Papua New Guinea Defence Force

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Papua New Guinea Defence Force
Emblem of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force.svg
Papua New Guinea Defence Force emblem
Founded 1973
Service branches Land Element
Maritime Element
Air Element
Headquarters Murray Barracks, Port Moresby
Website www.pngdefence.gov.pg
Leadership
The Minister for Defence The Honourable Fabian Pok
Commander PNGDF Brigadier General Gilbert Toropo[1]
Manpower
Military age 20[2]
Available for
military service
1,568,210 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.[4]),
1,478,965 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.[4])
Fit for
military service
1,130,951 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.[4]),
1,137,753 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.[4])
Reaching military
age annually
67,781 males (2010 est.[4]),
65,820 females (2010 est.[4])
Active personnel 2,557 (2013)[3]
Expenditures
Budget $US113.1 million (2014)[5]
Percent of GDP 1.9 (2014)[5]

The Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Papua New Guinea. It originated from the Australian Army land forces of the territory of Papua New Guinea before independence, coming into being in January 1973 and having its antecedents in the Pacific Islands Regiment. The PNGDF is a small force numbering around 2,500 personnel and consists of a Land Element, an Air Element and a Maritime Element. It is a joint force tasked with defending Papua New Guinea and its territories against external attack, as well as having secondary functions including national-building and internal security tasks.

Defence accounts for less than 2% of government expenditure, while also receiving significant assistance and training support from Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and other nations. The Defence White Paper 2013 plans to increase the force to 5,000 personnel and double defence spending to 3% by 2017 and by 2030 have 10,000 personnel.[6]

The PNGDF Land Element includes two infantry battalions, an engineer battalion, a signal squadron, an Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) unit, and a preventive medicine platoon. The Air Element is a small air wing operating a light transport aircraft and two leased helicopters. The Maritime Element consists of four Pacific class patrol boats and two Balikpapan class landing craft. The army is under the direct command of Headquarters PNGDF, while the air wing and navy have their own commanding officers. The PNGDF does not have a Commander-in-Chief instead a Commander who advises the Minister for Defence.[7][8] The PNGDF is under the control of the National Executive Council through the Minister for Defence.[8]

History[edit]

The PNGDF originated from the Australian Army land forces of the Territory of Papua New Guinea before independence, coming into being in January 1973 and having its antecedents in the Pacific Islands Regiment. At independence it numbered 3,750 all ranks, while another 465 Australian personnel augmented the force to assist in training and technical support.[9] In the mid 1990s, the PNG economy was in crisis with financial support provided by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on the proviso of economic reform with the first phase in 1996 to include defence. Successive attempts to reduce the size of the PNGDF in response to the country's economic problems provoked fierce resistance. In 2000, the World Bank and the IMF provided loans with economic reform conditions and a Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group (CEPG) report recommended to government that the PNGDF strength be reduced by more than half. In March 2001, soldiers mutinied after learning the government had approved the CEPG report.[10] The government capitulated after 10 days to the mutineers' demands, agreeing not to cut the army's strength. However, in 2002 it was announced that the PNGDF would be reduced from 4,000 to around 2,100 personnel. In early 2004 the government reaffirmed its commitment to implement cuts within the armed forces, with a definitive restructuring expected to take place. Chief of Staff Captain Aloysius Tom Ur told troops in January 2004 that the 2004 strength of 3,000 would be reduced by one-third, and that during 2004, the force's personnel branch would merge with the support branch into a new organisation.[11] Ultimately the reduction-in-size target was reached in 2009.[6]

PNGDF soldiers at Taurama Barracks

PNGDF capability is considered modest, with the army facing significant problems including a chronic budget crisis, a lack of experience in conventional operations, limited ability to be deployed independently overseas as well as internal tensions. The air force and navy also suffer major equipment and funding shortfalls—to the point of sometimes almost being grounded—and are both too small and poorly equipped to take part in operations overseas. Indeed, the entire PNGDF is badly in need of new equipment.[12] Australia, New Zealand, France and several other nations are assisting in the training and the professionalisation of the PNGDF, while others—including Germany and China—provide budgetary assistance. Australia's aid for the PNGDF is currently worth AUD9.2 million with an additional AUD40 million committed the reform programme. AUD20 million was committed initially, mainly for paying off redundant personnel. A second tranche of AUD20 million is for the refurbishment of barracks over five years (AUD5 million). As of January 2006 29 Australian defence personnel were engaged in training and advising in areas including policy, management, maritime, infantry, engineering, personnel, logistic and finance areas of assistance. Two more Australian personnel were seconded as advisers on logistics and personnel matters in August 2006, while an Australian bureaucrat from the Department of Defence is posted to the PNG defence department. "Australia is particularly interested in supporting Port Moresby in the areas of counter-terrorism, maritime patrols and defence organisation structures and procedures."[12]

During its history the PNGDF has sent 400 troops to assist the Vanuatu government put down a secessionist revolt in 1980 and was called out in aid to the civil power in Port Moresby in 1983. It has also conducted operations against the OPM (Organisasi Papua Merdeka or Free Papua Movement), based in Irian Barat, and which had been involved fighting the Indonesian armed forces. From 1989 to 1997 the PNGDF was involved in fighting the secessionist Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) on Bougainville and Buka. During these operations the PNGDF was criticised for its treatment of civilians, human rights violations and the use of mercenaries.[9] More recently, following the passage of a constitutional amendment allowing the stationing of the PNGDF on foreign soil, 80 personnel joined the Australia-led Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) in July 2003. As of 2008 PNGDF personnel remain in the Solomon Islands as part of the scaled down, rotational Pacific contingent.[12]

Admiral Patrick Walsh, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, reviews a Papua New Guinea Defence Force Honor guard

Today, the PNGDF is a small force numbering around 2,100 personnel, and consisting of a Land Element, an Air Element and a Maritime Element. It is a joint force tasked with defending Papua New Guinea and its territories against external attack, as well as having secondary functions including national-building and internal security tasks. Defence accounts for up to 4% of government expenditure, while also receiving significant assistance and training support from Australia, New Zealand, the United States and other nations.[9] The army is under the direct command of Headquarters PNGDF, while the air force and navy have their own commanding officers. The PNGDF is under the political oversight of the Minister for Defence.[12]

On 26 January 2012, military personnel under the command of the retired officer Colonel Yaura Sasa purported to arrest the commander of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, Brigadier General Francis Agwi. It was reported that former Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare had ordered the operation in relation to his attempts to regain the leadership of the country, and had offered to appoint Sasa the commander of the PNGDF.[13]

The size of the PNGDF is to be increased under the Defence White Paper 2013 to 5,000 personnel by 2017 back to the pre Reform Program level in 2002.[6] Defence expenditure had already increased considerably since 2010, rising from K120.3 million in that year to K242 million in 2013.[5] Defence spending under the White Paper is to annually increase from 2014 to reach 3% of GDP by 2017.[6] During 2014 the government announced that it intends to take out a K1.9 billion loan to fund new weapons, uniforms and other capital equipment of the military. The PNGDF is to be modernised under the White Paper with the Land Force to be reequipped with new weapons and equipment including armoured vehicles and the Maritime Element is to acquire three offshore patrol vessels, six patrol craft, one multi-purpose ship and three landing craft with the current fleet of donated Australian vessels to be rehabilitated before being retired in 2018.[6] The Air Element is to restore its fixed wing fleet to flying status with two Casa CN235 and two Arava RV201 and is to acquire PAC 750 STOL aircraft, four Casa C-212-400 aircraft and six Eurocopter EC145 helicopters.[6]

Land Element[edit]

A PNGDF soldier in Kumul uniform with a M16 rifle

The Land Element is the PNGDFs army land force, being primarily a light infantry force capable of conducting low-tempo operations only; it is the senior of the three services. The army has its origins in the Pacific Islands Regiment, which was formed in 1951 as a component of the Australian Army. Since independence, the army has become an indigenous organisation with its own traditions and culture. Nonetheless, the force has adopted foreign ideas on the roles and needs of an armed force, leading to proposals for armour, artillery and attack helicopters. However, the army faces severe budgetary problems and has therefore had virtually no money for operations, training, and maintenance or capital equipment upgrades. In this context, proposals to develop the army into a well equipped, mobile conventional land force, are unlikely in the near to medium term.[12] The army's role is to protect against external aggression, provide for internal security in support of the police, and to carry out civic action and relief operations when required. The engineer battalion is used for civic action with construction and reticulation capabilities, while the two infantry battalions also constructs roads, bridges and other infrastructure in regions where commercial companies are unwilling to work for security reasons.[12]

The army has no significant experience in conventional operations and according to Janes it has limited ability to deploy overseas independently; "it is not effective in internal security operations and has often shown scant regard for political authority. This was illustrated in August 2006 when the PNG government declared a state of emergency in the Southern Highlands province where a proposed gas pipeline has been planned. Troops were being deployed to restore law, order and good governance in the province. In these latter circumstances it has proven to be more of a threat to the state than an asset. For reasons of cultural diversity and rivalry, terrain and transport difficulties and the reduction and retaining of the smaller army—a successful army coup would be extremely unlikely."[12]

During the 1990s the army’s main role was internal security and counter-insurgency operations in Bougainville, where a secessionist movement was attempting to bring independence. This operation—which lasted at varying levels of intensity until 1997—revealed the army's ineffectiveness, lack of training and indiscipline. The army was accused of significant human rights violations and there were indications it was operating independently of the government. Indeed, in June 1991 Colonel L. Nuia was dismissed for killing civilians and using Australian-donated helicopters to dump their bodies at sea, while in September 1993 the PNG government offered to pay compensation for Solomon Island civilians killed by PNGDF forces who had pursued BRA members across the border. The fighting in Bougainville also exposed weaknesses in command, training, discipline and force structure.[9] Later the army was also involved in the controversial Sandline affair of 1997, when the PNGDF Commander—Jerry Singirok—blocked the use of mercenaries to destroy the revolt on Bougainville. The current restructure has focused on the removal of men of a quality now judged to have been unsuitable for the Bougainville campaign and since the end of operations there the army has, with Australian assistance, attempted to reform all aspects of its training and administration.[12]

In the early 21st century terrorism has become increasingly a concern for Papua New Guinea policy-makers and one of the major objectives of the army for 2008 is to prepare itself to deter any attack on its sovereignty but more particularly to terrorist attacks. Equally, although the army has no history of peace support contributions, its involvement in RAMSI has proven a catalyst to determine how it could train for and be used in UN operations. Despite these efforts the army is still not in a position to provide forces with the appropriate "level of training and discipline" without significant risk, according to Janes. To be sure, however, "the army command views such deployment as their contribution to the 'economic well-being of PNG' and a way of maintaining any semblance of a proficient armed force."[12]

As of 2015, women are permitted to serve in non-combat roles in the PNGDF's Land Element.[14]

Current organisation[edit]

The Land Element is directly commanded by the Commander PNGDF, Brigadier General Gilbert Toropo, and has been significantly reduced in size due to restructuring (from 3,500 to 1,800 as of late 2007) and currently comprises the following:[12]

  • Command HQ (Port Moresby);
  • two light Infantry battalions of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment (1 RPIR at Port Moresby and 2 RPIR at Wewak);
  • Long Range Reconnaissance Unit;
  • one Engineer battalion (Lae);
  • Signals Squadron (Port Moresby);
  • EOD unit;
  • Preventative Health Platoon; and
  • Defence Academy (Lae)[15]

A ceremonial guard was established in 2015.[16]

The army's main bases include Port Moresby, Wewak and Lae, while company strength outstations are located at Kiunga and Vanimo. Communications centres are found at all of these locations and also on Manus island. Papua New Guinea has large areas of uninhabited jungle suitable for training. A training depot is maintained at Goldie River near Port Moresby and at Lae.[12]

Historically the army has been poorly trained; however Australia has recently made this the focus of the Enhanced Defence Partnership programme, supplying training, advisors and equipment. New Zealand is also contributing training assistance under its Mutual Assistance Programme. Equally army personnel have in the past trained with the French in New Caledonia, while US Special Forces have occasionally undertaken joint exercises in PNG. At present, however, over 90 per cent of the budget is dedicated to pay and retrenchments, and as a consequence there is little left to fund training exercises. While most soldiers are not currently formally qualified for their rank, there are determined moves to professionalise the army after the restructure is complete. Indeed, the army has an officer training academy and a small trade training capacity, which is being boosted by Australian personnel. A small number of officer candidates also undertake training at the Royal Military College – Duntroon, in Canberra. Australian procedures are followed as a matter of course, and their influence is increasing as more joint training exercises are held.[12]

Long Range Reconnaissance Unit[edit]

The Long Range Reconnaissance Unit (LRRU) is a small infantry unit responsible for providing small reconnaissance teams for patrols in tropical rainforests, wetlands and in the highlands and is developing a counter terrorist capability for the APEC Summit in 2018.[17] The LRRU is planned to receive new equipment in preparation for the APEC Summit.[18] In 1996, the Special Forces Unit (SFU) was formed which was later renamed the LRRU.[19] The LRRU has trained with the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) and the New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) in PNG in its reconnaissance role for many years.[20] Since 2014, the LRRU has been developing a counter terrorist capability for the APEC Summit, and provided a response capability for the Pacific Games in July 2015, with training provided by Australian Army Special Operations Command units and the NZSAS.[21][22] The Warrior Wing established in the 1990s by U.S. Special Forces consists of experienced LRRU soldiers who provide reconnaissance training and coordinate exercises with foreign units.[23]

Equipment[edit]

The army is only lightly equipped—possessing no armour, artillery, heavy weapons, anti-armour or anti-aircraft weapons. It is chronically short of equipment, maintaining just a few mortars, small arms and limited communications equipment. Because mobility is severely impaired due to PNG's mountainous geography, heavy rain-forest and the nation's under-developed transport infrastructure, artillery is not used by the New Guinea Defence Force.[12]

Regardless, while the army's equipment remains largely outdated and inadequate, some new equipment was procured in late 2003 was commissioned during 2004. PNGDF has fielded a new digital satellite communications network, enabling it to communicate with its personnel on the Solomon Islands, stationed there as part of PNG's commitment to the international intervention force. The army can also now communicate securely with its personnel located at seven fixed ground stations—the barracks at Murray, Taurama, Goldie, Lombrum, Igam, Vanimo and Moem. The system also includes mobile units installed on small trucks which communicate from remote locations via the fixed ground stations. Equally in June 2007, the army received 32 new HF Barrett communication radios, at a cost of PGK800,000, in order to assist with providing security for the 2007 election.[12]

The security of the PNGDF's weapons is also an issue, and it is alleged that various mortars, guns and small arms have been used in tribal conflicts and robberies. In response more secure armouries have been provided by Australia, however weapon security remains elusive. Further attempts to improve weapons security were implemented during 2005 with fortnightly weapon checks and making unit commanders accountable for the return of weapons, with serious action threatened for any defaults. Also, soldiers are now forbidden to carry weapons in public without specific permission.[12]

Small arms[edit]

Weapon Origin Type Calibre Notes
Pistols
Hi-Power[24] Belgium Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm Sourced from Australia.[25]
Colt M1911[24] United States Semi-automatic pistol .45 ACP
Submachine guns
F1[24] Australia Submachine gun 9×19mm
FN P90[24] Belgium Submachine gun 5.7×28mm
Sterling[26] United Kingdom Submachine gun 9×19mm Serviceability uncertain.[26]
Rifles
FAMAS[24] France Assault rifle 5.56×45mm In service as of 2012.[27]
M-16A2[26] United States Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Standard service rifle of the PNGDF.[26]
L85A1[24] United Kingdom Assault rifle 5.56×45mm
SAR 80[24] Singapore Assault rifle 5.56×45mm
SR 88[26] Singapore Assault rifle 5.56×45mm
Steyr AUG[26] Austria Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Only a few in service; a larger order from Australia was canceled.[26] F88 variant.[28]
IMI Galil[24] Israel Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Galil Sniper variant.[24]
H&K 33E/79[24] Germany Battle rifle 7.62×51mm
H&K G3[26] Germany Battle rifle 7.62×51mm Serviceability uncertain.[26]
L1A2 SLR[26] Australia Battle rifle 7.62×51mm
Lee–Enfield[24] United Kingdom Bolt-action rifle .303
XM-15[24][26] United States Semi-automatic rifle 5.56×45mm
Machine guns
L2A1[24] Australia Light machine gun 7.62×51mm Heavy-barrelled variant of the L1A1 SLR.[24]
Bren L4A4[24] United Kingdom Light machine gun 7.62×51mm Sourced from Australia.[24]
Ultimax 100[26] Singapore Light machine gun 5.56×45mm Ultimax 100 Mk.2.[24]
FN MAG[26] Belgium GPMG 7.62×51mm MAG-58 variant.[26]
M60[26] United States GPMG 7.62×51mm Sourced from Australia.[26]
Browning M2 HB[24] United States/Belgium Heavy machine gun .50 BMG
Explosive weapons
RPG-7[24] Soviet Union Rocket-propelled grenade
M203[24] United States Grenade launcher At least 80 in service.[24]

Air Element[edit]

PNG roundel

The Air Element is the air force branch of the PNGDF, operating a small number of light aircraft and rotary wing assets in support of army operations. Like the PNGDF in general the air force suffers from chronic equipment shortages and underfunding, but probably even more so than the other two branches.[29] The role of the air force is to support army operations with transport, air re-supply and medical evacuation capabilities.[29] The Defence White Paper 2013 included a new role to be developed of surveillance.[6]

Prior to independence, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and the Australian Army had aviation units based in PNG.[30] Detachment A of No. 38 Squadron with four de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou aircraft was based at Jackson Field in Port Moresby and 183 Reconnaissance Flight (later renamed to 183 Reconnaissance Squadron) of the 1st Aviation Regiment with three Pilatus PC-6B Turbo Porter utility aircraft and about five Bell 47G Sioux helicopters was based at Lae Airfield.[30] The 183 Reconnaissance Squadron helicopters were withdrawn from PNG after independence in 1976 and the Squadron was disbanded.[30]

The Australian government donated six ex-RAAF Douglas C-47B Dakota transport aircraft (later converted to DC-3 standard) to the PNGDF for it to establish an Air Element, although it had requested Caribou aircraft, which were based at Lae Airfield.[30][31][32][33] Three GAF Nomad utility aircraft were subsequently donated by Australia in 1978/79 which were replaced in 1982/83.[34][32][33] In 1991, the Air Element moved from the Lae Airfield to Jacksons International Airport in Port Moresby.[32]

Current organisation[edit]

The Air Element consists of one unit the Air Transport Wing which was formed on 12 August 1975 and is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John Matagarakikai.[32][35] The Air Transport Wing (ATW) has four squadrons: operation, maintenance, training and support; with each squadron made up flights with a total strength of 125 personnel.[32]

In 1985, three Israeli IAI Arava 201 transport aircraft were purchased and from at least 2013 all three were not in service.[32][33] The Defence White Paper 2013 stated an intention to return two into service by 2014, however, the Commander PNGDF Statement of Intent for 2016 stated they would all be removed from Force inventory by 2016.[6][36] In 1992, two CASA CN-235-100 transport aircraft were purchased from Spain and from at least 2013 both were not in service.[32][33] The Defence White Paper 2013 stated an intention to return both into service by 2014, however, only one has returned to service in June 2015.[32][33][37][38] In 1997, the PNGDF acquired a CASA C212-200 transport aircraft from the Sandline affair.[39][33] The Defence White Paper 2013 stated an intention to have this in service by June 2015.[6] In February 2016, a contract was signed with New Zealand company Pacific Aerospace for four PAC P-750 XSTOL aircraft for search and rescue and surveillance and two PAC CT/4 Airtrainer aircraft.[40][41][42]

In 1989, the Australian government donated four ex-RAAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters under Project Wit Koki on the proviso they would not be armed which were later controversially used armed in the Bougainville Civil War.[32][33] In 1992, a fifth helicopter was purchased as an attrition replacement.[32][33] In 2012, the Australian government entered into a lease for two Bell 212 helicopters from Hevilift PNG to provide a rotary wing capability due to all Iroquois helicopters not being in service.[43] In 2016, the Australian government extended the lease until 2019.[44] The Statement of Intent for 2016 stated that all the Iroquois helicopters would be removed from Force inventory by 2016.[36]

In 2014, Lieutenant Colonel Matagarakikai stated that he did not have the human capability or assets they had in the past and that at present there was no air capability to support security or disaster operations or any other operations and that he hoped that the government would support the Defence Whitepaper 2013.[45][46] The Air Transport Wing has always suffered significant serviceability/funding issues with Jane's reporting in January 2006 that one CN-235, one Arava and one UH-1H Iroquois helicopter had been made operational, with single examples of each of those three types also being returned to service by 2007.[29] As early as 1993, the Air Element could not operate any aircraft due to lack of funding.[47]

A PNGDF CN-235 at RAAF Fairbairn in Australia

Current inventory[edit]

Type Origin Class Role Introduced Status Total Notes
CASA CN-235 Spain Propeller Transport 1992[32] 1 in service[32][38] 2[32][33]
Bell 212 United States Helicopter Utility 2012[43] 2 in service[44] 2[44]
CASA C212-200 Spain Propeller Transport 1997[33] 0 in service[6][33] 1[33]
PAC P-750 New Zealand Propeller Utility/Patrol 4 on order[40][41]
PAC CT-4E New Zealand Propeller Trainer 2 on order[40][41]

Maritime Element[edit]

The Maritime Element is the naval branch of the PNGDF, being mainly a light patrol force and is responsible for defending local waters only. It too suffers from chronic equipment shortages and underfunding.[48] The navy has three primary roles: support for military operations, EEZ protection, and heavy logistic support for the army and civil society.[48]

Current organisation[edit]

Naval Ensign

The navy is commanded by Captain Max Aleale and consists of approximately 200 personnel and is based in Port Moresby, Manus Island and Milne Bay—and currently comprises the following:[48]

According to Janes the navy is badly underfunded and much of its equipment is in need of maintenance; as a consequence it is scarcely able to carry out its tasks, with operations often delayed or cancelled. The navy's patrol craft are barely effective; fuel costs and maintenance problems mean that often only one boat is available for sea duty at any time, while the heavy landing craft have high upkeep costs and are nearing the end of their service life. Although the patrol boats may be at times serviceable, the task of patrolling such a large Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is too great and they are heavily reliant for information about the presence of foreign ships on daily reports supplied by US satellite surveillance. The main concern is illegal tuna fishing by Japanese vessels. The navy would like larger vessels as the Pacific class experiences difficulties in deep ocean conditions and is exploring the possibility of procuring a 2,000 tonne multipurpose vessel, or the conversion of a merchant vessel, for patrol duties.[48]

Australia continues to assist the navy patrol its waters and in the training of personnel. A Royal Australian Navy Officer has been seconded to PNG's National Co-ordination Centre and joint exercises are held regularly to review and strengthen current maritime border surveillance. The Australian Border Force also takes part in cross-border patrols. As a matter of course, Australian doctrine and procedures are used.[48]

Equipment[edit]

HMPNGS Seeadler in 2004
Vessel Origin Type In service Notes
HMPNGS Salamaua Australia landing craft 1[50] Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy
HMPNGS Buna Australia landing craft 1[50] Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy
HMPNGS Rabaul Australia patrol boat 1[50] Pacific-class
HMPNGS Dreger Australia patrol boat 1[50] Pacific-class
HMPNGS Seeadler Australia patrol boat 1[50] Pacific-class
HMPNGS Moresby Australia patrol boat 1[50] Pacific-class
HMPNGS Lakekamu Australia training ship 1 Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy

Ranks[edit]

See Papua New Guinea Defence Force ranks

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "PNG appoints Toropo as new Defence Force Commander". Radio New Zealand. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Recruitment". Papua New Defence Force. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  3. ^ "Papua New Guinea". Military Technology. 40 (2016 World Defence Almanac): 344. 2016. ISSN 0722-3226. 
  4. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Papua New Guinea". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Defence Intelligence Organisation (2015), p. 34
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Papua New Guinea Defence Organisation. "The Defence White Paper 2013" (PDF). Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  7. ^ "Office of The Commander PNGDF". Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (s 201(1))". Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  9. ^ a b c d Dennis et al 1995, p. 455.
  10. ^ Colvin, Mark (19 March 2001). "PNG military stand-off continues despite Govt backdown". ABC Radio. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  11. ^ Robert Keith-Reid, 'Papua New Guinea continues force streamlining,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 14 January 2004, p.16
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Janes Worlds Armies – Papua New Guinea". Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  13. ^ "Dumped prime minister Sir Michael Somare ordered army mutiny". News.com.au. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  14. ^ "Women in the army". Loop. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "Officer cadet training progressing". Loop PNG. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  16. ^ Gabina, Lorraine (4 December 2015). "PNG Defence Force Year in Review". EM TV News. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  17. ^ "Long Range Reconnaissance Unit". Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. 
  18. ^ Faiparik, Clifford (1 July 2016). "PNGDF unit needs specialist weapons: Director". The National. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  19. ^ Mou, Freddy (25 March 2017). "PNGDF Unit marks 21st anniversary". Loop PNG. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  20. ^ "PNG-NZ army exercise underway". Pacific Islands News Association. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  21. ^ "Sharing skills in PNG" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1354). Department of Defence. 2 July 2015. p. 7. ISSN 0729-5685. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  22. ^ "Long Range Recon Unit Assembled For Pacific Games". EMTV. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  23. ^ "USARPAC Commander honors Army History throughout South Pacific Region in Goodwill Tour". Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System (Press release). 13 January 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2017. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Alpers, Philip (2010). Karp, Aaron, ed. The Politics of Destroying Surplus Small Arms: Inconspicuous Disarmament. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge Books. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-415-49461-8. 
  25. ^ [1] Archived December 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Capie, David (2004). Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific. Wellington: Victoria University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0864734532. 
  27. ^ "PNG's mutineers trade guns for amnesty". The Australian. 31 January 2012. 
  28. ^ Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (27 January 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  29. ^ a b c "Janes Worlds Airforces – Papua New Guinea". Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  30. ^ a b c d Mench 1976, pp. 101-103.
  31. ^ Senate Defence Cooperation 1984, p. 34.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Air Transport Wing". Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Aircraft of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force". ADF-Serials. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  34. ^ Senate Defence Cooperation 1984, pp. 94-96.
  35. ^ "PNG Defence Force air wing gets new commanding officer". Pacific Islands News Association. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  36. ^ a b "Commander PNG Defence Force Statement of Intent for 2016" (PDF). Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2016. 
  37. ^ Waeda, Julianna (25 June 2015). "PNGDF welcome back CASA plane". Loop Pacific. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  38. ^ a b PNGDF CASA Aircraft in Operation (Television production). EMTV Online. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  39. ^ "Sandline arms will be sold". The National. 2 February 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  40. ^ a b c "New Aircrafts [sic] for PNGDF". Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. 
  41. ^ a b c "PNGDF signs deal for six new aircrafts [sic]". Pacific Aerospace (Press release). 2 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  42. ^ Mou, Freddy (23 February 2016). "PNGDF signs deal for six new aircrafts [sic]". The Loop. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  43. ^ a b "PNGDF helicopter leasing project – contract signed". Australian High Commission – Papua New Guinea (Press release). 13 April 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  44. ^ a b c "24th Australia – Papua New Guinea Ministerial Forum – Joint Communique". Department Foreign Affairs and Trade (Press release). 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  45. ^ "PNGDF’s Airport Transport Wing In Dire Need Of Upgrade". EMTV. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  46. ^ PNGDF's Airport Transport Wing In Dire Need Of Upgrade (Television production). EMTV Online. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  47. ^ May 1993, p. 23.
  48. ^ a b c d e "Janes Worlds Navies – Papua New Guinea". Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  49. ^ Defence Minister Senator David Johnston (4 December 2014). "Minister for Defence – Defence Minister welcomes the commissioning of HMPNGS Lakekamu". Department of Defence (Press release). Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f Trade Registers. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved on 29 May 2015

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Robie, David (29 November 1988). "The Silent Border Struggle". The Dominion. Wellington. 
  • Dibb, Paul; Nicholas, Rhondda (1996). Restructuring the Papua New Guinea Defence Force: Strategic Analysis and Force Structure Principles for a Small State. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University. ISBN 073152490X. 

External links[edit]