Papercutting or paper cutting is the art of paper designs. The art has evolved uniquely all over the world to adapt to different cultural styles. One traditional distinction most styles share in common is that the designs are cut from a single sheet of paper as opposed to multiple adjoining sheets as in collage.
Paper cut art appeared during the Han dynasty in 4th century AD after the Chinese official, Cai Lun invented paper in 105 AD. The oldest surviving paper cut out is a symmetrical circle from the 6th century Six Dynasties period found in Xinjiang China. Papercutting continued to be practiced during the Song and Tang Dynasties as a popular form of decorative art.
By the eighth or ninth century papercutting appeared in West Asia and in Turkey in the 16th century. The knowledge of Paper making did not reach Europe until the 13th century so papercutting could only have arrived after that. In Switzerland and Germany for example it was not until the 16th century that papercut art or scherenschnitte was established (see also silhouette).
Jianzhi (剪紙), is a traditional style of papercutting in China and it originated from cutting patterns for rich Chinese embroideries and later developed into a folk art in itself. Jianzhi has been practiced in China since at least the 6th Century AD Jianzhi has a number of distinct uses in Chinese culture, almost all of which are for health, prosperity or decorative purposes. Red is the most commonly used color. Jianzhi cuttings often have a heavy emphasis on Chinese characters symbolizing the Chinese zodiac animals.
Although paper cutting is popular around the globe, only the Chinese paper cut was listed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, which was in 2009. The Chinese paper-cutting was recognized and listed because it has a history of more than 1500 years and it represents cultural values of the people throughout China.
Japanese paper cutting is called Kirie or Kirigami (literally meaning cut picture). It is said to have developed after 610 AD when Tesuki Washi paper, invented in China, was brought to Japan by Doncho, a Buddhist monk from Korea. The Japanese commercialised paper making by hand and by 800 AD their skills were unrivalled. The abundance of Japanese washi meant paper cutting and offshoots such as Kamikiri (performance papercutting in Edo Japan) developed at a very fast pace.
The washi paper used most predominantly across the world today for paper cutting, book binding, tapes and multiple other uses is not Tesuki washi but actually Japanese Sekishu washi, a paper developed around 800 AD in the Sekishu region (modern day Iwami in Japan) and designated a UNESCO Intangible Cultural asset in 2009. Paper cutting continues today in Japan in contemporary forms such as framed art, installations and paper cut sculpture.
Indonesian traditional art has been influenced by traditional Chinese artisans. Batik is an Indonesian traditional art and paper cutting. Batik is framed in profile to expose the intricate detail of Batik.
Several Philippine crafts employ paper cutting. During Filipino Christmas, the parol (a traditional star-shaped lantern) is embellished with coloured paper cut into various forms such as floral designs on the faces, pom-pons and "tails" on the points of the star.
There is also the art of pabalát (wrapper), where coloured paper is meticulously cut with small scissors and used to sheathe pastillas de leche (carabao milk candy) and other traditional sweets. Paper cutting is also involved in the creation of banderitas (bunting) that feature prominently in fiesta décor; these may be elaborate or plain-cut paper squares and triangles strung over streets.
Sanjhi is the Indian art of paper cutting. The cut paper is usually placed on the floor and colors are filled in to make Rangoli.
Papercutting has been a common Jewish art form since the Middle Ages, connected with various customs and ceremonies, and associated with holidays and family life. Paper cuts often decorated ketubot (marriage contracts), Mizrahs, and for ornaments on festive occasions. A story tells of Rabbi Shem-Tov ben Yitzhak ben Ardutiel, finding that his ink had frozen, continued to write the manuscript by cutting the letters into the paper. By about the 17th century, papercutting had become a popular form for small religious artifacts such as Mizrachs and Shavuot decorations. In the 20th century, the art of Jewish papercutting was revived in Israel. Today it is most commonly used for mizrachs and ketubot.
The beautiful Slavic version of the art form of papercutting, popular in Belarus, Poland, and Ukraine, is called Wycinanki ([vɨt͡ɕiˈnaŋkʲi]) in Poland or Vytynanky (Витина́нки) in Ukraine or Vycinanki (Выцінанкі) in Belarus. Roosters, flowers, and holiday motifs are frequently the subject matter of these bright and multilayered artworks. [circular reference]
There is a Swiss tradition of paper-cutting, especially in the Pays-d'Enhaut.
Silhouette can refer to the art of cutting outlines or portraits out of black paper. Modern-day papercutters typically follow one or more of the "traditional" styles listed above, while others have begun to expand the art into new styles, motifs, and designs. Contemporary papercutting is also sometimes associated with the art of stenciling, itself being derived from techniques used in graffiti art. The use of hand-cut stencils in graffiti art has received international attention in recent years due in part to the artist Banksy.
Notable papercut artists
- Joanna Koerten (1650–1715) Dutch silhouette artist
- Adele Schopenhauer (1797-1849), German author, artist, and sister of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer
- Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), Danish author and papercut artist
- Henry Matisse (1869-1954), French painter, who explored paper-cut illustration and decoupage
- Lotte Reiniger (1899–1981), German silhouette filmmaker
- Jeanette Kuvin Oren (born 1961), American papercut artist
- Kara Walker (born 1969), contemporary African American artist
- Lane Twitchell (born 1967), contemporary American Landscape artist
- Nahoko Kojima (born 1981), contemporary Japanese papercut art, who creates sculptural, hanging papercuts
- Nikki McClure, American papercut artist
- William Schaff (born 1973), American papercut artist; his work in cover of the album cover "I am Very Far" by Okkervil River.
- Rob Ryan, British papercut and serigraph artist
- Barbara Earl Thomas (b. 1948), American visual artist, writer, and arts administrator based in Seattle.
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- Chad (paper), left over fragments from cutting.
- Chinese paper folding
- Chinese paper cutting
- Leaf carving
- Vytynanky (Wycinanki)
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