Papuan Tip languages
|Eastern New Guinea|
The Papuan Tip languages are a branch of the Western Oceanic languages consisting of 60 languages.
All Papuan Tip languages, except Nimoa, Sudest, and the Kilivila languages (all spoken on islands off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea), have SOV word order due to influences from nearby Papuan languages (Lynch, Ross, & Crowley 2002:104). Universally, this is considered to be a typologically unusual change. Since these non-Austronesian influences can be reconstructed for Proto-Papuan Tip, they did not simply result from recent contact among individual daughter languages.
According to Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002), the structure of the family is as follows:
- Nuclear Papuan Tip linkage
- Suauic linkage: Buhutu, 'Auhelawa, Oya'oya, Unubahe, Saliba, Suau, Bwanabwana, Wagawaga
- North Mainland – D'Entrecasteaux linkage
- Bwaidoga: Bwaidoka, Diodio (West Goodenough), Iamalele, Iduna, Koluwawa, Maiadomu
- Dobu–Duau: Dobu, Molima, Bunama, Boselewa, Duau, Galeya, Mwatebu, Sewa Bay
- Kakabai: Dawawa, Kakabai
- Are–Taupota
- Kilivila–Misima linkage
- Nimoa–Sudest family: Nimoa, Sudest
- Central Papuan Tip family
Maisin is difficult to classify, but its Austronesian component likely belongs with Nuclear Papuan Tip. Yele has recently been tentatively classified as closest to Nimoa–Sudest, while others classify it as a Papuan language.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Papuan Tip linkage". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Reesink, Ger; Dunn, Michael (2018). "Contact phenomena in Austronesian and Papuan languages". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 939–985. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Lynch, John; Malcolm Ross; Terry Crowley (2002). The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 9780700711284. OCLC 48929366.