Papa Was a Rollin' Stone

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"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone"
Papa Was a Rollin' Stone by The Undisputed Truth US vinyl.png
Side-A label of US single of The Undisputed Truth recording
Single by the Undisputed Truth
from the album Law of the Land
ReleasedMay 9, 1972
LabelMotown
Songwriter(s)Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong
Producer(s)Norman Whitfield
"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone"
Papa Was a Rollin' Stone by The Temptations US vinyl.jpg
Side-A label of the US single of The Temptations recording
Single by the Temptations
from the album All Directions
ReleasedSeptember 28, 1972
RecordedMay 15, June 14, June 22 and 28, 1972
StudioDetroit, Michigan, Hitsville USA (Studio A)
GenrePsychedelic soul,[1][2] funk[3]
Length
[4]
LabelGordy G 7121
Songwriter(s)
Producer(s)Norman Whitfield
The Temptations singles chronology
"Mother Nature"
(1972)
"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone"
(1972)
"Masterpiece"
(1973)
Official audio
"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone (album mix)" on YouTube
"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone (Remix 1987)"
Papa Was a Rollin' Stone Remix 1987 by The Temptations.jpg
Single by the Temptations
Released1987
GenreSoul
LabelMotown
Songwriter(s)

"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" is a song originally performed by Motown recording act The Undisputed Truth in 1972, though it became much better known after a Grammy-award winning cover by The Temptations was issued later the same year. This latter version of the song became a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100.

"Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" was written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong in 1971. Whitfield produced the original Undisputed Truth version, which was released as a single in May 1972. This version of the song peaked at number 63 on the Pop Charts and number 24 on the R&B Charts. The song was included on the Undisputed Truth's album Law of the Land (1973).

Later in 1972, Whitfield cut a different version of the song, turning it into a 12-minute track for the Temptations. This version was included on their 1972 album All Directions. The edited 7" single release of this Temptations track was issued in September 1972, and this version was a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 and won three Grammy Awards in 1973. While the original Undisputed Truth version of the song has been largely forgotten, the Temptations' version of the song has been regarded as an enduring and influential soul classic. The full-length album version was ranked number 169 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, one of the group's three songs on the list. In retrospect, the Temptations' Otis Williams considers "Papa" to be the last real classic the group recorded (it would be the Temptations' last number one hit and would win them their second and final Grammy Award in a competitive category).

Overview[edit]

Beginning with an extended instrumental introduction (3:53 in length), each of the song's three verses is separated by extended musical passages, in which Whitfield brings various instrumental textures in and out of the mix. A solo plucked bass guitar part, backed by hi-hat cymbals drumming, establishes the musical theme, a simple three-note figure; the bass is gradually joined by other instruments, including a blues guitar, wah-wah guitar, electric piano, handclaps, strings and solo trumpet; all are tied together by the ever-present bass guitar line and repeating hi-hat rhythm.

While the official album version of the song is approximately 11:45, there are certain versions that extend the fade-out further, concluding with several sequential drum fills, pushing the length of the song over the 12-minute mark.[4] This version is featured on The Temptations' Psychedelic Soul compilation.[5]

Vocal duties are performed in a true ensemble style: Temptations singers Dennis Edwards, Melvin Franklin, Richard Street (who was a frequent fill-in for Paul Williams and his eventual replacement) and Damon Harris (who had replaced Eddie Kendricks as the group's falsetto singer the previous year) alternate vocal lines, taking the role of siblings questioning their mother about their now-dead father; their increasingly pointed questions, and the mother's repeated response ("Papa was a rollin' stone/wherever he laid his hat was his home/and when he died, all he left us was alone") paint a somber picture for the children who have never seen their father and have "never heard nothing but bad things about him."

Friction arose during the recording of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" for a number of reasons. The Temptations did not like the fact that Whitfield's instrumentation had been getting more emphasis than their vocals on their songs at the time, and that they had to press Whitfield to get him to produce ballads for the group. Whitfield forced Edwards to re-record his parts dozens of times until he finally got the angered, bitter grumble he desired out of the usually fiery-toned Edwards.[6] Whitfield's treatment of the group eventually led to his dismissal as their producer.[6] Legend has it that Edwards was angered by the song's first verse: "It was the third of September/That day I'll always remember/'cause that was the day/that my daddy died", as his father was said to have died on that date. It actually was on the third of October, however.[6]

The solo trumpet part in the introduction was played by Funk Brothers member Maurice Davis; guitar parts were played by fellow member Melvin "Wah-Wah Watson" Ragin[7] and a young Paul Warren.[8] The Temptations' version of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" followed in the extended-length "cinematic soul" tradition of the work of Isaac Hayes and others, and future songs like Donna Summer's 14-minute "Love to Love You Baby" and the instrumentals of MFSB expanded upon the concept in the mid-1970s.

Release and awards[edit]

A seven-minute edited version of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" was released as a single in September 1972. For this mix, congas were added to bolster the song's sparse percussion; this version appeared on the 1973 Anthology triple LP. The Temptations' box set Emperors of Soul has the edited version in stereo, but without the congas. The B-side was the instrumental backing by the Funk Brothers without the Temptations' vocals (though Damon Harris' final chorus is included after a single "Unngh!" at the end of the second verse), this version appears on the Funk Brothers' 2003 compilation 20th Century Masters: The Millennium Collection. "Papa" rose to number one on the U.S. pop charts and number five on the U.S. R&B charts, becoming the Temptations' final pop number-one hit. The song, the anchor of the 1972 Temptations album All Directions, won three 1973 Grammys: its A-side won for Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group; its B-side won for Best R&B Instrumental (awarded to Whitfield and arranger/conductor Paul Riser); and Whitfield and Barrett Strong won for Best R&B Song as the song's composers.

Notable covers and remixes[edit]

Charts[edit]

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/sales
United Kingdom (BPI)[39] Silver 200,000double-dagger
United States (RIAA)[40] Platinum 1,000,000^

^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.
double-dagger Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Personnel[edit]

Undisputed Truth version[edit]

  • Lead and background vocals by Joe Harris, Billie Rae Calvin, and Brenda Joyce

Temptations version[edit]

Sample[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dimery, Robert (2011). Hachette UK (ed.). 1001 Songs: You Must Hear Before You Die. "this seven-minute single (a U.S. No. 1) and its near-twelve-minute album version remain the apex of the psychedelic soul era."
  2. ^ Clifford, Tyler. "Local legendary Motown Sound trumpeter Maurice Davis dies at the age of 71". Wxyz.com. The E.W. Scripps Co. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2013. Maurice Davis was involved in producer Norman Whitfield's transition of the Motown Sound into a psychedelic soul label. Whitfield placed much emphasize [sic] on instrumentation over vocals, which allowed Davis and the Funk Brothers to shine. The Temptations were a major element in this endeavor, including the production of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone.
  3. ^ "100 Greatest Funk Songs". Digital Dream Door. August 7, 2008. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
  4. ^ a b The Temptations - Papa Was a Rollin' Stone (Vinyl) (full version) @YouTube.com Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  5. ^ Psychedelic Soul - The Temptations @AllMusic.com Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Ribowsky, Mark (2010). Ain't Too Proud to Beg: The Troubled Lives and Enduring Soul of the Temptations. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-26117-0. p. 232
  7. ^ "A brief history of Wah Wah Watson". Wah Wah Watson Music. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  8. ^ "About". The Paul Warren Project. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  9. ^ "Bill Wolfer | Credits". AllMusic.
  10. ^ "Wolf - Bill Wolfer | Songs, Reviews, Credits | AllMusic" – via www.allmusic.com.
  11. ^ "Music: Top 100 Songs | Billboard Hot 100 Chart". Billboard.com. January 15, 1983. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  12. ^ Halstead, Craig; Chris Cadman (2003). Michael Jackson: The Solo Years. Authors OnLine. ISBN 075520091-8.
  13. ^ a b "1990 Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive - 9th June 1990". Official Charts Company. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  14. ^ "George Michael - Killer/Papa Was A Rolling Stone (Official Video)" – via www.youtube.com.
  15. ^ "George Michael – Killer / Papa Was A Rollin' Stone (1993, CD)" – via www.discogs.com.
  16. ^ "Migos Sample The Temptations' "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" For "Avalanche"". Genius. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  17. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970-1992. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  18. ^ "The Temptations – Papa Was A Rollin' Stone" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50.
  19. ^ "Top RPM Singles: Issue 4234." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  20. ^ "Papa was a rollin' stone in French Chart". Dominic DURAND / InfoDisc. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013. You have to use the index at the top of the page and search "Temptations"
  21. ^ "The Temptations – Papa Was A Rollin' Stone" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. To see peak chart position, click "TITEL VON The Temptations"
  22. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – The Temptations" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
  23. ^ "The Temptations – Papa Was A Rollin' Stone" (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
  24. ^ Flavour of New Zealand, 12 February 1973
  25. ^ Samson, John. "Papa was a rollin' stone in South African Chart". Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  26. ^ a b "Temptations: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  27. ^ "The Temptations Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  28. ^ "The Temptations Chart History (Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  29. ^ "50 Back Catalogue Singles – 7 February 2009". Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  30. ^ "Was (Not Was) – Papa Was A Rolling Stone" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
  31. ^ "Was (Not Was) – Papa Was A Rolling Stone" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50.
  32. ^ "Papa was a rolling stone in Canadian Top Singles Chart" (PDF). Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  33. ^ "Papa was a rolling stone in Irish Chart". IRMA. Retrieved June 16, 2013. Only one result when searching "Papa was a rolling stone"
  34. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Was Not Was" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
  35. ^ "Was (Not Was) – Papa Was A Rolling Stone" (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
  36. ^ "Was (Not Was) – Papa Was A Rolling Stone". Top 40 Singles.
  37. ^ "Was (Not Was) – Papa Was A Rolling Stone". Swiss Singles Chart.
  38. ^ a b c "Are You Okay? awards on AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  39. ^ "British single certifications – Temptations – Papa Was a Rollin' Stone". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  40. ^ "American single certifications – The Temptations – Papa Was a Rollin' Stone". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved August 20, 2021.

External links[edit]