The species was named by Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz after Nicholas Rumanzow, chancellor of the Russian Empire. It has traditionally been regarded as a species of its own rather than a subspecies of Papilio deiphobus, but the former treatment is still preferred by some.
The wingspan is 120–140 mm. The male resembles the male Papilio ascalaphus, but lacks the tail at the bottom wing and has large red patches on the ventral side (underside) of the wings. In contrast, the female has distinct red markings on both sides of the wings.
The larvae feed on Citrus species.
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