Papyrus 45

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Papyrus 45
New Testament manuscript
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
NameP. Chester Beatty I
TextGospels, Acts
Datec. 250
Now atChester Beatty Library
CiteF.G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri (London: E. Walker), 1933
Size30 leaves; 10 in x 8 in
Typeeclectic text-type

Papyrus 45 (45 or P. Chester Beatty I) is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. Manuscripts among the Chester Beatty Papyri have had several provenances associated with them, the most likely being the Faiyum.[1] It has been paleographically dated to the early 3rd century CE.[2] It contains the texts of Matthew 20-21 and 25-26; Mark 4-9 and 11-12; Luke 6-7 and 9-14; John 4-5 and 10-11; and Acts 4-17. The manuscript is currently housed at the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ireland, except for one leaf containing Matt. 25:41-26:39 which is at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna (Pap. Vindob. G. 31974).[3][4] In November 2020, the CSNTM in conjunction with Hendrickson Publishers released a new 1:1 high-resolution imaged facsimile edition of 45 on black and white backgrounds, along with 46 and47.[5]

Condition of the manuscript[edit]

The manuscript is heavily damaged and fragmented. The papyrus was bound in a codex, which may have consisted of 220 pages, however only 30 survive (two of Matthew, six of Mark, seven of Luke, two of John, and thirteen of Acts).[6]: 54  All of the pages have lacunae, with very few lines complete.[6]: 54  The leaves of Matthew and John are the smallest.[6]: 54  The original pages were roughly 10 inches by 8 inches.[6]: 54  Unlike many of the other surviving manuscripts from the 3rd century which usually contained just the Gospels, or just the Catholic letters, or just the Pauline epistles, this manuscript possibly contained more than one grouping of New Testament texts.[6]: 54  This hypothesis is attributed to the use of gatherings of two leaves, a single-quire that few other codices had.[6]: 54, fn. 5 

Textual character[edit]

Because of the extent of the damage, determining the text's type has been difficult for scholars. The manuscript was obtained by Alfred Chester Beatty in the first half of the 20th century, and published in The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible by Frederic G. Kenyon in 1933. In this work, Kenyon identified the text of the Gospel of Mark in 45 as Caesarean, following the definition of Burnett Hillman Streeter.[7] Hollis Huston criticized Kenyon's transcription of various partially surviving words, and concluded that chapters 6 and 11 of Mark in 45 could not neatly fit into one text-type, especially not Caesarean, because the manuscript predates the distinctive texts for each type from the 4th and 5th centuries.[8]

45 has a great number of singular readings.[9] On the origin of these singular readings, E. C. Colwell comments:

"As an editor the scribe of 45 wielded a sharp axe. The most striking aspect of his style is its conciseness. The dispensable word is dispensed with. He omits adverbs, adjectives, nouns, participles, verbs, personal pronouns—without any compensating habit of addition. He frequently omits phrases and clauses. He prefers the simple to the compound word. In short, he favors brevity. He shortens the text in at least fifty places in singular readings alone. But he does not drop syllables or letters. His shortened text is readable."[10]


45 has a relatively close statistical relationship with Codex Washingtonianus in Mark, however, and to a lesser extent Family 13. Citing Larry Hurtado's study, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark,[11] Eldon Jay Epp has agreed that there is no connection to a Caesarean or pre-Caesarean text in Mark. There is also no strong connection to the Alexandrian text of Codex Vaticanus, the Western text of Codex Bezae, or the Byzantine text of the Textus Receptus.[12] Another hypothesis is that 45 comes from the Alexandrian tradition, but has many readings intended to "improve" the text stylistically, and a number of harmonizations. While still difficult to place historically in a category of texts, contrary to Kenyon, including 45 as a representative of the Caesarean text-type has been undermined.[13]

The textual character of the manuscript varies from book to book. In Mark, multivariate analysis of apparatus data from the UBS Greek New Testament (4th ed.)[14] places 45 in a group which includes W (for chapters 5-16), Θ, Family 1, and the minuscules 28, 205, 565; the Sinaitic Syriac, Armenian, and Georgian versions; and Origen's quotations.[15] This group corresponds to what Streeter called an "Eastern type" of the text.[16]: 27, 108  In Luke, an eleven-way PAM partition based on Greek manuscript data associated with the INTF's Parallel Pericopes volume[17] places the manuscript in a group with C (04), L (019), Ξ (040), 33, 892, and 1241.[18] In Acts it is closest to the Alexandrian text.

It is calculated that the codex omitted the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11).[19]

Notable readings[edit]

Matthew 25:41-46 in Papyrus 45

Mark 6:40

κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα:
Omit. : 45 syvf syh(ms)
Incl. : א B D (ἀνὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ ἀνὰ - L Θ ƒ1 ƒ13 28. 565. 579. 700. 892. 1424. )[20]

Mark 6:44

τοὺς ἄρτους:
Omit. : 45 א D W Θ ƒ1.13 28. 565. 700. 2542 lat cop
Incl. : A B L 33. 2427 (c) f syp.h bo

Mark 6:45

εἰς τὸ πέραν:
Omit. : 45 W ƒ1 118. itq syrs
Incl. : All other witnesses

Mark 8:12

λέγω ὑμῖν:
Omit. : 45 W
Incl. (without ὑμῖν): B L 892. pc
Incl. (full): All other witnesses

Mark 8:15

των Ηρωδιανων: 45 W Θ ƒ1.13 28. 565. 1365. 2542 iti.k cop samss arm geo
Ἡρῴδου: All other witnesses

Mark 8:35

ἐμοῦ καὶ:
Omit. : 45 D 28. 700. ita.b.d.i.k.n.r1 syrs arm Origen
Incl. : All other witnesses

Mark 9:27

καὶ ἀνέστη:
Omit. : 45(vid) W itk.l sys.p
Incl. : All other witnesses

Luke 6:48

διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν: 75(vid) א B L W Ξ 33. 157. 579. 892. 1241. 1342. 2542 syhmg sa bopt
τεθεμελίωτο γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν: A C D Θ Ψ ƒ1.13 700.c Byz latt syrp.h cop bopt arm geo goth
Omit. : 45(vid) 700.* syrs

Luke 11:33

οὐδὲ ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον:
Omit. : 45 75 L Γ Ξ 070 ƒ1 22. 69. 700.* 788. 1241. 2542 syrs cop arm, geo
Incl. : א A B C D W Θ Ψ ƒ13 latt sy(c.p).h; (Cl)

Luke 11:44

γραμματεις και Φαρισαιοι υποκριται:
Omit. : 45 75 א B C L ƒ1 33. 1241. 2542 ita.aur.c.e.ff2.l vg syrs.c sa cop bopt arm geo
Incl. : A (D) W Θ Ψ ƒ13 it syp.h bopt

Luke 11:54

ινα κατηγορησωσιν αυτου:
Omit. : 45 75 א B L 579. 892.* 1241. 2542 syrs.c co
Incl. : A C (D) W Θ Ψ ƒ1.13 33. lat vg sy(p).h

Luke 12:9

Omit. verse: 45 ite syrs boms
Incl. verse: All other witnesses

Luke 12:47

μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ:
Omit. : 45
Incl. : All other witnesses

John 11:7

τοῖς μαθηταῖς:
Omit. : 45 66* ite.1
Incl. : 6(vid).66c.75 א A B D K Γ Δ L W Θ Ψ 0250 ƒ13 𝑙844 al lat syr co ƒ1 33.

John 11:25

καὶ ἡ ζωή:
Omit. : 45 it1 syrs Diatessaron syr Cyprian
Incl. : All other witnesses

John 11:51

τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου:
Omit. : 45 ite.1 syrs
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 5:37

Omit. : 45 D it
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 8:18

το αγιον:
Omit. : א Ac B sa mae
Incl. : 45 74 A* C D E Ψ 33. 1739 Byz latt syr cop bo

Acts 9:17

Omit. :
Incl. : 45 74 א A B C E Ψ 33. 81. 323. 614. 945. 1175 1739

Acts 9:21

οἱ ἀκούοντες:
Omit. : 45 74 Ψ* pc
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 9:38

δύο ἄνδρας:
Omit. :
Incl. : 45 74 א A B C E Ψ 36 81. 323. 614. 945 1175 1739 latt syr co

Acts 10:10

ἐγένετο: 74(vid) א A B C 36. 81. 323. 453. 945. 1175. 1739. Origen
επεπεσεν: E Ψ 33. Byz latt syr
ηλθεν: 45

Acts 10:13

Omit. : 45 gig Clement Ambrose
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 10:16

Omit. : 45 36. 453. 1175. 2818 itd syrp samss boms
Incl. : 74 א A B C E 81. pc vg syhmg bo
παλιν : (D) Ψ 33(vid). 323. 614. 945. 1241. 1505. 1739 p syh samss mae

Acts 10:33

κυρίου: 45(vid) א A B C E Ψ 81* 323. 614. 945 1175 1739 lat syrh bo
θεου: 74 D Byz syrp sa mae boms

Acts 11:12

μηδὲν διακρίναντα:
Omit. : 45 D itl.p* syrh
Incl. : א(*) A B (E Ψ) 33. 81. 945. (1175). 1739 al

Acts 13:48

κυρίου: 45 74 א A C Ψ 33. 1739 Byz gig vg samss mae
θεου: B D E 049 323. 453 sams bo
θεον: 614. syr pc

Acts 13:49

τοῦ κυρίου:
Omit. : 45 pc
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 15:20

τῆς πορνείας:
Omit. : 45
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 15:40

κυρίου: 74 א A B D 33. 81. itd vgst sa
θεου: 45 C E Ψ 1739 Byz gig itw vgcl syr bo

Acts 16:32

κυρίου: 45 74 א2 A C (D) E Ψ 33. 1739 Byz lat syr cop
θεου: א* B pc

Acts 17:13

καὶ ταράσσοντες:
Omit. : 45 E Byz
Incl. : 74 א A B D(*) (Ψ) 33. 36. 81. 323. 614. 945. 1175. 1505. 1739 al lat syr sa (bo)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ See main Chester Beatty Papyri page for full info.
  2. ^ F. G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible, Fasciculus I, General Introduction (Emery Walker Ltd., 1933), p. x.
  3. ^ Kurt and Barbara Aland, Der Text des Neuen Testaments. Einführung in die wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1989, p. 109. ISBN 3-438-06011-6
  4. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  5. ^ CSNTM, CSNTM and Hendrickson Publishers to Publish Third-Century New Testament Papyri Facsimiles
  6. ^ a b c d e f Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (4th ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-019-516667-5.
  7. ^ Huston 1955, p. 262
  8. ^ Huston 1955, pp. 265, 268, 270-271.
  9. ^ Barbara Aland, The Significance of the Chester Beatty in Early Church History, in: The Earliest Gospels ed. Charles Horton, London 2004, p. 110.
  10. ^ Ernest Cadman Colwell, “Scribal Habits in the Early Papyri: A Study in the Corruption of the Text,” in: "The Bible in Modern Scholarship" ed. J. P. Hyatt, New York: Abingdon Press 1965, p.383.
  11. ^ Hurtado, Larry W. (1981). Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eedmans. ISBN 0-8028-1872-2.
  12. ^ Epp 1974, p. 395
  13. ^ Wasserman, Tommy (2015). "45 and Codex W in Mark Revisited". In Keith, Chris; Roth, Dieter T. (eds.). Mark, Manuscripts, And Monotheism: Essays in Honor of Larry W. Hurtado. London, UK; New York, USA: Bloomsbury T&T Clark. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-56765-594-3.
  14. ^ Aland et al. (eds), Greek New Testament, 4th rev. ed., Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1998
  15. ^ Timothy J. Finney (2018). "How To Discover Textual Groups". Digital Studies/Le Champ Numérique. 8. doi:10.16995/dscn.291.
  16. ^ Streeter, B. H. (1924). The Four Gospels. London: Macmillan.
  17. ^ Holger Strutwolf and Klaus Wachtel (eds), Novum Testamentum Graecum: Editio Critica Maior: Parallel Pericopes: Special Volume Regarding the Synoptic Gospels (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 2011)
  18. ^ PAM (partitioning around medoids) is a multivariate analysis technique. For a description, see Timothy J. Finney. "Views of New Testament Textual Space". Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  19. ^ Skeat, T. C. (2004). "A Codicological Analysis of the Chester Beatty Papyrus Codex of Gospels and Acts (45)". In Elliot, James Keith (ed.). The Collected Biblical Writings of T. C. Skeat. Leiden; Boston: Brill. p. 147. ISBN 9004139206.
  20. ^ "Ecm - Intf".

Further reading[edit]

  • Frederic G. Kenyon, Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri II/1: The Gospels and Acts, Text, London 1933.
  • Eldon Jay Epp, "The Twentieth Century Interlude in New Testament Textual Criticism". Journal of Biblical Literature. vol. 93, No. 3 (Sep., 1974), pp. 386–414
  • Larry W. Hurtado, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark. Studies and Documents 43. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981.
  • Larry W. Hurtado, “P45 and the Textual History of the Gospel of Mark,” in The Earliest Gospels: The Origins and Transmission of the Earliest Christian Gospels--The Contribution of the Chester Beatty Gospel Codex P45, ed. Charles Horton (London: T&T Clark International, 2004) pp. 132–48.
  • Hollis W. Huston, "Mark 6 and 11 in 45 and in the Caesarean Text." Journal of Biblical Literature. vol. 64, No. 4 (Dec., 1955) pp. 262–271
  • Bruce Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 54.
  • Ayuso, El texto cesariense del papiro de Chester Beatty en ela Evangelio de San Marcos, EB. IV (1934), 268–281.
  • T. C. Skeat, A Codicological Analysis of the Chester Beatty Papyrus Codex of Gospels and Acts (P 45), in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The Collected Biblical Writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004.
  • Comfort, Philip W.; Barrett, David P. (2001). The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. pp. 155–201. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9.
  • P. L. Hedley, The Egyptian Texts of the Gospels and Acts, The Church quarterly review 1934, pp. 188–230.

External links[edit]