Malay trade and creole languages

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In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate. Also, Malay spread through interethnic contact and trade across the Malay archipelago as far as the Philippines. That contact resulted in a lingua franca that was called Bazaar Malay or low Malay and in Malay Melayu Pasar. It is generally believed that Bazaar Malay was a pidgin, influenced by contact among Malay, Chinese, Portuguese, and Dutch traders.

Besides the general simplification that occurs with pidgins, the Malay lingua franca had several distinctive characteristics. One was that possessives were formed with punya 'its owner'; another was that plural pronouns were formed with orang 'person'. The only Malayic affixes that remained productive were tər- and bər-.

Other features:

  • Ada became a progressive particle.
  • Reduced forms of ini 'this' and itu 'that' before a noun became determiners.
  • The verb pərgi 'go' was reduced, and became a preposition 'towards'.
  • Causative constructions were formed with kasi or bəri 'to give' or bikin or buat 'to make'.
  • A single preposition, often sama, was used for multiple functions, including direct and indirect object.[1]

For example,[2]

  • Rumah-ku 'my house' becomes Saya punya rumah
  • Saya pukul dia 'I hit him' becomes Saya kasi pukul dia
  • Megat dipukul Robert 'Megat is hit by Robert' becomes Megat dipukul dek Robert

Bazaar Malay is used in a limited extent in Singapore and Malaysia, mostly used among the older generation or people with no working knowledge of English. [3] The most important reason that contributed to the decline of Bazaar Malay is that pidgin Malay has creolised and created several new languages.[4]Another reason is due to language shift in both formal and informal contexts, Bazaar Malay is gradually being replaced by English, with English being the lingua franca among the younger generations. [3]

.

Baba Malay[edit]

Baba Malay
Native toMalaysia (Melaka
Ethnicity250,000 (1986)[5]
Native speakers
(12,000 cited 1986–2006)[5]
Malay-based creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3mbf
Glottologbaba1267[6]
Peranakan
Baba Indonesian
RegionJava
Native speakers
(20,000 cited 1981)[7]
Malay-based creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3pea
Glottologpera1256[8]

Baba Malay or Peranakan Malay, once a diverse group of pidgins, is spoken in Melaka but is now almost extinct. These are Malay varieties spoken by the Peranakan, descendants of Chinese settlers who have lived in Melaka since the 15th Century.[9] Baba Malay is close to the trade pidgins which became creolised across the Malay Archipelago, producing the variety of Malay creoles seen today. A kind of Baba Malay, called Peranakan, is spoken among Chinese living in East Java. It is a mixture of Malay or Indonesian with local Javanese (East Javanese dialect) and Chinese elements (particularly Hokkien). This particular variety is found only in East Java, especially in Surabaya and surrounding areas. While other Chinese tend to speak the language varieties of the places in which they live (the Chinese of Central Java speak High or Standard Javanese in daily conversation even among themselves; in West Java, they tend to speak Sundanese), in Surabaya younger ethnic Chinese people tend to speak pure Javanese (Surabaya dialect) and learn Mandarin in courses.

There are currently fewer 1,000 Baba Malay speakers in Melaka, and fewer than 1,000 Baba Malay speakers in Singapore.[10] Baba Malay is mostly spoken among the older populations.[11]

Example (Spoken in Surabaya):

  • Kamu mbok ojok gitu! : Don't act that way!
  • Yak apa kabarnya si Eli? : How's Eli?
  • Ntik kamu pigio ambek cecemu ae ya. : Go with your sister, okay?
  • Nih, makanen sakadae. : Please have a meal!
  • Kamu cariken bukune koko ndhek rumahe Ling Ling. : Search your brother's book in Ling Ling's house.

Example (Spoken in Melaka-Singapore):[12]

  • Dia suka datang sini sembang. : He likes to come here and gossip.
  • Keliap-keliap, dia naik angin. : Slightly provoked, he gets angry.
  • Gua tunggu dia sampai gua k'ee geram. : I waited for him till I got angry.
  • Oo-wa! Kinajeet, dia pasang kuat. : Wow! Today he dresses stylishly!

Betawi Malay[edit]

Betawi Malay, also known as Jakarta or Java Malay, is a creolised-Malay which is spoken in Jakarta (the modern name for Betawi) and its surroundings. Betawian or Omong Betawi is based on Bazaar Malay (Melayu Pasar) but influenced by various languages such as Javanese, Sundanese (the area is surrounded by Sundanese speaking area), Chinese (especially Hokkien), Portuguese, Dutch, Balinese and others. Betawian creole began to be used after 1750 in Batavia, and replaced Portuguese creole as the lingua franca.[13]

Betawian Malay was also influenced by Chinese-style Malay spoken by the Chinese settlers who had come earlier.

It has now become a very popular language particularly amongst the younger generations in Indonesia due largely to its use on television (such as sinetron or sitcom).

Betawi Malay was the ancestor of Cocos Malay.

Malaccan Creole Malay[edit]

Malaccan Creole Malay
Chitties Creole Malay
Native toMalaysia
Ethnicity300 (no date)
Native speakers
unknown
Malay-based creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3ccm
Glottologmala1482[14]

Spoken since the 16th century by descendents of Tamil merchants of the Malacca Straits. It may be historically related to Sri Lanka Creole Malay. The current language status is moribund, due to inter-marriage and out-migration. There has been language shift towards Malay instead.[15]

Sri Lanka Malay[edit]

The Sri Lankan Creole Malay language is a unique mixture of the Sinhalese language and the Tamil language with Malay. Sri Lanka Malay (SLM) is a restructured vernacular of Malay base spoken by at least five different communities in Sri Lanka which has evolved to be significantly divergent from other varieties of Malay due to intimate contact with the dominant languages of Sinhala and Tamil. The Malays in Sri Lanka, whose ancestry include labourers brought by the Dutch and British, as well as soldiers in the Dutch garrison, now constitute 0.3% of the population, numbering some 46,000. It is spoken exclusively by the Malay ethnic minority in Sri Lanka.[16]

Singapore Bazaar Malay[edit]

Singapore Bazaar Malay, also known as Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay, or Market Malay, is a Malay-lexified pidgin, which is spoken in Singapore. [17] Tamil and Hokkien contributed to the development of Bazaar Malay, with Hokkien being the dominant substrate language of Bazaar Malay, with Malay being the lexifier language. [18] However, there are many input languages spoken by immigrants that also contributed to the development of Bazaar Malay, including languages spoken by Malays, Chinese, Indians, Eurasians, and Europeans. Singapore Bazaar Malay emerged along with the opening of Singapore's free trade port in 1819, to overcome barriers in communication and business transactions. Since Singapore have four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil), Singapore Bazaar Malay not only is a lingua franca in interethnic communication, it is also used in intra-group communication. Singapore Bazaar Malay is mostly spoken by elders and middle-aged workers today, but its language status is declining due to education policies and language campaigns with less than 10,000 speakers. [17]

Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin[edit]

A pidgin used in the pearl industry in West Australia.

Sabah Malay[edit]

Sabah Malay
RegionSabah, Sulu Archipelago, Labuan
Native speakers
[19]
3 million L2 speakers (2013)[20]
Malay–based pidgin
Language codes
ISO 639-3msi
Glottologsaba1263[21]

A pidginised variant of standard Malay, Sabah Malay is a local trade language.[22] There are a large number of native speakers in urban areas, mainly children who have a second native language. There are also some speakers in the southernmost parts of the Philippines, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago as a trade language.

Macassar Malay[edit]

Macassar Malay
RegionMakassar, South Sulawesi
Native speakers
None[23]
Second language: 1.9 million (2000)
Language codes
ISO 639-3mfp
Glottologmaka1305[24]

Macassar Malay is not a creole, but a mixed Malay–Macassarese language, with Malay lexicon, Macassarese inflections, and mixed Malay/Macassarese syntax.[25]It is spoken as a second language in Indonesia. [26]

Balinese Malay[edit]

Balinese Malay
RegionBali
Native speakers
25,000 (2000 census)[27]
Malay-based creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3mhp
Glottologbali1279[6]

Balinese Malay is a trade language of the island of Indonesia and the Nusa Islands. The current language status is threatened. [28]

East Indonesian Malay[edit]

The creoles of eastern Indonesia[29] appear to have formed as Malays and Javanese, using lingua franca Malay, established their monopoly on the spice trade before the European colonial era. They have a number of features in common:

  • ə becomes a, e, or assimilates to the following vowel
  • i, u lower to e, o in some environments
  • there is a loss of final plosives p, t, k, and the neutralisation of final nasals in part of the lexicon
  • the perfective marker sudah reduces to su or so[1]

For example,[2]

  • makan becomes makang
  • pergi becomes pigi or pi
  • terkejut becomes takajo
  • lembut becomes lombo
  • dapat becomes dapa

Bacan (next) is perhaps the most archaic, and appears to be closely related to Brunei Malay (which is not a creole).

Bacanese Malay[edit]

Bacanese Malay
RegionBacan, North Maluku
Native speakers
6 (2012)[30]
Brunei Malay-based creole?
Language codes
ISO 639-3btj
Glottologbaca1243[6]

Spoken in Bacan Island and its surroundings, North Maluku.

Manado Malay[edit]

Manado Malay is another creole which is the lingua franca in Manado and Minahasa, North Sulawesi. It is based on Ternatean Malay and highly influenced by Ternatean, Dutch, Minahasa languages and some Portuguese words.

Examples :

  • Kita = I
  • Ngana = you
  • Torang = we
  • Dorang = they
  • Io = yes
  • Nyanda' = no (' = glottal stop)

Sentences :

  • Kita pe mama ada pi ka pasar : My mother is going to the market
  • Ngana so nyanda' makang dari kalamareng : You haven't eaten since yesterday.
  • Ngana jang badusta pa kita : Don't lie to me
  • Torang so pasti bisa : we can surely do that

Gorap[edit]

Gorap
RegionMorotai Island, central Halmahera
Native speakers
(1,000 cited 1992)[31]
Malay-based creole
  • East Indonesian
    • Gorap
Language codes
ISO 639-3goq
Glottologgora1261[6]

Gorap is lexically 85% Malay, but has many Ternate words as well, and word order differs from both Austronesian and Halmahera languages. Children no longer acquire the language.

Ternate / North Moluccan Malay[edit]

This creole resembles Manado Malay, but with different accents and vocabulary. A large percentage of its vocabulary is borrowed from Ternatean, such as: ngana : you (sg) ngoni : you (pl) bifi : ant ciri : to fall Spoken in Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera islands, North Maluku for intergroup communications, and in the Sula Islands.

Example :

  • Jang bafoya : Don't lie!

Kupang Malay[edit]

Kupang Malay
RegionKupang, West Timor
Native speakers
200,000 (1997)[32]
100,000 L2 speakers (no date)[32]
Malay-based creole
  • East Indonesian
    • Kupang Malay
Language codes
ISO 639-3mkn
Glottologkupa1239[6]

Spoken in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, on the west end of Timor Island. It is based on archaic Malay which mixed mostly with Dutch, Portuguese and local languages. Similar to Ambonese Malay with several differences in vocabulary and accent. Its grammatical system resembles that of other East Indonesian Malay Creoles.

Examples :

  • beta = I
  • lu = You
  • sonde = No
  • Beta sonde tau, lai = I don't know

Alor Malay[edit]

Alor Malay is spoken in the Alor archipelago. Speakers perceive Alor Malay to be a different register of standard Indonesian, but both of these are prestige varieties of the archipelago. Many people are able to understand standard Indonesian, but cannot speak it fluently and choose to use Alor Malay on a daily basis.[33]

Alor Malay is based on Kupang Malay; however, Alor Malay differs significantly from Kupang Malay, especially in its pronouns.[34]

Ambonese Malay[edit]

Malay was first brought to Ambon by traders from Western Indonesia, then developed into a creole when the Dutch Empire colonised the Molluccas. Ambonese Malay was the first example of the transliteration of Malay into Roman script, and used as a tool of the missionaries in Eastern Indonesia.

Bandanese Malay[edit]

Bandanese Malay
Banda Malay
RegionBanda Islands
Native speakers
3,700 (2000)[35]
Malay-based creole
  • East Indonesian
    • Bandanese Malay
Language codes
ISO 639-3bpq
Glottologband1353[6]

A distinct variant of Moluccan Malay, spoken in Banda Islands, Maluku. Significantly different from Ambonese Malay and for Ambonese, Bandanese Malay tends to be perceived as sounding funny due to its unique features.

Example :

  • Beta : I
  • pane : you
  • katorang : we
  • mir : ants (deviated from Dutch : mier)

Papuan/Irian Malay[edit]

Papuan Malay
Irian Malay
RegionWest Papua
Native speakers
unknown; 500,000 L1 and L2 speakers (2007)[36]
Malay-based creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3pmy
Glottologpapu1250[6]

Originally a contact language among tribes in Indonesian New Guinea (Papua and West Papua) for trading and daily communication, now a growing number of native speakers. Papuan and Irian declared Malay as their language since 1926, before the Sumpah Pemuda declaration. Nowadays, they tend to speak more formal Indonesian. This variant is also understood in Vanimo, Papua New Guinea near Indonesian border.

Example :

  • Ini tanah pemerintah punya, bukan ko punya! = It's governmental land, not yours!
  • Tong tra pernah bohong = We don't lie.

See also[edit]

Creoles of the Malay Archipelago based on languages other than Malay[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wurm, Mühlhäusler, & Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 1996:673ff.
  2. ^ a b MALAY DIALECT RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA: THE ISSUE OF PERSPECTIVE1.
  3. ^ a b "APiCS Online - Survey chapter: Singapore Bazaar Malay". apics-online.info. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Vehicular Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ a b Baba Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Baba Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glottolog" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ Peranakan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Peranakan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  9. ^ Baba Malay of Malacca.
  10. ^ Lee, Nala Huiying. 2014. A Grammar of Baba Malay with Sociophonetic Considerations. PhD Dissertation: University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
  11. ^ "Malay, Baba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  12. ^ "BABA / PERANAKAN MALAY". The Peranakan Resource Library. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  13. ^ Why Malay/Indonesian Undressed: Contact, Geography, and the Roll of the Dice, by David Gil Archived 26 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malaccan Creole Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  15. ^ "Malaccan Creole Malay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  16. ^ Malays contact with Sri Langka.
  17. ^ a b "APiCS Online - Survey chapter: Singapore Bazaar Malay". apics-online.info. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  18. ^ Platt, John & Weber, Heidi (1980). "English in Singapore and Malaysia: Status, features, functions". Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  19. ^ Sabah Malay at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  20. ^ Sabah Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  21. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sabah Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  22. ^ Hoogervorst, Tom G. (2011-04-01). "Some introductory notes on the development and characteristics of Sabah Malay". Wacana. 13 (1): 50–77. doi:10.17510/wjhi.v13i1.9. ISSN 2407-6899.
  23. ^ Macassar Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  24. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Makassar Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  25. ^ Wurm, Mühlhäusler, & Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, 1996:682.
  26. ^ "Malay, Makassar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  27. ^ Balinese Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  28. ^ "Malay, Balinese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  29. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Indonesia Trade Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  30. ^ Bacanese Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  31. ^ Gorap at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  32. ^ a b Kupang Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  33. ^ Baird, Louise. 2008. A grammar of Klon: a non-Austronesian language of Alor, Indonesia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  34. ^ Klamer, Marion (2014). "The Alor-Pantar languages: Linguistic context, history and typology.". In Klamer, Marian. Alor Pantar languages: History and Typology. Berlin: Language Sciences Press. pp. 5–53.
  35. ^ Bandanese Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  36. ^ Papuan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)