Papal election, December 1187
List of participants
At the death of Gregory VIII there were probably only 20 cardinals. Basing on the countersigning of the papal bulls in December 1187 it is possible to establish that only 9 cardinals were present at the death of Gregory VIII at Pisa:
|Elector||Place of birth||Title||Elevated||Elevator||Notes|
|Paolo Scolari||Rome||Bishop of Palestrina||September 21, 1179||Alexander III||Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; elected Pope Clement III|
|Thibaud, O.S.B.Cluny||France||Bishop of Ostia e Velletri||1184||Lucius III||Elected Pope but declined|
|Laborante de Panormo||Pontormo||Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere||September 1173||Alexander III|
|Melior le Maitre, O.S.B.Vall.||Pisa||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||March 16, 1185||Lucius III||Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church|
|Giacinto Bobone Orsini||Rome||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||December 22, 1144||Lucius II||Protodeacon; future Pope Celestine III (1191-1198)|
|Graziano da Pisa||Pisa||Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano||March 4, 1178||Alexander III|
|Ottaviano di Paoli||Rome||Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Future bishop of Ostia e Velletri (1189-1206)|
|Pietro Diana||Piacenza||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere||March 16, 1185||Lucius III|
|Radulf Nigellus||probably France||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||March 16, 1185||Lucius III|
Probably eleven cardinals were entirely absent:
|Elector||Place of birth||Cardinalatial title||Elevated||Elevator||Notes|
|Konrad von Wittelsbach||Bavaria||Bishop of Sabina and Archbishop of Mainz||December 18, 1165||Alexander III||Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; external cardinal|
|Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist.||Château de Marcy, France||Bishop of Albano||March 1179||Aleksander III||Papal legate in Germany|
|Giovanni Conti da Anagni||Anagni||Priest of S. Marco||1158/1159||Adrian IV||Protopriest; future bishop of Palestrina (1190-1196)|
|Ruggiero di San Severino||San Severino||Priest of S. Eusebio and Archbishop of Benevento||Ca. 1178-1180||Alexander III||External cardinal|
|Guillaume aux Blanches Mains||France||Priest of S. Sabina and Archbishop of Reims||March 1179||Alexander III||Minister of State of the Kingdom of France; external cardinal|
|Albino, C.R.S.F.||Gaeta (?)||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Future bishop of Albano (1189-1197)|
|Pandolfo||Lucca||Priest of SS. XII Apostoli||December 18, 1182||Lucius III|
|Adelardo Cattaneo||Verona||Priest of S. Marcello||March 16, 1185||Lucius III||Future bishop of Verona (1188-1214)|
|Soffredo||Pistoia||Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Papal legate in France|
|Bobo||Rome||Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Papal legate in France; future bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina (1189-1190)|
|Gerardo||Lucca||Deacon of S. Adriano||December 18, 1182||Lucius III||Papal Vicar; Cardinal-nephew (?) of Lucius III|
Seven absentees were created by Lucius III, three by Alexander III, and one by Adrian IV.
Death of Urban III and the election of Pope Gregory VIII
Pope Gregory VIII died at Pisa on December 17, 1187 after a pontificate of only one month and twenty-seven days. Two days later the cardinals present on his deathbed started proceedings to elect his successor. The election was celebrated in the presence of Consul of Rome Leo de Monumento. In the first round of voting Cardinal Thibaud of Ostia was elected but declined. In the second round the cardinals unanimously elected Cardinal Paolo Scolari, bishop of Palestrina. He accepted his election and took the name Clement III. On January 7, 1188 he was solemnly crowned by protodeacon Giacinto Bobone Orsini and in February 1188 he returned to Rome.
- I.S. Robinson, p. 44 and 87; Kartusch, p. 31.
- Jaffé Philipp, Regesta..., p. 528, 535-536
- I.S. Robinson, p. 44
- A. Piazzoni, p. 175
- S. Miranda Cardinal Paolo Scolari
- Jaffé, Philipp (1888). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. vol. II. Leipzig.
- Kartusch, Elfriede (1948). Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181–1227. Wien.
- Piazzoni, Ambrogio (2003). Historia wyboru papieży. Kraków: Wyd. M. ISBN 8372216487.
- Robinson, Ian Stuart (1990). The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521264987.