eventually, Gentiloni won support from his colleagues, and President Sergio Mattarella appointed him Prime Minister on 12 December 2016.[7]

Despite being considered a caretaker Prime Minister upon his appointment, during his time in office Gentiloni successfully delivered major reforms that had been delayed for many years, including the implementation of the advance healthcare directive and the passage of a new electoral law.[8][9] He also introduced stricter rules on immigration and social security, in an attempt to counteract the European migration crisis.[10] In foreign policy, Gentiloni built on his time as Foreign Minister by projecting a strong Europeanist stance, whilst at the same time building close relations with the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, and notably overseeing a normalisation of Italian relations with India after years of tensions.[11][12] Gentiloni resigned as Prime Minister following the 2018 election. In September 2019, he was nominated by the Conte Government to become Italy's new European Commissioner, and was given the key portfolio of overseeing the European Union Economy.

Early life and family[edit]

A descendant of Count Gentiloni Silveri, Paolo Gentiloni is related to the Italian politician Vincenzo Ottorino Gentiloni, chamberlain of Pope Pius X, who was the leader of the conservative Catholic Electoral Union and a key ally of the long-time prime minister Giovanni Giolitti.[13] If the Kingdom of Italy still existed, Gentiloni would have the titles of Nobile of Filottrano, Nobile of Cingoli, and Nobile of Macerata.[14]

Gentiloni was born in Rome in 1954, during his childhood he attended a Montessori institute, where he became a friend of Agnese Moro, the daughter of Aldo Moro, a Christian democratic leader and Prime Minister. During the early 1970s he attended the Classical Lyceum Torquato Tasso in Rome;[15] he graduated in political sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome. Gentiloni was a professional journalist before entering politics.[16]

In 1989 he married Emanuela Mauro, an architect; they have no children. Gentiloni speaks fluent English, French and German.[17][18][19][20]

Early political career[edit]

During the 1970s, Paolo Gentiloni was a member of the Student Movement (Movimento Studentesco), a far-left youth organization led by Mario Capanna;[21] when Capanna founded the Proletarian Democracy party, Gentiloni did not follow him, and joined the Workers' Movement for Socialism (Movimento Lavoratori per il Socialismo; MLS), a far-left Maoist group, of which he became the regional secretary for Lazio.[22] In 1981 Gentiloni followed the MLS into the Proletarian Unity Party (Partito di Unità Proletaria; PdUP), remaining a member until its dissolution three years later.

Gentiloni slowly abandoned far-left ideals, sharing more moderate views and becoming particularly involved in green politics and ecologism.[23] During those years he became a close friend of Chicco Testa who helped Gentiloni to become director of La Nuova Ecologia ("The New Ecology"), the official newspaper of Legambiente. As director of this ecologist newspaper he met the young leader of Federation of the Greens, Francesco Rutelli and became, along with Roberto Giachetti, Michele Anzaldi and Filippo Sensi, a member of the so-called "Rutelli boys", a group formed by Rutelli's closest advisors and supporters.[24]

Rome City Council[edit]

In 1993 he became Rutelli's spokesman during his campaign to become Mayor of Rome; after the election, which saw a strong victory by Rutelli against Gianfranco Fini, leader of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement, Gentiloni was appointed Great Jubilee and Tourism Councillor in the Rome City Council.[25] Rutelli was reelected in 1997, with 985,000 popular votes, the highest share in the history of the City.[26]

Gentiloni held his office until January 2001, when Rutelli resigned to become the centre-left candidate to the premiership in the 2001 general election. However Rutelli was soundly defeated by former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi with 35.1% of votes against 49.6%.[27]

Member of Parliament and Minister[edit]

In the 2001 general election, Gentiloni was elected as a Member of Parliament and started his national political career. In 2002 he was a founding member of the Christian leftist The Daisy party, being the party's communications spokesman for five years.[28] From 2005 until 2006, he was Chairman of the Broadcasting Services Watchdog Committee; the committee oversees the activity of state broadcaster RAI, which is publicly funded.[29] He was reelected in the 2006 election as a member of The Olive Tree, the political coalition led by the Bolognese economist Romano Prodi. After the centre-left's victory, Gentiloni served as Minister for Communications in Prodi's second government from 2006 until 2008.[30]

Paolo Gentiloni with Francesco Rutelli.

As minister Gentiloni planned to reform the Italian television system, with the defeat of the Gasparri Law, the previous reform proposed by the centre-right lawmaker Maurizio Gasparri.[31] The reform provided, between other things, the reduction of advertising.[32] However, in 2007, the government suffered a crisis and lost its majority, so the reform had never been approved.[33] The "Gentiloni Reform" bill of 12 October 2006, established the existence of a market dominance where a subject exceeded 45% of advertising sales and abolished the "integrated communication system" (SIC) introduced by the Gasparri Law. The law also lowered the maximum advertising threshold for TV from 18% to 16%, to encourage redistribution, and provided for the transfer to digital of one network each for RAI and Mediaset by 2009, thus freeing up frequencies and imposing the obligation to sell (Europa 7 affair). However, the bill will not be approved.

In May 2007 a second reform text was launched that concerns only the RAI (Senate Act no. 1588/2007). Among the main aspects, the property should have passed from the Ministry of Economy to a Foundation; there would also have been a separation between TV financed by the fee and TV financed by advertising, and the rules for appointing the board of directors would have changed. However, the reform will not be approved.

He was one of the 45 members of the national founding committee of the Democratic Party in 2007, formed by the union of the social democrats Democrats of the Left and the Christian leftist The Daisy.[34] Gentiloni was re-elected in the 2008 general election, which saw the victory of the conservative coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. In this legislature, he was a member of the Committee regarding Transport and Telecommunications.

On 6 April 2013 he ran in the primary election to select the center-left candidate for Mayor of Rome, placing third, with 14% of votes, after Ignazio Marino (51%), who became Mayor, and the journalist David Sassoli, who gained 28%.[35][36] After the defeat in the primary election, many political commentators believed that Gentiloni's career as a prominent member of the centre-left was over.[37]

However, Gentiloni was elected again to the Chamber of Deputies in the 2013 general election, as part of the centre-left coalition Italy. Common Good led by Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the PD. In 2013, after Bersani's resignation as Secretary, Gentiloni supported the Mayor of Florence, Matteo Renzi, in the Democratic Party leadership election.[38]

Minister of Foreign Affairs[edit]

Gentiloni with United States Secretary of State John Kerry in Rome in June 2016.

On 31 October 2014 Gentiloni was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs by Prime Minister Matteo Renzi; Gentiloni succeeded Federica Mogherini, who became High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.[39] He took office two months before Italy's rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union ended in December 2014.[29] At the time of his appointment, Gentiloni had not been mentioned in political circles as a candidate. Renzi had reportedly wanted to replace Mogherini with another woman, to preserve gender parity in his 16-member cabinet. Moreover, Gentiloni was not known as a specialist in international diplomacy.[29]

As foreign minister, Gentiloni tried to trace an intermediate path for Italy in the scenario of multiple crises that surrounds it, from the wars in Libya and Syria to tensions with Russia. Gentiloni showed a strong closeness to his US counterpart John Kerry and kept open a channel of dialogue with the Russian Sergei Lavrov.

On 13 February 2015, during an interview on Sky TG24, Gentiloni stated that "if needed, Italy will be ready to fight in Libya against the Islamic State, because the Italian government can not accept the idea that there is an active terrorist threat only a few hours from Italy by boat."[40] The following day Gentiloni was threatened by ISIL, which accused him of being a crusader, minister of an enemy country.[41]

In March 2015 Gentiloni visited Mexico and Cuba and met Cuban President Raúl Castro, ensuring the Italian support for the normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States.[42]

On 11 July 2015, a car bomb exploded outside the Italian consulate in the Egyptian capital Cairo, resulting in at least one death and four people injured; the Islamic State claimed responsibility.[43][44][45] On the same day Gentiloni stated that "Italy will not be intimidated" and would continue the fight against terrorism.[46]

Gentiloni with Boris Johnson and Federica Mogherini in September 2016.

In December 2015, Gentiloni hosted a peace conference in Rome with the representatives from both governments of Libya involved in the civil war, but also from the United Nations, the United States and Russia.[47]

As Foreign Minister, Gentiloni had to confront various abductions of Italian citizens. In January 2015, he negotiated the release of Vanessa Marzullo and Greta Ramelli, two Italian students and activists who had been held hostage by Syrian terrorists for 168 days.[48]

Another high-profile case was the murder of Giulio Regeni, an Italian Cambridge University graduate student killed in Cairo following his abduction on January 25, 2016;[49] He was a Ph.D. student researching Egypt's independent trade unions.[50][51] Regeni's mutilated and half-naked corpse was found in a ditch alongside the Cairo-Alexandria highway on the outskirts of Cairo on February 3, 2016. His recovered body showed signs of extreme torture like contusions and abrasions, extensive bruising from kicks, punches, and assault with a stick, more than two dozen bone fractures, a brain hemorrhage and a broken cervical vertebra, which ultimately caused death.[52][53] The Egyptian police was strongly suspected of involvement in his murder in Europe,[54] although Egypt's media and government deny this, alleging secret undercover agents belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt carried out the crime in order to embarrass the Egyptian government and destabilize relations between Italy and Egypt.[55][56]

In the 2016 United Nations Security Council election, Gentiloni and his Dutch counterpart Bert Koenders agreed on splitting a two-year term on the United Nations Security Council after the United Nations General Assembly was deadlocked on whether to choose Italy or the Netherlands following five rounds of voting for the last remaining 2017–18 seat.[57] Such arrangements were relatively common in deadlocked elections starting in the late 1950s until 1966, when the Security Council was enlarged. This however would be the first time in over five decades that two members agreed to split a term; intractable deadlocks have instead usually been resolved by the candidate countries withdrawing in favour of a third member state.

Prime Minister of Italy[edit]

Gentiloni with Matteo Renzi during the swearing-in ceremony.

On 7 December 2016, Prime Minister Matteo Renzi announced his resignation, following the rejection of his proposals to overhaul the Senate in the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum. On 11 December, Gentiloni was asked by President Mattarella to form a new government.[58] On 12 December, Gentiloni was officially sworn in as the new head of the government.[59]

Gentiloni led a coalition government supported by the Democratic Party (PD) and the Christian democratic Popular Area, composed of the New Centre-Right (NCD) and the Centrists for Italy. This was the same majority that had supported Renzi's government for almost three years.[60] Meanwhile, the centrist Liberal Popular Alliance (ALA), led by Denis Verdini, did not support the new cabinet because no member of the ALA was appointed as a minister.[61]

On 13 December, Gentiloni's cabinet won a confidence vote in the Chamber of Deputies, with 368 votes for and 105 against, while the deputies of the Five Star Movement (M5S) and Lega Nord left the chamber.[62] On the following day, the government also won a confidence vote in the Senate, with 169 votes for and 99 against.[63]

On 29 December, deputy ministers of the PD, NCD, the Italian Socialist Party, and Solidary Democracy, were appointed. After the split of Article One from the PD, that party was presented by one deputy minister in the government.

On 19 July 2017, Gentiloni became Minister of Regional Affairs ad interim after the resignation of Enrico Costa, member of Popular Alternative, who often criticized Gentiloni's views and ideas, especially regarding immigration and the jus soli.[64]

On 24 March 2018, following the elections of the presidents of the two houses of the Italian Parliament, Roberto Fico (M5S) and Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati (FI), Gentiloni resigned his post to President Mattarella;[65][66] however, he remained in office until 1 June, when Giuseppe Conte was sworn in as the new Prime Minister at the head of a populist coalition composed by the M5S and the League.[67][68]

Social policies[edit]

Gentiloni with Pope Francis in June 2017.

On 19 May 2017, the Council of Ministers, on the proposal of Prime Minister Gentiloni and Health Minister Beatrice Lorenzin, approved a decree law containing urgent vaccine prevention measures that reintroduced the mandatory vaccination, bringing the number of mandatory vaccines from 4 to 12 and not allowing those who have not been vaccinated to attend school.[69][70]

On 14 December 2017, the Parliament officially approved a law concerning the advance healthcare directive, better known as "living will", a legal document in which a person specifies what actions should be taken for their health if they are no longer able to make decisions for themselves because of illness or incapacity. With this law, living will has become legal in Italy.[71] The law also provided the refusal of end-of-life cares.[72] The bill was harshly opposed by many Christian democratic and social conservative politicians of Forza Italia, Lega Nord, Brothers of Italy and even PD's ally Popular Alternative, while it was supported by PD, Five Star Movement, Article One and Italian Left.[73]

The Catholic Church, led by Pope Francis, did not put up major objections to the living will law, saying that a balance needed to be struck with the prevention of excessive treatment or therapeutic obstinacy.[74]

Labour policies[edit]

In March 2017 the government abolished the use of labour vouchers, bonds of the redeemable transaction type which are worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods, commonly one-off labour services.[75] The government decided to promote this law after a referendum that was called by Italy's main trade union CGIL.[76] Gentiloni stated that he decided to abolish them, because he did not want to split the country in another referendum, after the December 2016 constitutional one.[77]

In March 2018, the unemployment rate was around 11%, lower than the previous years, and the percentage of unemployed young people was the lowest since 2011, at 31.7%.[78] This data were seeing by many as the proof of a robust economic recovery started in 2013, after the financial crisis that affected Italy in 2011.[79]


Gentiloni with French President Emmanuel Macron in May 2017.

A major problem faced by Gentiloni upon becoming Prime Minister in 2016 was the high levels of illegal immigration to Italy. On 2 February 2017, Gentiloni reached a deal in Rome with Libyan Chairman of the Presidential Council Fayez al-Sarraj on halting migration. Libya agreed to try to stop migrants from setting out to cross the Mediterranean Sea.[80] On 9 February, Gentiloni signed a similar deal with President of Tunisia Beji Caid Essebsi, to prevent the migration across the Mediterranean.[81]

During his premiership, Gentiloni and his Interior Minister, Marco Minniti, promoted stricter policies regarding immigration and public security, to reduce the number of immigrants toward Italy and to counteract the populist propaganda promoted by the far-right Northern League.[82] In July 2017 the government promoted the so-called "Minniti Code", which must be subscribed by the NGOs that are involved in rescuing asylum seekers in the Mediterranean.[83]

Among other things, the code forbids NGO vessels from entering Libyan territorial waters.[84] Minniti and Gentiloni warned those NGOs who did not sign the pact that they have set themselves "outside of the organised system for rescue at sea". Some NGOs refused to sign the new code of conduct; Médecins Sans Frontières was the first charity to officially announce its 'no' to the code, saying that there were no conditions under which to sign. Facing growing public discontent and scrutiny by the Italian, Libyan, and EU authorities, MSF had to suspend its activities in the Mediterranean sea.[85] The German NGO, Sea Watch, said that the code was "largely illegal" and "will not save lives but will have the opposite effect".[86]

In December 2017, the Gentiloni announced the peacekeeping mission which consists in the sending of 450 soldiers in Niger, to help the local forces in the fight against migrants' traffickers and Islamic terrorism.[87] The deal was reached along with French President Emmanuel Macron, who stated that French troops, which were already in the area, will cooperate with Italian ones.[88][89]

Electoral law[edit]

After the rejection of the constitutional reform, the Parliament had to change the electoral law proposed by Renzi's government; in fact the so-called Italicum regulates only the election of the Chamber of Deputies, and not the one of the Senate, which, if the reform passed, would be indirectly elected by citizens. The PD proposed a new electoral law called Mattarellum bis, better known as Rosatellum,[90] from the name of his main proponent Ettore Rosato, Democratic leader in the Chamber of Deputies.[91] This electoral law was similar to the one which was applied in Italy from 1993 to 2005.[92]

The Rosatellum used an additional member system, which act as a mixed system, with 37% of seats allocated using a first past the post electoral system, 61% using a proportional method, with one round of voting and 2% elected in the overseas constituencies. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies did not differ in the way they allocated the proportional seats, both using the D'Hondt method of allocating seats.[93][94] The new electoral law was supported by PD and his government ally Popular Alternative, but also by the opposition parties Forza Italia and Lega Nord.[95]

Despite many protests from the Five Star Movement and Article One, which accused Renzi and Gentiloni to have used the confidence vote in order to approve the law,[96] on 12 October the electoral law was approved by the Chamber of Deputies with 375 votes in favor and 215 against.[97]

Foreign policy[edit]

Paolo Gentiloni with U.S. President Donald Trump in April 2017.

Paolo Gentiloni strongly supports European integration and a multi-speed Europe.[98] During his premiership, Gentiloni faced several challenging foreign policy situations, such as the European debt crisis, the civil war in Libya, the insurgency of the Islamic State (IS) in the Middle East. Gentiloni set up good relations with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, UK Prime Minister Theresa May, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron.[99]

In April 2017, he was invited to the White House by President Trump, where the two leaders discussed the serious crisis caused by the civil wars in Libya and Syria, the tensions with Vladimir Putin's Russia and their key partnership against the Islamic terrorism.[100][101]

As Prime Minister, he hosted the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina, Sicily. This summit was the first one for him and also for U.S. President Donald Trump, Prime Minister May, and President Macron.[102] It was the first time since 1987 that the G7 summit in Italy was not hosted by Silvio Berlusconi.

While in office, Gentiloni built up a series of close relations with the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, based especially on commercial agreements regarding oil and offshore producing concessions.[103] Gentiloni visited the Arab peninsula three times thought his premiership. On 1 May 2017, he went to Kuwait, where he had bilateral meetings with the Emir Sabah al-Ahmad and the crown prince Nawaf Al-Ahmad; later the premier visited the Italian soldiers stationed in Kuwait as part of the anti-ISIL coalition.[104] On 31 October 2017, the Prime Minister met in Riyadh, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the crown prince Mohammed bin Salman.[105] Gentiloni, later visited Qatar, where he met with the Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani and visited the National Library of Qatar with Emir's consort, Moza bint Nasser.[106] Gentiloni visited the United Arab Emirates twice; the first one in November 2017 and the second one in March 2018, when he met in Abu Dhabi the crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan. During his visit he participated in the signing ceremony of a commercial agreement between Eni and Abu Dhabi National Oil Company.[107]

Gentiloni with Vladimir Putin in May 2017.

In May 2017, he had an official trip to China to meet President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Li Keqiang, to discuss about the One Belt One Road Initiative, a development strategy proposed by the Chinese government that focuses on connectivity and cooperation between Eurasian countries.[108] Gentiloni stated that "Italy can be a key protagonist in this great operation: it is a great opportunity for us and my presence here means how much we consider it important."[109]

On 16 and 17 May, Paolo Gentiloni went to Sochi, where he met Russian President Vladimir Putin. The two leaders stressed their hope for a loosening of international sanctions against Russia and for a re-opening of a dialogue between Russia and NATO. They also signed six economic deals between the Italian Eni and the Russian Rosneft.[110]

On 20 September, Prime Minister Gentiloni spoke at the United Nations General Assembly during the UN annual summit in New York City. Gentiloni focused his speech on the problem of climatic change, the facing of migrant crisis and the fight against Islamic terrorism.[111]

Gentiloni with Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in October 2017.

On 29 and 30 October, Gentiloni went to India, where he met Prime Minister Narendra Modi.[112] After some years of tensions due to the 2012 Enrica Lexie case, in which two Italian marines were arrested for killing two fishermen in Kerala, the two countries revived normal relations.[113] The two leaders signed some economic treaties and discussed the recognition of the Hare Krishnas, who still are not recognized in Italy as a religious minority.[114] Gentiloni was the first Italian leader to visit India since Romano Prodi in 2007; Gentiloni and Modi described the visit as a "new beginning" and a great opportunity for both countries.[115]

During his term as foreign affairs minister and especially during his premiership, Gentiloni started a policy review which led to the creation of the Italy–Africa initiative, which includes renewable energy co-operation and a new package of development aid in fields stretching from health care to culture; counterterrorism has been a key part of his agenda, but the West Africa region is also important to stop the migration flows from there to Italy through North Africa, especially Libya.[116] In November 2017 he started one of the most important foreign mission of his tenure. On 24 November, Gentiloni visited Tunisia, where he met President Beji Caid Essebsi and Prime Minister Youssef Chahed, with whom he discussed the migrant crisis, the fight against terrorism and the Libyan Civil War. He also had a meeting with the Italian community in Tunis.[117] On 26 November he moved to Angola, where he had a bilateral meeting with President João Lourenço; the two leaders signed many economic deals between Eni and the Angolan Sonangol Group.[118] On the following days Gentiloni went to Ghana to meet President Nana Akufo-Addo and visit Eni's plant named "John Agyekum Kufuor".[119] On 28 November he moved to Ivory Coast to participate at the EU–African Union summit.[120]

2018 general election[edit]

On 28 December 2017, after meeting with Gentiloni, President Sergio Mattarella dissolved the Parliament and called new elections for 4 March 2018.[121] Gentiloni remained in office during this period as a caretaker Prime Minister.[122] During the 2018 Italian general election campaign, many prominent members of the Democratic Party, including Romano Prodi, Walter Veltroni, and Carlo Calenda, publicly asked Matteo Renzi to renounce his candidacy for Prime Minister and promote Gentiloni as the party's candidate.[123][124] Gentiloni refused to endorse the view of his colleagues, and Renzi remained within the party leadership .[125][126]

The election resulted in the centre-right alliance, led by Matteo Salvini's League, winning a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, while the anti-establishment Five Star Movement, led by Luigi Di Maio, became the party with the largest individual number of votes; the centre-left coalition, led by Renzi and the Democratic Party, finished third.[127][128] After negotiations lasting several months, the League and the Five Star Movement agreed a programme for a coalition government led by the independent Giuseppe Conte; Gentiloni resigned as Prime Minister on 1 June 2018.

Gentiloni chose not to contest the leadership of the Democratic Party, instead remaining on the backbench within the Chamber of Deputies, where he frequently attacked the policies of Matteo Salvini as Interior Minister, particularly on immigration, Romani people and gun laws.[129][130] On 28 June 2018, during an interview with Lilli Gruber's Otto e mezzo, Gentiloni announced his intention to play a role in the formation of a broad centre-left coalition, which was seen by many as an intention to become the candidate for Prime Minister of the centre-left at the next election.[131] Nothing came of these plans; in October 2018, Gentiloni endorsed Nicola Zingaretti in the election for the new PD Secretary.[132][133] After Zingaretti won the election in March 2019, he appointed Gentiloni as the President of the Democratic Party.[134]

European Commissioner for Economy[edit]

Gentiloni before the European Parliament as candidate for Commissioner for Economy.

In August 2019, tensions between the League and Five Star Movement (5SM) became public, leading to a motion of no-confidence in Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister.[135] Conte initially offered his resignation, but in a surprise move, Gentiloni led the national executive of the Democratic Party in announcing it would be open to the possibility of forming a new coalition with the M5S, based on pro-Europeanism, green economy, sustainable development, the fight against economic inequality and a new immigration policy, and while keeping Conte as Prime Minister.[136][137] On 29 August 2019, President Sergio Mattarella invited Conte to form a new coalition government between 5SM and the PD, with several PD politicians entering the Cabinet.[138] On 5 September 2019, the new Cabinet was sworn in; later that afternoon, following the first meeting of the new Cabinet, Conte announced that the Government had decided to nominate Gentiloni as the new Italian European Commissioner within the Von der Leyen Commission.[139]

On 10 September, Ursula von der Leyen announced that she would hand Gentiloni the role of Commissioner for Economy if he was successfully approved by the European Parliament.[140] On 3 October, the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs approved Gentiloni's nomination for the role.[141] On 30 November, Gentiloni announced his retirement from the Chamber of Deputies, after almost 19 years of service.[142] The resignation became effective on 2 December.[143] During his final speech to the Chamber, he said: "I make a solemn commitment to hold together the national and European interests. I am an Italian man in love with Italy, I am a patriot, and I will try to make it clear that the best way to protect the national interest is to do so in the European dimension."[144] On 1 December 2019, he formally began his new role within the European Commission.[145]

In early March 2020, Gentiloni was appointed by President von der Leyen to serve on the Commission's special task force to coordinate their response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which severely affected the European Union.[146] The task force's plan consisted in the Next Generation EU program, an economic recovery package to support member states adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Agreed to by the European Council on 21 July 2020, the fund is worth 750 billion. The NGEU fund will operate from 2021–2023, and will be tied to the regular 2021–2027 budget of the EU's Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF). The comprehensive NGEU and MFF packages are projected to reach €1824.3 billion.[147]

Political views and public image[edit]

Paolo Gentiloni with the other G7 foreign ministers in Massachusetts, 2016.

Paolo Gentiloni is widely considered a liberal Christian and progressive politician.[148] Despite having started his political career within the extra-parliamentary far-left movements, Gentiloni later assumed more Christian democratic and social liberal views.[149] Gentiloni is in favour of the recognition of civil unions for same-sex couples and stepchild adoptions, a situation which occurs when at least one parent has children, from a previous relationship, that are not genetically related to the other parent.[150] He also supports the advance healthcare directive.[151][152]

While traditionally supporting the social integration of immigrants, since 2017 Paolo Gentiloni has adopted a more critical approach on the issue.[153] Inspired by Marco Minniti, his Interior Minister, the government promoted stricter policies regarding immigration and public security.[154][155] These policies resulted in broad criticism from the left-wing Article One, PD's partners in the cabinet which later left the government's majority, as well as left-leaning intellectuals like Roberto Saviano and Gad Lerner.[156] In August Lerner, who was among the founding members of the Democratic Party, left the party altogether, due to the government's new immigration policies.[157]

Gentiloni is considered by many journalists, politicians and commentators a skilled political mediator and well-wisher of a collective leadership, based on consociationalism and power-sharing, very different from the overflowing political style of his predecessor and party mate, Matteo Renzi.[158] Due to his nature and political views, Gentiloni was sometimes compared to Romano Prodi, former prime minister and founder of the centre-left coalition.[159]

According to public opinion surveys in December 2017, after one year of government, Gentiloni's approval rating was 44%, the second highest rating after that of President Sergio Mattarella, and far higher than the other prominent politicians; moreover his approval rating has increased since he came into office.[160][161] After the 2018 general election, Gentiloni's approval rating rose to 52%, higher than every other political leader and followed by League's leader Matteo Salvini.[162]


On 10 January 2017, after an official trip in Paris to meet President François Hollande, Gentiloni suffered an obstructed coronary artery and received an emergency angioplasty.[163] On the following day Gentiloni tweeted that he felt well and would be back at work soon.[164] On the same day he also received well wishes from President Sergio Mattarella, former prime ministers Matteo Renzi and Silvio Berlusconi, and Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau.[165]

Electoral history[edit]

Election House Constituency Party Votes Result
2001 Chamber of Deputies Piedmont 2 DL [a] checkY Elected
2006 Chamber of Deputies Lazio 1 Ulivo [a] checkY Elected
2008 Chamber of Deputies Lazio 1 PD [a] checkY Elected
2013 Chamber of Deputies Lazio 1 PD [a] checkY Elected
2018 Chamber of Deputies RomeTrionfale PD 47,737 checkY Elected
  1. ^ a b c d Elected in a closed list proportional representation system.

First-past-the-post elections[edit]

2018 general election (C): RomeTrionfale
Candidate Party Votes %
Paolo Gentiloni Centre-left coalition 47,737 42.1
Luciano Ciocchetti Centre-right coalition 35,014 30.9
Angiolino Cirulli Five Star Movement 19,987 16.7
Others 11,741 10.3
Total 113,479 100.0


  1. ^ "Chi è Emanuela Mauro, la moglie di Paolo Gentiloni" [Who is Emanuela Mauro, the wife of Paolo Gentiloni]. Libero. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Gentiloni at EC economic affairs - sources - English". 9 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Camera dei Deputati- Paolo Gentiloni Silveri". Camera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  4. ^ Rovelli, Michela (11 December 2016). "Governo, Gentiloni accetta l'incarico di governo: "Un grande onore"". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Riforma tv, via libera al decreto Gentiloni" [TV reform, go-ahead for the Gentiloni decree]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 13 October 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  6. ^ "Primarie Pd, vince Zingaretti. Il comitato del neosegretario: "Siamo oltre il 67%. affluenza a 1milione e 800mila, meglio del 2017"". La Repubblica. 3 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  7. ^ "Chi è Paolo Gentiloni, nuovo ministro degli esteri" [Who is Paolo Gentiloni, new foreign minister]. Europa (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Paolo Gentiloni, Italy's foreign minister, is picked to become the country's emergency prime minister". The Economist. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Gentiloni, i punti di forza del suo modo di governare" [Gentiloni, the strengths of his way of governing]. Panorama (in Italian). 7 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Italy is facing a surge of migration across the Mediterranean". The Economist. 20 July 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Gentiloni, investimenti in Africa" [Gentiloni, investments in Africa] (in Italian). Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. 29 January 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  12. ^ "Gentiloni in visita in India, chiuso il caso dei due marò" [Gentiloni visits India, closes the case of the two marines]. Libero (in Italian). 29 October 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  13. ^ Francesco Malgeri. "GENTILONI, Vincenzo Ottorino in "Dizionario Biografico"". Treccani. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  14. ^ "Quel ministro rutelliano che era renziano prima ancora del premier". La Stampa (in Italian). 1 November 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  15. ^ "La scalata del conte Gentiloni da figlioccio di Rutelli agli Esteri" [The ascent of Count Gentiloni from a godson of Rutelli to Foreign Affairs]. Il Giornale (in Italian). 1 November 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  16. ^ "Paolo Gentiloni Silveri" (in Italian). 12 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  17. ^ "Gentiloni, premier 'verde' con il pallino delle Comunicazioni" (in Italian). Adnkronos. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  18. ^ "Italian Prime Minister Gentiloni on US-Italy relationship". YouTube. Fox News. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  19. ^ "Italy's Foreign Minister on the refugee crisis - Newsnight". YouTube. BBC Newsnight. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Migrant Crisis: Italian FM Paolo Gentiloni - BBC HARDtalk". YouTube. BBC HARDtalk. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  21. ^ Trocino, Alessandro (13 December 2016). "Gentiloni, Mario Capanna: "Negli anni 70 Paolo era con noi ma neanche mi accorsi di lui"" [Gentiloni, Mario Capanna: "In the 70's Paolo was with us but I didn't even notice him"]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  22. ^ "Paolo Gentiloni - Ultime notizie su Paolo Gentiloni - Argomenti del Sole 24 Ore" [Paolo Gentiloni - Latest news on Paolo Gentiloni - Arguments of the Sole 24 Ore]. Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  23. ^ Fabio Martini (19 November 2017). "Gentiloni torna alle origini e rilancia l'ambientalismo" [Gentiloni returns to the origins and re-launches environmentalism]. La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  24. ^ "Da Gentiloni a Giachetti è l' ora dei Rutelli-boys". la Repubblica (in Italian). 27 September 2000. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  25. ^ "Chi è Paolo Gentiloni, il nuovo Presidente del Consiglio" [Who is Paolo Gentiloni, the new Prime Minister]. Il Post (in Italian). 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  26. ^ Paolo Foschi (27 September 2000). "I sindaci di Roma dal dopoguerra a oggi". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  28. ^ Profilo personale. Archived 31 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b c Paolo Biondi; Roberto Landucci (31 October 2014). "Italy PM picks Paolo Gentiloni as new foreign minister in surprise choice". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  30. ^ Giada Zampano (31 October 2014), Italy’s Prime Minister Names Paolo Gentiloni as Foreign Minister The Wall Street Journal.
  31. ^ "Legge Gasparri, la Ue avvia la procedura d'infrazione". la Repubblica. 19 July 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  32. ^ "Riforma televisiva: le linee guida di Gentiloni". 13 October 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  33. ^ "Il "ddl Gentiloni" di riforma della Rai (1588/2007)". 18 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  34. ^ "Governo, dopo Matteo l'incendiario il pompiere Gentiloni. L'unico nome comune tra Franceschini, Bersani e Renzi". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  35. ^ Musilli, Carlo (8 April 2013). "Primarie Pd, a Roma stravince Marino: secondo Sassoli, terzo Gentiloni" [Primary Pd, Marino wins in Rome: second came Sassoli, then Gentiloni] (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  36. ^ "Risultati Primarie Roma: i risultati in diretta" [Rome Primary: Live Results] (in Italian). 7 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  37. ^ Picardi, Andrea (December 2016). "La carriera di Paolo Gentiloni" [Paolo Gentiloni's career] (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  38. ^ "Gentiloni, ecco chi è Gentiloni. Passato tra la sinistra stalinista. Gentiloni" (in Italian). 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  39. ^ "Gentiloni giura al Quirinale, è il nuovo ministro degli Esteri: "Governo dev'essere all'altezza"" [Gentiloni swears by the Quirinale as the new foreign minister: "Government must be up to the task"]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 31 October 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  40. ^ "Italy "ready to fight" in Libya if needed - foreign minister". Maktoob. Yahoo! News. Reuters. 13 February 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  41. ^ "Terrorismo, radio dello Stato islamico cita Gentiloni: "Ministro dell'Italia crociata"" [Terrorism, Islamic State radio quotes Gentiloni: "Italian Minister of the Crusade"]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  42. ^ "Gentiloni incontra Raul Castro a Cuba". La Stampa. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  43. ^ "ISIS claims responsibility for bomb attack against Italian consulate in Cairo". The Daily Star. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  44. ^ "Islamic State 'behind blast' at Italian consulate in Cairo". BBC News. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  45. ^ Sarah Sirgany (11 July 2015). "1 dead in car bomb blast at Italian Consulate in Egypt". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  46. ^ AFP/PTI (11 July 2015). "Italy not 'intimidated' by Cairo consulate attack: Foreign Minister Paolo Gentiloni". Business Standard India. Retrieved 14 April 2019 – via Business Standard.
  47. ^ "Heads of rival Libyan parliaments meet in Malta, seek more time for unity government". Times of Malta. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  48. ^ Liam Moloney (January 16, 2015), Italy Says Against Paying Ransom for Hostages Wall Street Journal.
  49. ^ "Italian student found dead in Cairo 'killed by violent blow to the head'". The Guardian. 7 February 2016.
  50. ^ "Italy Summons Egyptian Ambassador Over Death of Student in Cairo". The Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2016.
  51. ^ "Cambridge University student Giulio Regeni 'was tortured and suffered burns' in Egypt, claim reports". Cambridge News.
  52. ^ Ahmed Ragab; Mustafa al-Marsafawi (7 March 2016). "Giulio Regeni: Scattered Facts". Jadaliyya. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  53. ^ Greg Botelho; Sarah Sirgany (4 February 2016). "Italian student who went missing in Cairo found battered and dead". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  54. ^ "Suspicion falls on Egypt's security forces after the violent death of a young Italian". The Economist. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  55. ^ "Egypt: Italian's killers may have had criminal or revenge motive". BBC News. 24 February 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  56. ^ "Egypt: Egypt president suggests his political enemies murdered Italian student". The Guardian. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  57. ^ Michelle Nichols (28 June 2016). "Italy, Netherlands propose split U.N. Security Council seat for 2017-18". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  58. ^ "L'ascesa di Paolo Gentiloni, dalla Margherita alla Farnesina" [Paolo Gentiloni's rise: from the Daisy to the Farnesina]. la Repubblica (in Italian). Rome: Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  59. ^ "Il governo Gentiloni ha giurato, ministri confermati tranne Giannini. Alfano agli Esteri. Minniti all'Interno. Boschi sottosegretario". la Repubblica (in Italian). 12 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  60. ^ "Governo Gentiloni, il ministro scelto da Mattarella: "Stessa maggioranza, gli altri non ci stanno". Lunedì la squadra". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  61. ^ "Governo, Denis Verdini si sfila: "No fiducia a governo fotocopia"" [Government, Denis Verdini takes off: "No confidence in government photocopy"]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 12 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  62. ^ Katia Riccardi (13 December 2016). "Governo, Gentiloni ha la fiducia della Camera". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  63. ^ "Governo Gentiloni, fiducia al Senato con 169 "sì". Come Renzi alla "prima" a Palazzo Madama" [Gentiloni government, confidence in the Senate with 169 "yes". Like Renzi at the "premiere" in Palazzo Madama]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 14 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  64. ^ Piera Matteucci (19 July 2017). "Governo, si è dimesso ministro Enrico Costa: "Niente ambiguità"" [Minister Enrico Costa resigned from the government: "No ambiguity"] (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  65. ^ Umberto Rosso (24 March 2018). "Colle, Gentiloni si è dimesso da presidente del Consiglio: "Orgoglioso di aver servito l'Italia, grazie a tutto il governo"". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  66. ^ Dino Martirano (24 March 2018). "Le dimissioni di Gentiloni, le consultazioni al Quirinale: ora che succede?". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  67. ^ Eric J. Lyman (22 May 2018). "Giuseppe Conte: Italy's next PM to form western Europe's first populist government". USA Today. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  68. ^ "Raggiunto l'accordo per un governo M5S-Lega con Conte premier" [Agreement reached for an M5S-League government with Conte as premier]. HuffPost. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  69. ^ "Gentiloni: 'Vaccini obbligatori. Sanzioni per i trasgressori'". Repubblica Tv - la 19 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  70. ^ "Vaccini, approvato il decreto sull'obbligo fin da nidi e materne". la Repubblica (in Italian). 19 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  71. ^ Elena de Stabile (14 December 2017). "Il biotestamento è legge dello Stato: via libera definitivo al Senato con 180 sì". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  72. ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (14 December 2017). "Italy to Allow Living Wills and the Refusal of End-of-Life Care". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  73. ^ "Il biotestamento è legge - Lacrime in Aula - Cos'è". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  74. ^ "Italy approves 'living wills' for end-of-life medical treatment". Financial Times. 14 December 2017. Archived from the original on 11 December 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  75. ^ "Abolizione dei voucher: ecco il decreto legge". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 18 March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  76. ^ Francesca Parodi (21 March 2017). ""La Cgil è contro i voucher perché chi viene pagato così non si iscrive al sindacato"" [The CGIL is against vouchers because those who are paid in this way do not register with the union] (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  77. ^ "Addio ai voucher, Gentiloni: "Sarebbe stato un errore dividere il paese"" (in Italian). 17 March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  78. ^ "Istat, a marzo disoccupazione stabile all'11%. Tra i giovani ai minimi dal 2011" [Istat, the March unemployment is stable at 11%. Among the young at the lowest point since 2011]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 2 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  79. ^ "Italy and Ireland record the lowest unemployment in a decade". 2 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  80. ^ "Italy, Libya reach deal on halting migration ahead of EU summit". Fox News. Associated Press/Fox News. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  81. ^ "Migranti: Alfano, domani accordo Tunisia - Africa" [Migrants: Alfano, Tunisia-Africa agreement tomorrow] (in Italian). Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  82. ^ "Il decreto Minniti-Orlando sull'immigrazione è legge" [The Minniti-Orlando immigration decree is law] (in Italian). 12 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  83. ^ "Migranti, codice Ong: Msf non firma. Minniti: "Chi non sottoscrive regolamento è fuori"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  84. ^ "Minniti says debate on NGO code over". Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  85. ^ Chris York; Paco Anselmi (14 August 2017). "MSF and Sea-Eye Suspend Migrant Rescues In Mediterranean Over Security Fears". HuffPost. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  86. ^ Viveca Knapp (1 August 2017). "Italy's 'code of conduct' for NGOs refused by 6/8 charities". The Italian Insider. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  87. ^ "Il governo manderà soldati italiani in Niger". Il Post. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  88. ^ Paolo Levi (14 December 2017). "Patto Gentiloni-Macron per il Sahel". La Stampa. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  89. ^ "Italy PM plans to shift military forces from Iraq to Niger". Reuters. 24 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  90. ^ "Legge elettorale, il 5 giugno in aula. Il Pd spinge sul Rosatellum, ma i numeri in Senato restano incerti" [Electoral law, June 5 in the courtroom. The Democratic Party pushes on the Rosatellum, but the numbers in the Senate remain uncertain]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 18 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  91. ^ "Legge elettorale, cosa prevede il 'Rosatellum'" [Electoral law, what does the 'Rosatellum' provide]. Adnkronos. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  92. ^ "Arriva il "Rosatellum", Renzi: a giugno la nuova legge elettorale" [The "Rosatellum" arrives, Renzi: a new electoral law in June] (in Italian). 17 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  93. ^ Falci, Giuseppe Alberto (7 October 2017). "Ma come funziona il Rosatellum?". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  94. ^ Emilia Patta (21 September 2017). "Rosatellum 2.0, tutti i rischi del nuovo Patto del Nazareno" [Rosatellum 2.0, all the risks of the new Pact of the Nazarene]. Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  95. ^ "Il patto a quattro Pd-Ap-Lega-Fi regge. Primo ok al Rosatellum, martedì in Aula alla Camera". HuffPost (in Italian). 7 October 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  96. ^ "Così la legge elettorale è diventata una questione di fiducia" [Thus the electoral law has become a matter of trust]. Il Foglio (in Italian). 10 October 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  97. ^ Silvio Buzzanca; Paolo Gallori (12 October 2017). "Rosatellum approvato alla Camera. Evitata la trappola dello scrutinio segreto. Via libera al salva-Verdini". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  98. ^ "Ue, Merkel: "Sì a Europa a due velocità". Gentiloni: "Ci siano diversi livelli di integrazione"" [EU, Merkel: "Yes to multispeed Europe". Gentiloni: "There are different levels of integration"]. Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 6 March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  99. ^ "Migranti e libero mercato, asse tra Gentiloni e Trudeau - La Voce d'Italia". La Voce (in Italian). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  100. ^ "Trump accoglie il premier Gentiloni alla Casa Bianca: "Italia partner chiave contro terrore"" [Trump invited Prime Minister Gentiloni to the White House: "Italy key partner against terror"]. la Repubblica (in Italian). 20 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  101. ^ "USA, Gentiloni incontra Trump alla Casa Bianca" [USA, Gentiloni meets Trump in the White House]. Il Messaggero (in Italian). 20 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  102. ^ "g7-". Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  103. ^ "Eni establishes a long term presence in UAE acquiring a stake in two offshore producing concessions". Eni. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  104. ^ "Gentiloni in Kuwait". 1 May 2017. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017.
  105. ^ Visita di Gentiloni in Arabia Saudita
  106. ^ "Il Presidente Gentiloni in Qatar". 9 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  107. ^ Andrea Carli (31 October 2017). "Conte negli EAU. Nei primi sette mesi 2018 interscambio con l'Italia in calo del 7,6%" [Conte in the UAE. In the first seven months, 2018 trade with Italy down 7.6%]. Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  108. ^ Raffaello Binelli (16 May 2017). "Gentiloni a Pechino per rilanciare la "Via della Seta"" [Gentiloni in Beijing to relaunch the "Silk Road"]. Il Giornale. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  109. ^ Nicoletta Cottone (14 May 2017). "Gentiloni in Cina: "L'Italia può essere protagonista della nuova Via della seta"" [Gentiloni in China: "Italy can be the protagonist of the new Silk Road"]. Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  110. ^ "Gentiloni, Putin e i sei accordi di Sochi" [Gentiloni, Putin and the six Sochi agreements]. Agenzia Giornalistica Italia. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  111. ^ "L'intervento del Presidente Gentiloni in Assemblea Generale Onu" [The speech by President Gentiloni at the UN General Assembly]. YouTube. 20 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  112. ^ "Gentiloni in India". The Times of India. TNN. 29 October 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  113. ^ Gianluca Di Donfrancesco (21 April 2017). "India can become a key market for Italian machinery makers". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  114. ^ Vincenzo Nigro (30 October 2017). "India, il premier Modi riceve Gentiloni: "Ma perché l'Italia blocca gli Hare Krishna?"" [India, Prime Minister Modi receives Gentiloni: "But why does Italy block the Hare Krishna?"]. la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  115. ^ "Paolo Gentiloni in India, vertice con il premier Modi: "Grande opportunità di rilancio"" (in Italian). Rai News24. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  116. ^ "Italy Tries to Make Up for Lost Time in Africa". World Politics Review. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  117. ^ "Gentiloni in Tunisia, collaborazione su Libia e migrant" [Gentiloni in Tunisia, collaboration on Libya and migrants]. ASCA. 25 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  118. ^ "Luanda, Gentiloni incontra il Presidente della Repubblica di Angola" [Luanda, Gentiloni meets the President of the Republic of Angola]. YouTube. 27 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  119. ^ "La visita del presidente Gentiloni in Ghana" [President Gentiloni's visit to Ghana]. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  120. ^ "Il Presidente Gentiloni in Costa d'Avorio per il Vertice Ue–Africa" [President Gentiloni in Ivory Coast for the EU-Africa Summit]. YouTube. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  121. ^ Deborah Ball; Giovanni Legorano (28 December 2017). "Italy's President Calls National Elections, as Country Grapples With Economic Pain". The Wall Street Journal (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  122. ^ "Che poteri ha Gentiloni in "ordinaria amministrazione"" [What powers Gentiloni has in "ordinary administration"]. HuffPost (in Italian). 28 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  123. ^ "Elezioni 4 Marzo 2018: "Gentiloni candidato Premier del Pd". Lo vuole il Colle" (in Italian). 14 January 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  124. ^ "Elezioni, Prodi sceglie Insieme e investe Gentiloni: "Con lui Paese è più forte"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 17 February 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  125. ^ "Renzi: "Schiero la squadra migliore: Gentiloni e tutti i ministri nei collegi"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 17 January 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  126. ^ "Gentiloni a Renzi: "Il Pd ha tanti candidati premier". Sul M5S: "Surreale un governo ombra ora"". La Stampa (in Italian). 27 February 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  127. ^ Piera Matteucchi (4 March 2018). "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  128. ^ Alessandro Sala (4 March 2018). "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  129. ^ "Gentiloni a Salvini: "Oggi i rom, domani pistole per tutti"" [Gentiloni to Salvini: «Today the Roma, tomorrow guns for everyone»]. Il Messaggero (in Italian). 18 June 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  130. ^ "Gentiloni risponde a Salvini: "Ieri i rifugiati, oggi i rom, domani pistole per tutti". E con lui vanno giù duri Orfini, Camusso, Martina e tutta la sinistra". HuffPost (in Italian). 18 June 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  131. ^ "Costruirò una alleanza per l'alternativa: ora dobbiamo cambiare tutte le face". HuffPost. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  132. ^ "Pd, Gentiloni appoggia Zingaretti alla segreteria: "Coraggioso, è la maggiore novità"". la Repubblica. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  133. ^ "Pd, Zingaretti: "C'è un'alternativa all'odio". Gentiloni: "Con questo governo in fumo anni di fatica degli italiani"". la Repubblica. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  134. ^ "Pd, Zingaretti proclamato segretario. Gentiloni eletto president" [Pd, Zingaretti proclaimed secretary. Gentiloni elected president]. (in Italian). 17 March 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  135. ^ Horowitz, Jason (20 August 2019). "Italy's Government Collapses, Turning Chaos Into Crisis". The New York Times.
  136. ^ Giuffrida, Angela (20 August 2019). "Italian PM resigns with attack on 'opportunist' Salvini". The Guardian – via
  137. ^ "Governo, Zingaretti: "I 5 punti per trattare con il M5S. No accordicchi, governo di svolta"". 21 August 2019.
  138. ^ "Il Presidente Mattarella ha conferito l'incarico al Prof. Conte di formare il Governo". Quirinale (in Italian). Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  139. ^ "Il giorno di Gentiloni, i ruoli Ue in mano al Partito democratico". Il Fatto Quotidiano.
  140. ^ "Commissioners-designate". European Commission. 10 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  141. ^ EP approves Gentiloni nomination
  142. ^ Ue, Gentiloni lascia scranno Camera. Collegio Roma Centro al voto in primavera
  143. ^ XVIII Legislatura – Deputati e Organi – Scheda deputato: Gentiloni Silveri Paolo
  144. ^ Gentiloni va in Ue e si dimette da deputato, l’ultimo saluto alla Camera: “Sarò patriota”
  145. ^ Ue: Gentiloni, crescita sia sostenibile
  146. ^ Laura Kayali, Paola Tamma and Hans von der Burchard (April 9, 2020), France’s freewheeling Thierry Breton rises to the crisis Politico Europe.
  147. ^ Special European Council, 17–21 July 2020 – Main results Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  148. ^ Raffaele Reina. "Paolo Gentiloni e il futuro dei cattolici in politica" [Paolo Gentiloni and the future of Catholics in politics] (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  149. ^ "Paolo Gentiloni, il grande mediatore" [The great mediator, Paolo Gentiloni]. Famiglia Cristiana. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  150. ^ "Unioni civili, pressing su Renzi, ma governo va avanti. Martedì primo scoglio sulle pregiudiziali". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). 31 January 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  151. ^ "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento" (in Italian). Normattiva. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  152. ^ "Biotestamento. Favorevole o contrario?" [Bioessey. Favorable or contrary?]. (in Italian). 19 February 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  153. ^ "Renzi in Senegal torna sulla questione migranti: "Non rinunciamo a salvare vite in mare"" [Renzi in Senegal answers question regarding migrants: "We will not give up saving lives at sea"]. Rai News24. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  154. ^ ""Aiutiamoli a casa loro": polemica sui social per la frase di Renzi" ["Help them at home": Controversy on social media regarding Renzi's phrase]. La Stampa. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  155. ^ ""Che cosa dicono gli amici su di lui": il segreto (svelato) di Marco Minniti" ["What friends say about him": The (unveiled) secret about Marco Minniti]. Libero. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  156. ^ "Roberto Saviano durissimo sul decreto Minniti: "Se avete rispetto per l'uomo, scappate dal Pd"" [Roberto Saviano very tough on the Minniti decree: "If you have respect for man, run away from the Democratic Party"]. HuffPost (in Italian). 17 March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  157. ^ "Gad Lerner lascia il Partito Democratico, contestando la sua linea sui migranti - Il Post". Il Post. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  158. ^ Marco Damilano (30 January 2017). "Homo Gentilonianus, così Paolo Gentiloni è diventato l'alternativa al renzismo". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  159. ^ "Zingaretti, Renzi e Gentiloni come D'Alema, Rutelli e Prodi: ci può stare". 28 December 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  160. ^ "Elezioni 2018 sondaggi: Renzi superato da Grasso. La Classifica dei Leader" (in Italian). 19 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  161. ^ "Gentiloni sempre n.1 in sondaggio Ixé su fiducia leader, ma Di Maio..." [Gentiloni always n.1 in Ixé survey on trust leader, but Di Maio...]. Reuters (in Italian). 1 November 2017. Archived from the original on 1 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  162. ^ "L'Italia di Gentiloni e quella di Salvini: lo strano derby del gradimento" [Gentiloni's and Salvini's Italy: The strange derby of appreciation]. la Repubblica. 29 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  163. ^ "Italian PM Gentiloni's heart procedure completely successful: doctors". Reuters. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  164. ^ Giada Zampano (11 January 2017). "Italy's New Prime Minister in Intensive Care After Emergency Heart Procedure". Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  165. ^ "Gentiloni : "Grazie dell'affetto, sto bene e presto torno al lavoro"" [Gentiloni: "Thanks for the affection, I'm fine and soon I'm going back to work"] (in Italian). 11 January 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Communications
Succeeded by
Claudio Scajola
as Minister of Economic Development
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Italy
Succeeded by
Preceded by Italian European Commissioner
Preceded by European Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs
Party political offices
Preceded by President of the Democratic Party
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by Chair of the Group of Seven
Succeeded by