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Paper abortion, also known as a financial abortion or a statutory abort, is the proposed ability of the biological father, before the birth of the child, to opt out of any rights, privileges, and responsibilities toward the child, including financial support. By this means, before a child is born, a man would be able to absolve himself of both the privileges and demands of fatherhood.
Debate and public attention
In a 1996 article "Abortion and Fathers' Rights," philosopher Steven Hales made an argument that presupposes the following assertions:
- That women have an absolute right to abortion on demand;
- That men and women have equal moral rights and duties and should have equal legal right and duties; and
- That parents have a moral duty to support their children once they are born and legal duties of support should supervene on this moral duty.
Hales contends that the conjunction of these three principles is prima facie inconsistent and that this inconsistency should be eradicated by firstly acknowledging that men have no absolute duty to provide material support for their children, and secondly by admitting that fathers have the right of refusal.
Laurie Shrage, professor of philosophy and women’s and gender studies, questions whether men should be 'penalized for being sexually active', and she puts the subject in the perspective of feminists who had to fight the same idea with different gender portent, namely that consenting to sexual intercourse is not the same as consenting to parenthood. Furthermore, both men and children are punished, according to professor Shrage; children have to live with an absent father who never 'voluntarily' became a parent.
if women’s partial responsibility for pregnancy does not obligate them to support a fetus, then men’s partial responsibility for pregnancy does not obligate them to support a resulting child.— Elizabeth Brake in the Journal of Applied Philosophy, 2005
At most, according to Brake, men should be responsible for helping with the medical expenses and other costs of a pregnancy for which they are partly responsible.
Paper abortion has met opposition by those who see it as an excuse for men to shirk their responsibilities as a father. Critics say that men should use birth control (either contraception or sterilization) or practice abstinence if they want to avoid the financial and personal responsibilities of fatherhood. Critics also argue that a father's paper abortion is different from a female abortion since a child is born. Thus the best interests of the child should weigh more than equal opportunity to deny parenthood.
The concept of a paper abortion was first introduced in Denmark in 2000 by the socioeconomicist Henrik Platz. He says that it is necessary from an egalitarian perspective, to ensure that women and men have equal rights under the law. According to a Gallup poll from 2014 and earlier polls, between 40% and 70% of Danes agree with legalizing paper abortion.
Sociologist Karen Sjørup, who conducted research on the topic argues that it would give women more freedom by allowing those who want to become mothers without having to share the rights and duties of parenthood with men an additional way to do so. She also suggests that it could decrease the abortion rate because it would prevent men who wished to avoid fatherhood from pressuring women to abort.
Advocates argue that just as women are able to choose whether to have a child or not, men should also be able to choose whether to assume paternity or not. Allowing men to have the opportunity to renounce the economic, social and legal responsibility for an unborn child during the first three months of pregnancy would give men and women as close to equal opportunities as possible. Just as women are able to choose whether to have a child or not, men should also be able to choose whether to assume paternity or not.
In 2016, a regional branch of the Swedish Liberal Youth Party decided to support paper abortion for men until the 18th week of pregnancy, the time limit on abortions for women. The proposition was supported by some commentators, but not by the LYP's parent party.
- "Manden bag begrebet 'juridisk abort': Det handler om ligestilling" [The man behind the concept of 'legal abortion': It's about equality]. DR (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-13.
- Adam Taylor (8 March 2016). "Men should have the right to 'abort' responsibility for an unborn child, Swedish political group says". Washington Post.
- Parker Richards (22 March 2016). "Liberal Swedes Call for Legal Abortion For Men - Observer". Observer.
- "Should men be given 'legal abortion' rights?". The New Zealand Herald.
- Andersen, Marianne Holst. "Aarhus University: Law" (PDF). Aarhus University, Law. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- "Juridisk abort | Foreningen Far" [Legal abortion]. www.foreningenfar.dk (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
Matt Campbell (2014-08-19). "Ectogenesis: Will Artificial Wombs Help Men Fight the Child Custody War?". International Business Times. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
Ectogenesis does not provide men the right to a "paper abortion", a legal right to renounce parental rights (such as they are) and obligations (a lot of those) within a given time after a man is named the father by the mother or the state, as does women's option to abort.
- Steven D. Hales. "1". In Humber, James. REPRODUCTION, TECHNOLOGY, AND RIGHTS (Biomedical Ethics Reviews). Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. pp. 5–26. ISBN 978-1-4757-6403-1.
- Anne Sophia Hermansen (2016-01-30). "Skal mænd have fri abort?" [Should men be free to abort?]. ASH (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Shrage, Laurie (2013-06-12). "Is Forced Fatherhood Fair?". Opinionator. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- "Aldrig har mænd udstillet sig selv mere kællingeagtigt" [Never have men exhibited themselves more hag-like]. politiken.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Gudme, Maria; Dyrkjær, Maja Vedel (2016-02-04). "Fædre skal tage ansvar for børn - ikke kræve juridisk abort" [Fathers must take responsibility for children - does not require legal abortion]. Debate. Politiken (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- "Stor guide: Sådan undgår du at blive far" [Great guide: How to avoid becoming a father]. politiken.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- "Skyl 'juridisk abort' ud med badevandet" [Rinse 'legal abortion' out with the bathwater]. politiken.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Sjørup, Karen. "Men´s right to paper abortion – a feminist perspective". Interacting Minds Centre. Aarhus University. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Juridisk abort er en god ting – også for kvinderne" [Juridical abortion is a good thing - even for women]. Information (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Shrage, Laurie (June 12, 2013). "Is Forced Fatherhood Fair?". Opinion. The New York Times.
- Coerced Parenthood as Family Policy: Feminism, the Moral Agency of Women, and Men's 'Right to Choose' Lisa Lucile Owens, Alabama Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 1, 2013.