Papal election, 1144
Election of Lucius II
Pope Celestine II died on 8 March 1144 at Rome, after pontificate of only five months. The election of his successor took place in the shadow of this municipal revolution, which opposed the secular rule of the Pope. Celestine II was unable to recover the full control over the city of Rome; in addition he had to face also the demands of the king Roger II of Sicily. This problem also remained unresolved on his death, because he had refused to confirm the privileges granted to Roger by his predecessor Innocent II.
The cardinals present at Rome elected Cardinal Gerardo Caccianemici, priest of the titulus of S. Croce in Gerusalemme and former canon regular of S. Frediano di Lucca. The details concerning the place of the election or the exact date of electoral proceedeings are not registered. Since the elect was chancellor of the Holy See and close collaborator of both Innocent II and Celestine II, it may be assumed that the cardinals wanted to continue their policy, friendly towards the Empire and hostile towards the king Roger. The elect took the name of Lucius II and received episcopal consecration on 12 March 1144.
There were probably 39 cardinals in the Sacred College of Cardinals in March 1144. Basing on the examination of the subscribtions of the papal bulls in 1144 and the available data about the external missions of the cardinals it is possible to establish that no more than 36 cardinals participated in the election:
|Corrado Demetri della Suburra||Bishop of Sabina||1113/14||Paschalis II||Dean of the College of Cardinals; future Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154)|
|Theodwin, O.S.B.||Bishop of Santa Rufina||ca. 1133||Innocent II|
|Alberic de Beauvais, O.S.B.Cluny||Bishop of Ostia||3 April 1138||Innocent II|
|Étienne de Châlons, O.Cist.||Bishop of Palestrina||21 February 1141||Innocent II|
|Imar, O.S.B.Cluny||Bishop of Tusculum||13 March 1142||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Bishop of Albano||17 September 1143||Innocent II|
|Gerardo Caccianemici, Can.Reg.||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||9 March 1123||Callixtus II||Protopriest; Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; elected Pope Lucius II|
|Guido Florentinus||Priest of S. Crisogono||1139||Innocent II|
|Rainiero||Priest of S. Prisca||22 December 1139||Innocent II|
|Goizo||Priest of S. Cecilia||22 December 1139||Innocent II|
|Gregorio della Suburra||Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere||1 March 1140||Innocent II|
|Tommaso||Priest of S. Vitale||1 March 1140||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Priest of S. Pudenziana||20 September 1140||Innocent II||Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica|
|Ubaldo Allucingoli||Priest of S. Prassede||16 December 1138||Innocent II||Future Pope Lucius III (1181–1185)|
|Ubaldo||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||19 December 1141||Innocent II|
|Gilberto||Priest of S. Marco||13 March 1142||Innocent II|
|Niccolo||Priest of S. Ciriaco||13 March 1142||Innocent II|
|Manfredo||Priest of S. Sabina||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Rainiero||Priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Guido de Summa||Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Ariberto||Priest of S. Anastasia||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Gregorio Tarquini||Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco||9 March 1123||Callixtus II||Protodeacon|
|Odone Bonecase||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||4 March 1132||Innocent II|
|Guido Pisano||Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano||4 March 1132||Innocent II|
|Gerardo||Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica||27 May 1138||Innocent II|
|Guido de Castro Ficeclo||Deacon of Holy Roman Church||1139||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro||21 February 1141||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Deacon of S. Maria in Portico||19 September 1141||Innocent II|
|Gregorio||Deacon of the Holy Roman Church||19 December 1141||Innocent II|
|Gregorio||Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Astaldo degli Astalli||Deacon of S. Eustachio||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Giovanni Caccianemici, Can.Reg.||Deacon of S. Maria Nuova||17 December 1143||Celestine II||Nephew of the elect|
|Giovanni Paparoni||Deacon of S. Adriano||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Ugo Novariensis||Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Rodolfo||Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas.||Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro||ca. 1139-1141||Innocent II||Abbot of Montecassino (external cardinal)|
|Adenulf, O.S.B.||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||16 December 1132||Innocent II||Abbot of Farfa; papal legate in Germany|
|Ottaviano de Monticelli||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere||25 February 1138||Innocent II||Papal legate in the Kingdom of Sicily; future Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)|
- Jaffé, II, p. 7
- Robinson, p. 78.
- See Robinson, p. 387
- See Robinson, p. 387
- Jaffé, II, p. 7. Election in 1143 took place in the Lateran Basilica, in 1145 at the church S. Cesareo in Palatio.
- Robinson, p. 387
- Robinson, p. 525; Jaffé, II, p. 7.
- Reconstruction is based on Brixius, p. 22 note 4 with the following corrections: bishop Rodolfo of Orte has been excluded because he was not a cardinal at that time (Zenker, p. 52-53). Additionally, Brixius indicates that also Bernardo da Pisa, future Pope Eugene III, belonged to the College of Cardinals (similarly Zenker, pp. 184–187), but see M. Horn: Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III.(1145-1153), Peter Lang Verlag 1992, pp. 42–45.
- Jaffé, p.1 and 7
- Zenker, p. 191-192; see also G. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 157-158
- Mary Stroll, The Medieval Abbey of Farfa: Target of Papal and Imperial Ambitions, BRILL 1997, p. 254
- Bruno W. Häuptli (2004). "Victor IV. (Victor V., Ottaviano de' Monticelli), Gegenpapst 1159-1164". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 23. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1533–1536. ISBN 3-88309-155-3.; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 19 February and 14 May 1144 (Jaffé, p.1 and 7)
- Robinson, Ian Stuart (1990). The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31922-6.
- Jaffé, Phillipp (1888). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, vol. II (in Latin). Leipzig.
- Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (in German). Würzburg.
- Brixius, Johannes Matthias (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (in German). Berlin: R. Trenkel.