Papilio indra

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Indra swallowtail
Grand Canyon Swallowtail.jpg
Grand Canyon swallowtail (P. i. kaibabensis) female
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Genus: Papilio
Species: P. indra
Binomial name
Papilio indra
Reakirt, 1866

Papilio indra, the Indra swallowtail, short-tailed black swallowtail, or cliff swallowtail, is a western North American butterfly in the family Papilionidae.

Description[edit]

The Indra swallowtail is a black swallowtail similar in coloration to the black swallowtail and the short-tailed swallowtail. It has very short tails and has dark blue crescents on the topside of the hindwing.[1]

Habitat[edit]

This butterfly may be found in rugged, arid, or mountainous countrysides.[1][2]

Flight[edit]

The Indra swallowtail has one brood per year and is on the wing in spring in southern or lower altitudes but early summer in northern or higher altitudes.[1]

Subspecies[edit]

Listed alphabetically:[3]

There is an as-yet unnamed subspecies that has been referred to as bonnevillensis by some and as the "Utah-West Desert segregate" by others.

  • P. i. calcicola Emmel & Griffin, 1998
  • P. i. fordi Comstock & Martin, 1956
  • P. i. indra Reakirt, 1866
  • P. i. kaibabensis Bauer, 1955
  • P. i. martini T. & J. Emmel, 1966
  • P. i. minori Cross, 1936
  • P. i. nevadensis T. & J. Emmel, 1971
  • P. i. panamintensis Emmel, 1982
  • P. i. parvindra J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Griffin, 2008
  • P. i. pergamus H. Edwards, 1874
  • P. i. phyllisae J. Emmel, 1982
  • P. i. shastensis Emmel & Emmel, 1998

Food plants[edit]

Parsley family.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman (2003). Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. ISBN 0-618-15312-8
  2. ^ a b Indra Swallowtail, Butterflies of Canada.
  3. ^ Papilio, funet.fi
  • Emmel, J.F. and Emmel,T.C., 1964. The life history of Papilio indra minori. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 18: 65-73.pdf
  • Emmel, T.C. and Emmel, J.F., 1967. The biology of Papilio indra kaibabensis in the Grand Canyon. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 21: 41-49. pdf
  • Emmel, J.F. and Emmel, T.C., 1968. The population biology and life history of Papilio indra martini. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 22: 46-52.pdf