Later that year, Whitfield, who also produced the song, took "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" and remade it as a 12-minute record for The Temptations, which was a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 and won three Grammy Awards in 1973. While the original Undisputed Truth version of the song has been largely forgotten, The Temptations' version of the song has been an enduring and influential soul classic. It was ranked number 168 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, one of the group's three songs on the list. In retrospect, The Temptations' Otis Williams considers "Papa" to be the last real classic the group recorded (it would be the Temptations' last number one hit and would win them their second and final Grammy Award in a competitive category).
Beginning with an extended instrumental introduction (3:53 in length), each of the song's three verses is separated by extended musical passages, in which Whitfield brings various instrumental textures in and out of the mix. A solo plucked bass guitar part, backed by hi-hat cymbals drumming, establishes the musical theme, a simple three-note figure; the bass is gradually joined by other instruments, including a bluesguitar, wah-wah guitar, Wurlitzer electric piano, handclaps, horns, and strings; all are tied together by the ever-present bass guitar line and repeating hi-hat rhythm. An unusual characteristic about this song is that it uses only one chord throughout — B-flat minor.
Vocal duties are performed in a true ensemble style: Temptations singers Dennis Edwards, Melvin Franklin, Richard Street (who was a frequent fill-in for Paul Williams and his eventual replacement) and Damon Harris (who had replaced Eddie Kendricks as the group's falsetto singer the previous year) alternate vocal lines, taking the role of siblings questioning their mother about their now-dead father; their increasingly pointed questions, and the mother's repeated response ("Papa was a rollin' stone/wherever he laid his hat was his home/and when he died, all he left us was alone") paint a somber picture for the children who have never seen their father and have "never heard nothing but bad things about him."
Friction arose during the recording of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" for a number of reasons. The Temptations did not like the fact that Whitfield's instrumentation had been getting more emphasis than their vocals on their songs at the time, and that they had to press Whitfield to get him to produce ballads for the group. Norman Whitfield forced Dennis Edwards to re-record his parts dozens of times until he finally got the angered, bitter grumble he desired out of the usually fiery-toned Edwards. Whitfield's treatment of the group eventually led to his dismissal as their producer. Legend has it that Edwards was angered by the song's first verse: "It was the third of September/That day I'll always remember/'cause that was the day/that my daddy died", as his father was said to have died on that date. It actually was on the third of October, however. 
A seven-minute edited version of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" was released as a single in September 1972. For this mix, congas were added to bolster the song's sparse percussion; this version appeared on the 1973 Anthology triple LP. The Temptations' box set Emperors of Soul has the edited version in stereo, but without the congas. The B-side was the instrumental backing by The Funk Brothers without the Temptations' vocals (except for a single "Unngh!" at the end of the second verse). "Papa" rose to number one on the U.S. pop charts and number five on the U.S. R&B charts, becoming the Temptations' final pop number-one hit. The song, the anchor of the 1972 Temptations album All Directions, won three 1973 Grammys: its a-side won for Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group; its B-side won for Best R&B Instrumental (awarded to Whitfield and arranger/conductor Paul Riser); and Whitfield and Barrett Strong won for Best R&B Song as the song's composers.
In the "Battle of the Groups" segment of the TV special Motown Returns to the Apollo in 1985 the Four Tops sang the coda, much to the (feigned) outrage of the Temptations. Levi Stubbs, leader of the Tops, responded, "I know this is your song, Temps, but get on out the way because we're going to sing it. So get on out the way". As soon as they finished, the Temptations responded by singing the Tops' hit, "Baby I Need Your Loving".
The rap group Run-DMC re-worked and sampled "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" for their song "Papa Crazy", off their 1988 album Tougher Than Leather.
David Lindley and his band El Rayo-X covered the song on their 1988 album Very Greasy.
The song was parodied by comedian Bob Rivers in 1994 on Twisted Tunes: 1994 The Year in Review as "Grandpa Loved the Rolling Stones".
The song was covered by Los Lobos in 1999 on DET Live! Vol. 1 Exclusive Live Performances from the Studios of WDET-FM.
^Dimery, Robert (2011). Hachette UK, ed. 1001 Songs: You Must Hear Before You Die. "this seven-minute single (a U.S. No. 1) and its near-twelve-minute album version remain the apex of the psychedelic soul era."
^Clifford, Tyler. "Local legendary Motown Sound trumpeter Maurice Davis dies at the age of 71". Wxyz.com. The E.W. Scripps Co. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013. "Maurice Davis was involved in producer Norman Whitfield's transition of the Motown Sound into a psychedelic soul label. Whitfield placed much emphasize on instrumentation over vocals, which allowed Davis and the Funk Brothers to shine. The Temptations were a major element in this endeavor, including the production of "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone.""
^ abcRibowsky, Mark (2010). Ain't Too Proud to Beg: The Troubled Lives and Enduring Soul of the Temptations. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN978-0-470-26117-0. p. 232
^"About". The Paul Warren Project. Retrieved 2016-10-07.