Papal election, 1154
Election of Adrian IV
Pope Anastasius IV died on December 3, 1154, at Rome, at a very advanced age. The College of Cardinals assembled in the Vatican Basilica on the next day to elect his successor. On December 4, 1154, the cardinals unanimously elected Cardinal-Bishop of Albano Nicholas Breakspeare, former legate in Scandinavia (1152-1153). He took the name Adrian IV and was crowned on December 5, 1154 in the Vatican Basilica. He is the only English pope in history.
There were probably 30 cardinals in the Sacred College of Cardinals at the beginning of December 1154, but it seems that no more than 25 (perhaps even fewer) participated in the election:
|Imar, O.S.B.Cluny||Bishop of Tusculum||13 March 1142||Innocent II||Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|Guarino Foscari, Can.Reg.||Bishop of Palestrina||22 December 1144||Lucius II||Cardinal-nephew|
|Nicholas Breakspeare, Can.Reg.||Bishop of Albano||16 December 1149||Eugenius III||Elected Pope Adrian IV|
|Hugo, O.Cist.||Bishop of Ostia e Velletri||21 December 1151||Eugenius III|
|Gregorio della Suburra||Bishop of Sabina||1 March 1140||Innocent II|
|Cencio de Gregorio||Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina||2 March 1151||Eugenius III|
|Guido Florentinus||Priest of S. Crisogono||1139||Innocent II||Protopriest|
|Ubaldo Allucingoli||Priest of S. Prassede||16 December 1138||Innocent II||Future Pope Lucius III (1181-1185)|
|Ottaviano de Monticelli||Priest of S. Cecilia||25 February 1138||Innocent II||Future Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164)|
|Manfredo||Priest of S. Sabina||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Ariberto||Priest of S. Anastasia||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Astaldo degli Astalli||Priest of S. Prisca||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Giulio||Priest of S. Marcello||19 May 1144||Lucius II|
|Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can.Reg.||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||19 May 1144||Lucius II||Cardinal-nephew|
|Guido Puella||Priest of S. Pudenziana||22 December 1144||Lucius II|
|Bernard, Can.Reg.||Priest of S. Clemente||22 December 1144||Lucius II||Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica|
|Rolando||Priest of S. Marco and Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church||22 September 1150||Eugenius III||Future Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)|
|Gerard||Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio||2 March 1151||Eugenius III|
|Giovanni da Sutri||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||21 February 1152||Eugenius III||Rector of Campagna|
|Enrico da Pisa, O.Cist.||Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo||21 February 1152||Eugenius III|
|Giovanni Morrone||Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino||23 May 1152||Eugenius III|
|Rodolfo||Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio||17 December 1143||Celestine II|
|Guido di Crema||Deacon of S. Maria in Portico||21 September 1145||Eugenius III||Future Antipope Paschal III (1164-1168)|
|Giovanni Gaderisio, Can.Reg.||Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco||22 September 1150||Eugenius III|
|Ottone da Brescia||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere||21 February 1152||Eugenius III|
At least five cardinals did not participate in this election. Cardinal Giacinto Bobone is known to have been in Spain at that time; he served there as papal legate from the spring of 1154 until the end of 1155. Cardinal Odone Bonecase was employed as legate in France in 1154/55. Gerard de Namur was legate in Germany, while Ildebrando in Lombardy. Abbot Rainaldo of Montecassino was not a resident of Roman Curia:
|Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas.||Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro||ca.1139-1141||Innocent II||Abbot of Montecassino (external cardinal)|
|Odone Bonecase||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||4 March 1132||Innocent II||Protodeacon; papal legate in France|
|Giacinto Bobone||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||22 December 1144||Lucius II||Papal legate in Spain; future Pope Celestine III (1191–98)|
|Gerard de Namur||Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata||21 February 1152||Eugenius III||Papal legate in Germany|
|Ildebrando Grassi, Can.Reg.||Deacon of S. Eustachio||24 May 1152||Eugenius III||Administrator of the see of Modena; Papal legate in Lombardy|
- Robinson, p. 78
- S. Miranda, Pope Adrian IV
- Reconstruction based on Brixius, p. 23, with the following corrections based on Zenker, p. 48-52, 79-82, 104-106:
- cardinal-priest Gregorio of S. Maria in Trastevere and cardinal-bishop Gregorio of Sabina are actually one and the same person (Zenker, p. 48-52),
- cardinal-priests Giovanni Paparoni of S. Lorenzo in Damaso and Jordan of S. Susanna are excluded because they both appear to have died before the death of Anastasius IV (Zenker, p. 79-82, 104-106).
- Robinson, p. 147; Zenker, p. 163; for the exact date of his appointment as legate see Jaffé, p. 656 no. 6792
- Edmund Ernst, Hermann Stengel (ed.), Archiv für Diplomatik: Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde, Böhlau-Verlag., 1987, p. 260; Zenker, p. 159.
- K. Maleczyński, Studia nad dokumentem polskim, Wrocław 1971, p. 233; Zenker, p. 179
- Zenker, p. 108
- Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, Tübingen 1963, p. 97.
- Salvador Miranda Papal election of 1154
- Robinson, Ian Stuart (1990). The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521264987.
- Jaffé, Philipp (1851). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Berlin.
- Brixius, Johannes M. (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181. Berlin.
- Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159. Würzburg.