Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo
The Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo, or the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo from its Italian name Palazzo Apostolico di Castel Gandolfo, is a 17th-century 135-acre papal palace in the city of Castel Gandolfo, Italy. A museum since October 2016, it had served for centuries as a summer residence and vacation retreat for the pope, the leader of the Catholic Church, and as such was afforded extraterritorial status as one of the properties of the Holy See.
"The oldest parts of the castle date back to the 13th century," said Saverio Petrillo, whose title is director of the Papal villas. "It was acquired by the Vatican in 1596 when the Savelli family, who owned it, were unable to pay a debt to the Papacy."
The gardens occupy the site of a residence of the Roman Emperor Domitian. The palace was designed by Swiss-Italian architect Carlo Maderno for Pope Urban VIII. Popes have used the properties as a summer residence and vacation retreat, except for the years between 1870 and 1929 when the popes, in dispute with Italy over territorial claims, did not leave Vatican City. Pope Pius XI had the facilities modernized and began using the retreat again in 1934. In accordance with the Lateran Treaty of 1929, the palace and the adjoining Villa Barberini added to the complex by Pope Pius XI are extraterritorial properties of the Holy See.
During World War II, an unknown number of Jewish refugees took shelter at the palace under the protection of the Holy See and many people used the site as a refuge from Allied bombing raids in 1944, though more than 500 people died in one such attack.
On 23 March 2013, Pope Francis visited Benedict XVI at the palace for lunch. On 7 December 2013, Pope Francis named Osvaldo Gianoli as the Director of the Pontifical Villas of Castel Gandolfo. In March 2014, the Vatican opened the Barberini Gardens to paid visitors on guided tours during morning hours every day but Sunday.
On 21 October 2016, it was opened to the public for viewing. When asked by Reuters journalist Philip Pullella if the building would once again become a papal apartment, Castel Gandolfo mayor Milvia Monachesi stated that "the fact that the palace is now a museum will make a reversal in the future difficult."
Pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929, the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo is Italian territory, but owned by the Holy See and equipped with extraterritoriality comparable to that of diplomatic missions: It is exempt from Italian taxes and expropriations, and Italian authorities are prohibited from entering it without the consent of the Holy See..
- Pullella, Philip (2016-10-21). "Papal summer residence, shunned by Francis, opened to public". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- "A rare glimpse inside the remote retreat Pope Benedict XVI is soon to call home".
- Johnson, Alan (23 March 2013). "Pope Francis visits Benedict XVI at Castel Gandolfo". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Schlott, René (28 February 2013). "Castel Gandolfo: The Colorful History of the Pope's Summer Home". Spiegel International. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Cortesi, Arnaldo (9 October 1958). "Pontiff 19 Years" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Tanner, Henry (7 August 1978). "Election to be Held" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Castel Gandolfo: The Colorful History of the Pope's Summer Home". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- Donadio, Rachel (28 February 2013). "Discord Remains at Vatican as Pope Benedict Departs". New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (2 May 2013). "With Benedict's Return, Vatican Experiment Begins". New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Nomina del Direttore delle Ville Pontificie di Castelgandolfo". Vatican Press Office. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Bergoglio opens Castel Gandolfo gardens to the public". Vatican Insider. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Pope gives up another indulgence: His summer palace | Religion News Service". Religionnews.com. 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- "The Popes Summer Residence Opens to the Public". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- Lateran Treaty, Article 15 and annex II.
- Petrillo, Saverio (1995). I papi a Castel Gandolfo. Velletri: Edizioni Tra 8 & 9. OCLC 34817188.
- Graziano, Nisio (2008). Dalla leggendaria Alba Longa a Castel Gandolfo, Castel Gandolfo: Il Vecchio Focolare.