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A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a new Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope. The pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church. The conclave has been the procedure for choosing the pope for almost a thousand years, and is the oldest ongoing method for choosing the leader of an institution.
A history of political interference in papal selection and consequently long vacancies between popes, culminating in the interregnum of 1268–1271, prompted Pope Gregory X to decree during the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 that the cardinal electors should be locked in seclusion cum clave (Latin for "with a key") and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome had been elected. Conclaves are now held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace.
Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy and laity of the diocese. The body of electors was more precisely defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since then, other details of the process have developed. In 1970, Pope Paul VI limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age. The current[update] procedures were established by Pope John Paul II in his apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis as amended by motu proprios of Pope Benedict XVI dated 11 June 2007 and 25 February 2013. A two-thirds supermajority vote is required to elect the new pope, which also requires acceptance from the person elected.
- 1 Historical development
- 2 Modern practice
- 3 Historical voting patterns
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 Direct citations
- 7 References
- 8 External links
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The procedures relating to the election of the pope have undergone almost two millennia of development. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 with the promulgation of Ubi periculum by Gregory X, based on the action of the magistrates of Viterbo during the interregnum of 1268–1271.
As the Christian communities became established they started to elect bishops, chosen by the clergy and laity of the community with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses. St. Cyprian says that Pope Cornelius was chosen Bishop of Rome "by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of nearly all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops [sacerdotum], and of good men." As was true for bishops of other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by general consensus or by acclamation. The candidate would then be submitted to the people for their general approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures occasionally gave rise to rival popes or antipopes.
The right of the laity to refuse the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, but restored to Roman noblemen by Pope Nicholas I during a Synod of Rome in 862. The pope was also subjected to oaths of loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor, whose task it was to provide security and public peace in Rome. A major change was introduced in 1059, when Pope Nicholas II decreed in In Nomine Domini that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity. The cardinal bishops were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons for the actual vote. The Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 removed the requirement that the assent of the lower clergy and the laity be obtained, while the Third Council of the Lateran in 1179 gave equal rights to the entire College of Cardinals when electing a new pope.
Through much of the Middle Ages and Renaissance there were a small number of cardinals, down to as few as seven under either Pope Alexander IV or Pope John XXI. Difficult travel further reduced the number arriving at the conclave. With a small electorate an individual vote was significant, and was not easily shaken from familial or political lines. Conclaves could last months and even years. In addition to the decree in 1274 that the electors should be locked in seclusion, Gregory X also limited each cardinal elector to two servants, and rationed their food progressively on the fourth and ninth days should they fail to elect a new pope. The strict rules of the conclave were disliked by the cardinals and temporarily suspended by Pope Adrian V in 1276 before being formally revoked by John XXI's Licet felicis recordationis later that same year, both of whom had intended to promulgate new constitution governing papal election but died before doing so. Lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when a Benedictine hermit was elected Pope Celestine V. Celestine reinstated the strict conclave, but soon resigned the papacy. Long interregna occurred after the reinstatement of the conclave: in 1314–1316 during the Avignon Papacy, where the original conclave were dispersed by besieging mercenaries and not reconvened until almost two years had passed; and in 1415–1417, as a result of the Western Schism.
In 1587, Pope Sixtus V limited the maximum number of cardinals to 70, following the precedent of Moses who was assisted by 70 elders in governing the Children of Israel: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. Beginning with Pope John XXIII's attempts to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, that number has increased. In 1970, Paul VI decreed that cardinals upon reaching the age of eighty before a conclave start were ineligible to vote in the conclave, and also increased the limit of active cardinal electors to 120. Though this remains the theoretical limit, John Paul II exceeded this for short periods of time with knowledge of impending retirements. John Paul II also specified that cardinals who are under eighty before the day the Holy See becomes vacant would still be entitled to vote even if they had turned eighty by the time the conclave starts.
Choice of electors
Originally, lay status did not bar election to the Bishop of Rome. Bishops of dioceses were sometimes elected while still catechumens, such as the case of St. Ambrose. In the wake of the violent dispute over the election of Antipope Constantine II, Pope Stephen III held the synod of 769 which decreed that only a cardinal priest or cardinal deacon could be elected specifically excluding those that are already bishops. This was however deviated from as early as 817 and fully ignored from 882 with the election of Pope Marinus I, the Bishop of Caere. Nicholas II, in the synod of 1059, formally codified existing practice by decreeing that preference was to be given to the clergy of Rome, but leaving the cardinal bishops free to select a cleric from elsewhere if they so decided. These restrictions on eligibility were rescinded by the Council of 1179.
Pope Urban VI in 1378 was the last pope elected from outside the College of Cardinals. The last person elected as pope who was not already an ordained priest or deacon was Pope Leo X in 1513. His successor, Pope Adrian VI, was the last to be elected in absentia. It has been reported that Archbishop Giovanni Montini of Milan received several votes in the 1958 conclave though not yet a cardinal. As the Catholic Church holds that women cannot be validly ordained, women are not eligible for the papacy.[a] Though the pope is the Bishop of Rome, he need not be of Italian background. As of 2016, the three most recent conclaves have elected a Pole, a German, and an Argentinian.
A simple majority vote sufficed for election until 1179, when the Third Council of the Lateran increased the required majority to two-thirds. As cardinals were not allowed to vote for themselves (after 1621), an elaborate procedure was adopted to ensure secrecy while at the same time preventing self voting.[b] In 1945, Pope Pius XII removed the prohibition on a cardinal voting for himself by increasing the requisite majority to two-thirds plus one at all times. This change was immediately overturned by his successor John XXIII who reinstated the two-thirds majority if the number of cardinal electors voting is divisible by three, with a rounding up to two-thirds plus one otherwise.[c] Pius XII's rule was reinstated by Paul VI thirteen years later, but overturned again by John Paul II. In 1996, John Paul II's constitution allowed election by absolute majority if deadlock prevailed after thirty-three or thirty-four ballots. Thirty-four ballots if a ballot was held on the first afternoon of the conclave. In 2007 Benedict XVI rescinded John Paul II's change, which had been criticised as effectively abolishing the two-thirds majority requirement, as any majority would suffice to block the election until a simple majority was enough to elect the next pope, reaffirming the requirement of a two-thirds majority.
Electors formerly made choices by accessus, acclamation (per inspirationem), adoration, compromise (per compromissum) or scrutiny (per scrutinium). With acclamation, the cardinals would unanimously declare the new pope quasi afflati Spiritu Sancto (as if inspired by the Holy Spirit). If this took place before any formal ballot has taken place, the method was called adoration, but this method was excluded in 1621 by Pope Gregory XV. To elect by compromise, a deadlocked College would unanimously delegate the election to a committee of cardinals whose choice they all agree to abide by. Scrutiny is election via the casting of secret ballots. Accessus was a method for cardinals to change their most recent vote to accede to another candidate in an attempt to reach the requisite two-thirds majority and end the conclave. This method was first disallowed by the Cardinal Dean at the 1903 conclave. The last election by compromise is considered to be that of Pope John XXII in 1316, and the last election by acclamation that of Pope Innocent XI in the 1676 conclave. The long unused methods of acclamation and compromise were formally abolished in Universi Dominici gregis. Scrutiny is now the only approved method for the election of a new pope.
For a significant part of its history, the Church was influenced in the choice of its leaders by powerful monarchs and governments. For example, the Roman emperors once held considerable sway in the elections of popes. In 418, Honorius settled a controversial election, upholding Pope Boniface I over the challenger Antipope Eulalius. On the request of Boniface I, Honorius ordered that in future cases, any disputed election would be settled by a fresh election. After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, influence passed to the Ostrogothic Kings of Italy and in 533, Pope John II formally recognised the right of the Ostrogothic monarchs to ratify elections. By 537, the Ostrogothic monarchy had been overthrown, and power passed to the Byzantine emperors. A procedure was adopted whereby officials were required to notify the Exarch of Ravenna upon the death of a pope before proceeding with the election. Once the electors arrived at a choice, they were required to send a delegation to Constantinople requesting the emperor's consent, which was necessary before the individual elected could take office. Lengthy delays were caused by the journey to and from Constantinople. When Pope Benedict II complained about them, Emperor Constantine IV acquiesced, ending the requirement that elections be confirmed by emperors. Thereafter, the Emperor was only required to be notified. The last pope to notify the Byzantine emperors was Pope Zachary in 741.
In the 9th century, the Holy Roman Empire came to exert control over the elections of popes. While Charlemagne and Louis the Pious did not interfere with the Church, Lothair I claimed that an election could only be conducted in the presence of imperial ambassadors. In 898, riots forced Pope John IX to recognise the superintendence of the Holy Roman Emperor. At the same time, the Roman nobility also continued to exert a great influence, especially during the tenth century period known as saeculum obscurum (Latin for "the dark age").
In 1059, the same papal bull that restricted suffrage to the cardinals also recognised the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, at the time Henry IV, but only as a concession made by the pope, declaring that the Holy Roman Emperor had no authority to intervene in elections except where permitted to do so by papal agreements. Pope Gregory VII was the last to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors. The breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire caused by the Investiture Controversy led to the abolition of the Emperor's role. In 1122, the Holy Roman Empire acceded to the Concordat of Worms, accepting the papal decision.
From about 1600, certain Catholic monarchs claimed a jus exclusivae (right of exclusion), i.e. a veto over papal elections, exercised through a crown-cardinal. By an informal convention, each state claiming the veto was allowed to exercise the right once per conclave. Therefore, a crown-cardinal did not announce the veto until the very last moment when the candidate in question seemed likely to get elected. This was however not strictly enforced, as Francis II through František de Paula Hrzán z Harasova is known to have exercised the veto twice at the 1799–1800 conclave. No vetoes could be employed after an election. After the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, its veto power devolved upon the Austrian Empire. The last exercise of the veto was in 1903, when Prince Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko informed the College of Cardinals that Austria opposed the election of Mariano Rampolla. Consequently, the College elected Giuseppe Sarto as Pope Pius X, who issued the papal bull Commissum nobis six months later declaring that any cardinal who communicated his government's veto in the future would suffer excommunication latae sententiae.
To resolve prolonged deadlocks in the earlier years of papal elections, local authorities often resorted to the forced seclusion of the cardinal electors, such as that first adopted by the city of Rome in 1241, and possibly before that by Perugia in 1216. In 1269, when the forced seclusion of the cardinals alone failed to produce a pope, the city of Viterbo refused to send in any materials except bread and water. When even this failed to produce a result, the townspeople removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi in their attempt to speed up the election.
In an attempt to avoid future lengthy elections, Gregory X introduced stringent rules with the promulgation of Ubi periculum. Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area and not accorded individual rooms. No cardinal was allowed, unless ill, to be attended by more than two servants. Food was supplied through a window to avoid outside contact.[d] After three days of the conclave, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after another five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue.
Gregory X's strict regulations were abolished in 1276 by Adrian V, but Celestine V, elected in 1294 following a two-year vacancy, restored them. In 1562, Pius IV issued a papal bull that introduced regulations relating to the enclosure of the conclave and other procedures. Gregory XV issued two bulls that covered the most minute of details relating to the election; the first, in 1621, concerned electoral processes, while the other, in 1622, fixed the ceremonies to be observed. In 1904, Pope Pius X issued a constitution consolidating almost all the previous rules, making some changes. Several reforms were also instituted by John Paul II in 1996.
The location of the conclaves was not fixed until the fourteenth century. Since the Western Schism, however, elections have always been held in Rome (except in 1800, when French troops occupying Rome forced the election to be held in Venice), and normally in what, since the Lateran Treaties of 1929, has become the independent Vatican City State. Since 1846, when the Quirinal Palace was used, the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican has always served as the location of the election. Popes have often fine-tuned the rules for the election of their successors: Pope Pius XII's Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis of 1945 governed the conclave of 1958, Pope John XXIII's Summi Pontificis Electio of 1962 that of 1963, Pope Paul VI's Romano Pontifici Eligendo of 1975 those of 1978, and John Paul II's Universi Dominici Gregis of 1996 that of 2005. Benedict XVI's De Aliquibus Mutationibus of 2007 governed that of 2013.
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In 1996, John Paul II promulgated a new Apostolic Constitution, called Universi Dominici gregis, which with a slight modification by Pope Benedict XVI now governs the election of the pope, abolishing all previous constitutions on the matter, but preserving many procedures that date to much earlier times.
Several duties are performed by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, who is always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Dean is not entitled to participate in the conclave owing to age, his place is taken by the Sub-Dean, who is also always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Sub-Dean also cannot participate, the senior Cardinal Bishop participating performs the functions.
Since the College of Cardinals is a small body, there have been proposals that the electorate should be expanded. Proposed reforms include a plan to replace the College of Cardinals as the electoral body with the Synod of Bishops, which includes many more members. Under present procedure, however, the Synod may only meet when called by the pope. Universi Dominici gregis explicitly provides that even if a synod or an ecumenical council is in session at the time of a pope's death, it may not perform the election. Upon the pope's death, either body's proceedings are suspended, to be resumed only upon the order of the new pope.
It is considered poor form to campaign for the position of pope. However, there is inevitably always much speculation about which cardinals have serious prospects of being elected. Speculation tends to mount when a pope is ill or aged and shortlists of potential candidates appear in the media. A cardinal who is considered to be a prospect for the papacy is described informally as a papabile (an adjective used substantively: the plural form is papabili), a term coined by Italian-speaking Vatican watchers in the mid-twentieth century, literally meaning "pope-able".
Death of the pope
The death of the pope is verified by the Cardinal Camerlengo, or Chamberlain, who traditionally performed the task by gently striking the pope's head with a small silver hammer and calling out his Christian (not papal) name three times. During the 20th century the use of the hammer in this ritual has been abandoned; under Universi Dominici gregis, the Camerlengo must merely declare the pope's death in the presence of the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, and of the Cleric Prelates, Secretary and Chancellor of the Apostolic Camera. The Cardinal Camerlengo takes possession of the Ring of the Fisherman worn by the pope; the ring, along with the papal seal, is later destroyed before the College of Cardinals. The tradition originated to avoid forgery of documents, but today merely is a symbol of the end of the pope's reign.
During the sede vacante, as the papal vacancy is known, certain limited powers pass to the College of Cardinals, which is convoked by the Dean of the College of Cardinals. All cardinals are obliged to attend the General Congregation of Cardinals, except those whose health does not permit, or who are over eighty (but those cardinals may choose to attend if they please). The Particular Congregation, which deals with the day-to-day matters of the Church, includes the Cardinal Camerlengo and the three Cardinal Assistants—one Cardinal-Bishop, one Cardinal-Priest and one Cardinal-Deacon—chosen by lot. Every three days, new Cardinal Assistants are chosen by lot. The Cardinal Camerlengo and Cardinal Assistants are responsible, among other things, for maintaining the election's secrecy.
The Congregations must make certain arrangements in respect of the pope's burial, which by tradition takes place within four to six days of the pope's death, leaving time for pilgrims to see the dead pontiff, and is to be followed by a nine-day period of mourning (this is known as the novemdiales, Latin for "nine days"). The Congregations also fix the date and time of the commencement of the conclave. The conclave normally takes place fifteen days after the death of the pope, but the Congregations may extend the period to a maximum of twenty days in order to permit other cardinals to arrive in the Vatican City.
Resignation of a pope
A vacancy in the papal office may also result from a papal resignation. Until the resignation of Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, no pope had abdicated since Gregory XII in 1415. In his book The Light of the World Benedict XVI had espoused the idea of abdication on health grounds which already had some theological respectability.
Before the sealing of the Sistine Chapel
The cardinals hear two sermons before the election: one before actually entering the conclave, and one once they are settled in the Sistine Chapel. In both cases, the sermons are meant to lay out the current state of the Church, and to suggest the qualities necessary for a pope to possess in that specific time. The first preacher in the 2005 conclave was Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, the preacher of the papal household and a member of the Capuchin Franciscan order, who spoke at one of the meetings of the cardinals held before the actual day when the conclave began. Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a former professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute and a non-voting member (due to age) of the College of Cardinals, spoke just before the doors were finally closed for the conclave.
On the morning of the day designated by the Congregations of Cardinals, the cardinal electors assemble in St Peter's Basilica to celebrate the Eucharist. Then, they gather in the afternoon in the Pauline Chapel of the Palace of the Vatican and process to the Sistine Chapel while singing the Litany of the Saints. The Cardinals will also sing the Veni Creator Spiritus then take an oath to observe the procedures set down by the apostolic constitutions; to, if elected, defend the liberty of the Holy See; to maintain secrecy; and to disregard the instructions of secular authorities on voting. The Cardinal Dean reads the oath aloud in full; in order of precedence (where their rank is the same, their birthdate is taken as precedence), the other cardinal electors repeat the oath, while touching the Gospels. The oath is:
Et ego, (first name), Cardinalis (surname), spondeo, voveo, ac iuro. Sic me Deus adiuvet et haec Sancta Dei Evangelia, quae manu mea tango.
Expelling the outsiders
After all the cardinals present have taken the oath, the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations orders all individuals other than the cardinal electors and conclave participants to leave the Chapel. Traditionally, he stands at the door of the Sistine Chapel and calls out: "Extra omnes!" (Latin for, roughly, "Everybody else, get out!") He then closes the door. In modern practice, the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations does not have to stand at the door of the Sistine Chapel—during the 2013 conclave, the Master Guido Marini stood in front of the altar and gave the command and only went to the chapel doors to close them after the outsiders had left.
The Master himself may remain, as may one ecclesiastic designated by the Congregations prior to the commencement of the election. The ecclesiastic makes a speech concerning the problems facing the Church and on the qualities the new pope needs to have. After the speech concludes, the ecclesiastic leaves. Following the recitation of prayers, the Cardinal Dean asks if any doubts relating to procedure remain. After the clarification of the doubts, the election may commence. Cardinals who arrive after the conclave has begun are admitted nevertheless. An ill cardinal may leave the conclave and later be readmitted; a cardinal who leaves for any reason other than illness may not return to the conclave.
Although in the past cardinal electors could be accompanied by attendants ("conclavists"), now only a nurse may accompany a cardinal who for reasons of ill-health, as confirmed by the Congregation of Cardinals, needs such assistance. The Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, two Masters of Ceremonies, two officers of the Papal Sacristy and an ecclesiastic assisting the Dean of the College of Cardinals are also admitted to the conclave. Priests are available to hear confessions in different languages; two doctors are also admitted. Finally, a strictly limited number of servant staff are permitted for housekeeping and the preparing and serving of meals.
Secrecy is maintained during the conclave; the cardinals as well as the conclavists and staff are forbidden to disclose any information relating to the election. Cardinal electors may not correspond or converse with anyone outside the conclave, by post, radio, telephone, internet and social media, or otherwise and eavesdropping is an offense punishable by excommunication latae sententiae. Only three cardinals electors are permitted to communicate with the outside world under grave circumstances, prior to approval of the College, to fulfil their duties: the Major Penitentiary, the Cardinal Vicar for the Diocese of Rome, and the Vicar General for the Vatican City State.
Before the conclave that elected Pope Francis, the Sistine Chapel was "swept" using the latest electronic devices to detect any hidden "bugs" or surveillance devices (there were no reports that any were found, but in previous conclaves press reporters who had disguised themselves as conclave servants were discovered). Universi Dominici gregis specifically prohibits media such as newspapers, the radio, and television. Wi-Fi access is blocked in Vatican City and wireless signal jammers are deployed at the Sistine Chapel to prevent any form of electronic communications to or from the Cardinal electors.
On the afternoon of the first day, one ballot may be held. If a ballot takes place on the afternoon of the first day and no-one is elected, or no ballot had taken place, four ballots are held on each successive day: two in each morning and two in each afternoon. Before voting in the morning and again before voting in the afternoon, the electors take an oath to obey the rules of the conclave. If no result is obtained after three vote days of balloting, the process is suspended for a maximum of one day for prayer and an address by the senior Cardinal Deacon. After seven further ballots, the process may again be similarly suspended, with the address now being delivered by the senior Cardinal Priest. If, after another seven ballots, no result is achieved, voting is suspended once more, the address being delivered by the senior Cardinal Bishop. After a further seven ballots, there shall be a day of prayer, reflection and dialogue. In the following ballots, only the two names who received the most votes in the last ballot shall be eligible in a runoff election. However, the two people who are being voted on, if Cardinal electors, shall not themselves have the right to vote.
The process of voting comprises three phases: the "pre-scrutiny", the "scrutiny", and the "post-scrutiny."
During the pre-scrutiny, the Masters of the Ceremonies prepare ballot papers bearing the words Eligo in Summum Pontificem ("I elect as Supreme Pontiff") and provide at least two to each cardinal elector. As the cardinals begin to write down their votes, the Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations and the Masters of Ceremonies exit; the junior Cardinal Deacon then closes the door. The junior Cardinal Deacon then draws by lot nine names; the first three become Scrutineers, the second three Infirmarii and the last three Revisers. New Scrutineers, Infirmarii and Revisers are not selected again after the first scrutiny; the same nine cardinals perform the same task for the second scrutiny. After lunch, the election resumes with the oath to obey the rules of the conclave taken anew when the cardinals again assemble in the Sistine Chapel. Nine names are chosen for new scrutineers, infirmarii, and revisers. The third scrutiny then commences, and if necessary, a fourth immediately follows. No changes in these rules were made by Benedict XVI in 2007. These rules were followed, so far as is known, given the secrecy of a conclave, in electing Pope Francis in March 2013.
The scrutiny phase of the election is as follows: The cardinal electors proceed, in order of precedence, to take their completed ballots (which bear only the name of the individual voted for) to the altar, where the Scrutineers stand. Before casting the ballot, each cardinal elector takes a Latin oath, which translates to: "I call as my witness Christ the Lord who will be my judge, that my vote is given to the one who before God I think should be elected." If any cardinal elector is in the Chapel, but cannot proceed to the altar due to infirmity, the last Scrutineer may go to him and take his ballot after the oath is recited. If any cardinal elector is by reason of infirmity confined to his room, the Infirmarii go to their rooms with ballot papers and a box. Any such sick cardinals take the oath and then complete the ballot papers. When the Infirmarii return to the Chapel, the ballots are counted to ensure that their number matches with the number of ill cardinals; thereafter, they are deposited in the appropriate receptacle. This oath is taken by all cardinals as they cast their ballots. If no one is chosen on the first scrutiny, then a second scrutiny immediately follows. A total of four scrutinies are taken each day, two in the morning and two in the afternoon.
The oath when casting one's vote is therefore anonymous, since the name of the elector is no longer signed on the ballot with that of the candidate. (Previously, the ballot was signed by the elector, who included his motiff [unique identification code]. Then he folded it over at two places to cover his signature and motiff. After this, it was sealed with wax to result in a semi-secret ballot. See example above.) This was the procedure prior to 1945. The example above is a copy of the old three section semi-secret ballot, which was last used in the conclave of 1939. There was no oath taken when actually casting ballots, prior to 1621. Completely secret ballots (at the option of the cardinals present and voting) were sometimes used prior to 1621, but these secret ballots had no oath taken when the vote was actually cast. At some conclaves prior to 1621, the cardinals verbally voted and sometimes stood in groups to facilitate counting the votes cast. The signature and motiff of the elector covered by two folded-over parts of the ballot paper was added by Gregory XV in 1621, to prevent anyone from casting the deciding vote for himself. Cardinal Pole of England refused to cast the deciding vote for himself in 1549 (and was not elected), but in 1492 Cardinal Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) did cast the deciding vote for himself. Faced by the mortal challenge to the papacy emanating from Protestantism, and fearing schism due to several stormy conclaves in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Gregory XV established this procedure to prevent any cardinal from casting the deciding vote for himself. Since 1945, a cardinal can again cast the deciding vote for himself, though the ⅔ majority rule has always been continued, except when John Paul II had modified that rule in 1996 (after 33 ballots, a simple majority was sufficient), with the ⅔ majority rule restored in 2007 by Benedict XVI.
Prior to 1621, the only oath taken was that of obedience to the rules of the conclave in force at that time, when the cardinals entered the conclave and the doors were locked, and each morning and afternoon as they entered the Sistine Chapel to vote. Gregory XV added the additional oath, taken when each cardinal casts his ballot, to prevent cardinals wasting time in casting "courtesy votes" and instead narrowing the number of realistic candidates for the papal throne to perhaps only two or three. Speed in electing a pope was important, and that meant using an oath so as to get the cardinals down to the serious business of electing a new pope and narrowing the number of potentially electable candidates. The reforms of Gregory XV in 1621 and reaffirmed in 1622 created the written detailed step-by-step procedure used in choosing a pope; a procedure that was essentially the same as that which was used in 2013 to elect Pope Francis. The biggest change since 1621 was the elimination of the rule that required the electors to sign their ballots resulting in the detailed voting procedure of scrutiny making use of anonymous oaths. This was perhaps the most significant change in the modern era. It was a significant change to the step-by-step voting procedure, since that detailed voting procedure was first created in 1621. It was Pius XII who made this change in 1945.
Once all votes have been cast, the first Scrutineer chosen shakes the container, and the last Scrutineer removes and counts the ballots. If the number of ballots does not correspond to the number of cardinal electors present (including sick cardinals in their rooms), the ballots are burnt, unread, and the vote is repeated. If, however, no irregularities are observed, the ballots may be opened and the votes counted. Each ballot is unfolded by the first Scrutineer; all three Scrutineers separately write down the name indicated on the ballot. The last of the Scrutineers reads the name aloud.
Once all of the ballots have been opened, the final post-scrutiny phase begins.
The Scrutineers add up all of the votes, and the Revisers check the ballots and the names on the Scrutineers' lists to ensure that no error was made. The ballots are then all burned by the Scrutineers with the assistance of the Secretary of the College and the Masters of Ceremonies. If the first scrutiny held in any given morning or afternoon does not result in an election, the cardinals proceed to the next scrutiny immediately. The papers from both scrutinies are then burned together at the end of the second scrutiny.
The color of the smoke indicates the results to the people assembled in St Peter's Square. Dark smoke (fumata nera) indicates that the ballot did not result in an election, while white smoke (fumata bianca) announces that a new pope was chosen. Originally, in the event a pope was not elected, damp straw was added to the fire to create dark smoke. In the event a new pope was elected, the ballots were burned alone, creating white smoke.
Prior to 1945 (when Pius XII changed the form of ballot to use anonymous oaths, first carried out in 1958), the sealing wax on the complex type ballots illustrated above had the effect of making the smoke from burning the ballots either black or white, depending on whether or not damp straw was added. Until the 20th century, sealing wax customarily had beeswax mixed into its composition. The use of wax made solely from animal fat does not give as much white colored smoke, as does wax that includes beeswax. A simple experiment will confirm this. In the 1939 conclave there was some confusion over the smoke color, which was even more apparent in the 1958 conclave. This explains the confusion over the color of the smoke in the 1958 Papal conclave, caused by the lack of sealing wax on the ballots. The Siri Thesis was based on the confusion over the smoke color on the first day of that conclave.
Since 1963, chemicals have been added to the burning process, and beginning in 2005, bells ring after a successful election to augment the white smoke.
- Black smoke: Potassium perchlorate, Anthracene, Sulphur
- White smoke: Potassium chlorate, Lactose / milk sugar, Colophony / pine rosin
Acceptance and proclamation
Once the election concludes, the Cardinal Dean summons the Secretary of the College of Cardinals and the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations into the hall. The Cardinal Dean then asks the pope-elect if he assents to the election, saying in Latin: "Acceptasne electionem de te canonice factam in Summum Pontificem? (Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff?)" There is no requirement that the pope-elect do so and he is free to respond "Non accepto" (I don't accept).
If he accepts, and is already a bishop, he immediately takes office. If he is not a bishop, however, he must be first consecrated as one before he can assume office. If a priest is elected, the Cardinal Dean consecrates him bishop; if a layman is elected, then the Cardinal Dean first ordains him deacon, then priest, and only then consecrates him as bishop. Only after becoming a bishop does the pope-elect take office. These functions of the Dean are assumed, if necessary, by the sub-Dean, and if the sub-Dean is also impeded, they are assumed by the senior cardinal-bishop in attendance. In 2005 the Dean himself—Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger—was elected pope. In 2013, the Dean and sub-Dean were not in attendance (over the age limit), and these functions were assumed by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re.
Since 533, the new pope has also decided on his regnal name. Pope John II was the first to adopt a new papal name; he felt that his original name, Mercurius, was inappropriate, as it was also the name of a Roman god. In most cases, even if such considerations are absent, popes tend to choose papal names different from their baptismal names; the last pope to reign under his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II (1555). After the newly elected pope accepts his election, the Cardinal Dean asks him about his papal name, saying in Latin: "Quo nomine vis vocari? (By what name do you wish to be called?)" After the papal name is chosen, the officials are readmitted to the conclave, and the Master of Pontifical Liturgical Ceremonies writes a document recording the acceptance and the new name of the pope.
In the past, when the cardinals were voting during the conclave, they sat on canopied thrones symbolizing the cardinals' collective governance of the church during the period of sede vacante. Upon the acceptance by the new pope of his election, all other cardinals in attendance would each pull a cord and lower the canopies above their respective thrones signifying an end to the period of collective governance and only the newly elected pope's canopy remained unlowered. The last time canopied thrones were used was during the 1963 conclave. Beginning with the 1978 August conclave canopied thrones were no longer used due to the lack of space resulting from the large increase in the number of cardinal electors.
At the end of the conclave, the new pope if he so chose, would give his cardinalitial zucchetto or skull cap to the secretary of the conclave, indicating the secretary would be made cardinal at the next consistory to create cardinals. Prior to the 2013 conclave, this tradition was last followed at the 1958 conclave by the newly elected Pope John XXIII, who bestowed his cardinal's skull cap on Alberto di Jorio and created him a cardinal at the consistory on 15 December of that year. In 2013 the Portuguese section of Vatican Radio reported that at the conclusion of the 2013 conclave, the newly elected Pope Francis bestowed his cardinalitial zucchetto on Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri the secretary of that conclave and on 22 February 2014 at Pope Francis' first consistory, Baldisseri was formally made a cardinal with the title of Cardinal-Deacon of Sant’Anselmo all’Aventino.
Then, the new pope goes to the "Room of Tears", a small red room next to the Sistine Chapel; the room has the nickname because of the strong emotions experienced by the new pope. The new pope dresses by himself, choosing a set of pontifical choir robes—consisting of a white cassock, rochet, and red mozzetta—from three sizes provided. He then wears a gold corded pectoral cross, a red and gold embroidered stole, and then dons the white papal zucchetto on his head. In 2013, Pope Francis dispensed with the red mozzetta, rochet, and gold pectoral cross, wearing only the white cassock and his own pectoral cross when he appeared on the central balcony. He also did not emerge wearing the stole, vesting in it only to impart the Apostolic Blessing and removing it shortly after.
Next, the Cardinal Protodeacon (the senior Cardinal Deacon) appears at the loggia of the Basilica to proclaim the new pope. He usually proceeds with the traditional Latin formula (assuming the new Pope was a cardinal):
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum:
("I announce to you a great joy:
During the announcement for Pope Benedict XVI's election, the cardinal protodeacon Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez greeted the crowds first in several different languages "Dear brothers and sisters" before proceeding to the Latin announcement. This was not done when Pope Francis was elected.
It has happened in the past that the Cardinal Protodeacon has himself been the person elected pope. In such an event, the announcement is made by the next senior Deacon, who has thus succeeded as Protodeacon. The last time the cardinal protodeacon was elected was in 1513 when Giovanni de Medici was elected as Pope Leo X and the next senior cardinal deacon Alessandro Farnese (the future Pope Paul III) made the announcement. During the election of Pope Leo XIII in 1878 Protodeacon Prospero Caterini appeared and started to make the announcement but was physically incapable of completing it, so another made it for him.[e]
Following the announcement, the senior Cardinal Deacon retreats, and papal aides unfurl a large, maroon banner that out of practicality often bears the late pope's arms in the centre, draping it onto the railing of the Basilica's loggia. During Pope Francis' announcement, there was no image of his predecessor's arms (indicating that the previous pope was still alive), and during Pope Pius XI's first appearance following his election at the 1922 conclave, the banner showed the arms of Pope Pius IX instead of the arms of his immediate predecessor Pope Benedict XV. The new pope then emerges onto the balcony to the adulation of the crowd, while a brass band in the forecourt below plays the Pontifical Anthem. He then imparts the Urbi et Orbi blessing. The Pope may on this occasion choose to give the shorter episcopal blessing as his first Apostolic Blessing instead of the traditional Urbi et Orbi blessing, this happened most recently with Pope Paul VI after his election at the 1963 conclave Beginning with Pope John Paul II, the last three popes elected including Pope Francis, have chosen to address the crowds first before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing. Also, at Pope Francis' first appearance, he led the faithful first in prayers for his predecessor and asked them for prayers for himself before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing.
Formerly, the pope would later be crowned by the triregnum or Triple Tiara at the Papal Coronation. All popes since John Paul I have refused an elaborate coronation, choosing instead to have a simpler papal inauguration ceremony.
Historical voting patterns
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The newly elected pope often contrasts dramatically with his predecessor, a tendency expressed by the Italian saying "After a fat pope, a lean pope". Past cardinals have often voted for someone radically different from the pope who appointed them. The controversial one-time populist-turned-conservative, long-lived Pope Pius IX (1846–1878) was succeeded by the aristocratic and diplomatic Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903). He in turn was succeeded by the lower-class, bluntly outspoken Pope Pius X (1903–1914). Pius X's rugged ultra-conservatism contrasted with the low-key moderatism of Pope Benedict XV (1914–1922), which again contrasted with the former librarian and mountain climber Pope Pius XI (1922–1939), who led Roman Catholicism with an authoritarianism more akin to Pius X, who also shared his temperament.
Pius XI was succeeded in 1939 by his Secretary of State, the aristocratic ultra-insider Curialist Pope Pius XII (1939–1958). Pius XII was seen as one of the great thinkers to assume the papacy in the 20th century and was also the ultimate insider; his grandfather, father, cousin and brother have been Vatican high-ranking officials. Pius was succeeded by the lower-class, elderly, popular, and informal Pope John XXIII (1958–1963). The contrast between the diffident, intellectual and distant Pius XII and the humble—in his own words "ordinary"—"Good Pope John" was dramatic, with none more surprised at the election than Pope John himself. He reportedly already had his return rail ticket in his pocket when he was elected.
John proved to be a radical break with the two previous popes, and indeed with most of the popes of the 20th century. After a short but dramatic pontificate during which he convoked the Second Vatican Council, John XXIII was replaced by the widely expected Giovanni Batista Montini, who many believed would have been elected in 1958 had he been a cardinal then. Pope Paul VI (1963–1978) was a curialist like Pius XII, whom he had worked with in the curia during the 1930s and 1940s. Paul VI himself was briefly succeeded by non-curialist Pope John Paul I (1978), who in turn was succeeded by Karol Wojtyła as Pope John Paul II (1978–2005). Wojtyła, the first non-Italian since 1523, spoke many languages and was originally from the Eastern Bloc, an important consideration given contemporary Cold War politics and the Church's repression there. After a relatively long reign, he was succeeded in 2005 by the German Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and Cardinal Dean, Joseph Ratzinger, as Pope Benedict XVI. A more reserved and conservative pontiff than his predecessor, he reigned until his resignation in 2013, when he was succeeded by the simpler and less formal Argentinian Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires Jorge Bergoglio as Pope Francis.
- Conclave capitulation
- Elective monarchy
- Index of Vatican City-related articles
- List of papal elections
- Papal appointment
- Canon 1024 states: "A baptized male alone receives sacred ordination validly." Claims that there was a female pope, including the legendary Pope Joan, are fictitious.
- The former ballot's design and use was described as follows: "It is divided into three compartments, in the first of which the Cardinal writes his own name, in the second that of the candidate for whom he votes, and in the third a motto and number. The first and third compartments are then folded twice and sealed down [with wax] at both sides, so that only the middle compartment can be seen by the scrutineers [vote counters].... Should the majority be exactly two-thirds of the total votes recorded, the papers are opened and the names of those voting in the majority examined, in order to make sure that the elected Cardinal did not vote for himself."
- John XXIII (5 September 1962). Summi Pontificis Electio (in Latin). Motu proprio. AAS. 54. (1962) pp. 632–640. Vatican City.
- Formerly, cardinals regularly had meals sent in from their homes with much pageantry accompanying the conveyance of food: "Towards noon each day, the Cardinal's gentlemen proceeded to his house and conveyed his dinner to the Vatican in a state coach. They were accompanied by an officer, known as the Seneschal Dapifer, who was charged with the very important duty of seeing that the Cardinal's food was not poisoned! … The dishes were enclosed in hampers or tin boxes, covered with green or violet drapery, and … were carried in state through the entrance halls, preceded by the mace of the Cardinal. The Seneschal Dapifer, bearing a serviette on his shoulder, preceded the dishes.... Before the Cardinal received his dinner, each dish underwent a careful inspection by the prelates on guard, in order that no letter should be concealed in it." These ceremonies have not been observed since the nineteenth century.
- Richard Henry Clarke's book about Leo XIII claims that Prospero Caterini made the announcement and Salvador Miranda's entry on Cardinal Caterini at The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church website mentions Caterini as having given the announcement but Francis Burkle-Young claims that Caterini started to make the announcement but was incapable of completing the spoken formula and was ultimately assisted by Bartolomeo Grassi-Landi, a non-cardinal and the conclavist of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano
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- Some have proposed the election of the pope by a special synod of bishops. This would imitate some of the Eastern-rite churches where metropolitans and patriarchs are elected by synods of bishops. However, the method for selecting the synod members would inevitably be controversial. Cardinals and Conclaves, By Thomas J. Reese, S.J., senior fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center, America, 19 November 1994.
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- If a Cardinal with the right to vote should refuse to enter Vatican City in order to take part in the election, or subsequently, once the election has begun, should refuse to remain in order to discharge his office, without manifest reason of illness attested to under oath by doctors and confirmed by the majority of the electors, the other Cardinals shall proceed freely with the election, without waiting for him or readmitting him. The Election of a New Pope, Malta Media.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Papal conclave.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Conclave.|
- Conclave infographic
- Papal elections and conclaves by century
- Notes on Papal Elections and Conclaves from 1073
- Conclave Bibliography
- A detailed examination of the voting procedure by Bruce Schneier
- The political science of papal elections
- Italian documentary on YouTube (English subtitled)