Papyrus 45

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Papyrus 45
New Testament manuscript
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
Name P. Chester Beatty I
Sign \mathfrak{P}45
Text Gospels, Acts
Date c. 250
Script Greek
Found Egypt
Now at Chester Beatty Library
Cite F.G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri (London: E. Walker), 1933
Size 30 leaves; 10 in x 8 in
Type eclectic text-type
Category I

Papyrus 45 (\mathfrak{P}45 or P. Chester Beatty I) is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. It was probably created around 250 in Egypt.[1] It contains the texts of Matthew 20-21 and 25-26; Mark 4-9 and 11-12; Luke 6-7 and 9-14; John 4-5 and 10-11; and Acts 4-17. The manuscript is currently housed at the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ireland, except for one leaf containing Matt. 25:41-26:39 which is at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna (Pap. Vindob. G. 31974).[2][3]

Condition of the manuscript[edit]

The manuscript is heavily damaged and fragmented. The papyrus was bound in a codex, which may have consisted of 220 pages, however only 30 survive (two of Matthew, six of Mark, seven of Luke, two of John, and 13 of Acts). All of the pages have lacunae, with very few lines complete. The leaves of Matthew and John are the smallest. The original pages were roughly 10 inches by 8 inches. Unlike many of the other surviving manuscripts from the 3rd century which usually contained just the Gospels, or just the Catholic letters, or just the Pauline epistles, this manuscript possibly contained more than one grouping of New Testament texts. This hypothesis is attributed to the use of gatherings of two leaves, a single-quire that most other codices had.[4]

Textual character[edit]

Because of the extent of the damage, determining the text's type has been difficult for scholars. The manuscript was obtained by Alfred Chester Beatty in the first half of the 20th century, and published in The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible by Frederic G. Kenyon in 1933. In this work, Kenyon identified the text of the Gospel of Mark in \mathfrak{P}45 as Caesarean, following the definition of Burnett Hillman Streeter.[5] Hollis Huston criticized Kenyon's transcription of various partially surviving words, and concluded that chapters 6 and 11 of Mark in \mathfrak{P}45 could not neatly fit into one text-type, especially not Caesarean, because the manuscript predates the distinctive texts for each type from the 4th and 5th centuries.[6]

\mathfrak{P}45 has a great number of singular readings.[7] On the origin of these singular readings, E. C. Colwell comments:

"As an editor the scribe of \mathfrak{P}45 wielded a sharp axe. The most striking aspect of his style is its conciseness. The dispensable word is dispensed with. He omits adverbs, adjectives, nouns, participles, verbs, personal pronouns—without any compensating habit of addition. He frequently omits phrases and clauses. He prefers the simple to the compound word. In short, he favors brevity. He shortens the text in at least fifty places in singular readings alone. But he does not drop syllables or letters. His shortened text is readable."[8]


\mathfrak{P}45 has a relatively close statistical relationship with Codex Washingtonianus in Mark, however, and to a lesser extent Family 13. Citing Larry Hurtado's study, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark,[9] Eldon Jay Epp has agreed that there is no connection to a Caesarean or pre-Caesarean text in Mark. There is also not a strong connection to the Neutral text of Codex Vaticanus, the Western text of Codex Bezae, and the Byzantine text of the textus receptus.[10] Another hypothesis is that \mathfrak{P}45 comes from the Alexandrian tradition, but has many readings intended to "improve" the text stylistically, and a number of harmonizations. While still difficult to place historically in a category of texts, most scholars today agree that the text is not Caesarean, contrary to Kenyon.

The textual character of the manuscript varies from book to book. In Mark, multivariate analysis of apparatus data from the UBS Greek New Testament (4th ed.)[11] places \mathfrak{P}45 in a group which includes W (for chapters 5-16), Θ, Family 1, 28, 205, 565; the Sinaitic Syriac, Armenian, and Georgian versions; and Origen's quotations.[12] This group corresponds to what Streeter called an "Eastern type" of the text.[13] In Luke, an eleven-way PAM partition based on Greek manuscript data associated with the INTF's Parallel Pericopes volume[14] places the manuscript in a group with C (04), L (019), Ξ (040), 33, 892, and 1241.[15] In Acts it is closest to the Alexandrian text.

It is calculated that the codex omitted the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11).[16]

Notable readings[edit]

Matthew 25:41-46 in Papyrus 45

Mark 6:40 omits text κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα (by fifties and by hundreds)

Mark 6:44 omits text τοὺς ἄρτους (those loaves) with א D W Θ f1 f13 28 565 700 2542 lat copsa

Mark 6:45 omits text εἰς τὸ πέραν (to the other side) with W f1 118 itq syrs

Mark 8:12 omits text λέγω ὑμῖν (I will tell you) with W

Mark 8:15 reads των Ηρωδιανων (the Herodians) with W Θ f1,13 28 565 1365 2542 iti.k copsamss arm geo

Mark 8:35 reads ἕνεκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου (for the sake of the Gospel) omitting ἐμοῦ καὶ (of me and) as in D 28 700 ita.b.d.i.k.n.r1 syrs arm Origen

Mark 9:27 omits text καὶ ἀνέστη (and he arose) with W itk.l syrp

Luke 6:48

διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν (because it had been well built) — \mathfrak{P}75vid א B L W Ξ 33 157 579 892 1241 1342 2542 syrhmg copsa copbopt
τεθεμελίωτο γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν (for it had been founded upon that rock) — A C D Θ Ψ f1,13 700c Byz latt syrp.h copbopt arm, geo, goth
omitted — \mathfrak{P}45vid 700* syrs

Luke 11:33 omits text οὐδὲ ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον (nor under a basket) with \mathfrak{P}75 L Γ Ξ 070 f1 22 69 700* 788 1241 2542 syrs copsa arm, geo

Luke 11:44 omits text γραμματεις και Φαρισαιοι υποκριται (scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites) with \mathfrak{P}75 א B C L f1 33 1241 2542 ita.aur.c.e.ff2.l vg syrs,c copsa copbopt arm geo

Luke 11:54 omits text ινα κατηγορησωσιν αυτου (in order that they might accuse him) with \mathfrak{P}75 א B L 579 892* 1241 2542 syrs,c co

Luke 12:9 omitted, as in ite syrs copboms

Luke 12:47 omits text μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ (not preparing or)

John 11:7 omits text τοῖς μαθηταῖς (the disciples) with \mathfrak{P}66* ite.l

John 11:25 omits text καὶ ἡ ζωή (and the life) with itl syrs Diatessaronsyr Cyprian

John 11:51 omits text τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου (of that year) with ite.l syrs

Acts 5:37 omits text πάντες (all) with D it

Acts 8:18 adds text το αγιον (the holy) with \mathfrak{P}74 A* C D E Ψ 33 1739 Byz latt syr copbo

Acts 9:17

Ἰησοῦς (Jesus) — \mathfrak{P}45 \mathfrak{P}74 א A B C E Ψ 33 81 323 614 945 1175 1739
omitted — Byz

Acts 9:21 omits text οἱ ἀκούοντες (those hearing) with \mathfrak{P}74 Ψ*

Acts 9:38

δύο ἄνδρας (two men) — \mathfrak{P}45 \mathfrak{P}74 א A B C E Ψ 36 81 323 614 945 1175 1739 latt syr co
omitted — Byz

Acts 10:10

ἐγένετο (became) — \mathfrak{P}74vid א A B C 36 81 323 453 945 1175 1739 Origen
επεπεσεν (fell into) — E Ψ 33 Byz latt syr
ηλθεν (entered) — \mathfrak{P}45

Acts 10:13 omits text Πέτρε (Peter) with gig Clement Ambrose

Acts 10:16 omits text εὐθὺς (immediately) with 36 453 1175 itd syrp copsamss

Acts 10:33

κυρίου (the Lord) — \mathfrak{P}45vid א A B C E Ψ 81* 323 614 945 1175 1739 lat syrh copbo
θεου (God) — \mathfrak{P}74 D Byz syrp copsa mae

Acts 11:12 omits text μηδὲν διακρίναντα (without deliberating) with D itl.p* syrh

Acts 13:48

κυρίου (the Lord) — \mathfrak{P}45 \mathfrak{P}74 א A C Ψ 33 1739 Byz gig vg copsamss mae
θεου (God) — B D E 049 323 453 copbo
θεον (God) — 614 syr

Acts 13:49 omits text τοῦ κυρίου (the Lord)

Acts 15:20 omits text καὶ τῆς πορνείας (and sexual immorality)

Acts 15:40

τοῦ κυρίου (the Lord) — \mathfrak{P}74 א A B D 33 81 itd vgst copsa
τοῦ θεου (God) — \mathfrak{P}45 C E Ψ 1739 Byz gig itw vgcl syr copbo

Acts 16:32

τοῦ κυρίου (the Lord) — \mathfrak{P}45 \mathfrak{P}74 א2 A C (D) E Ψ 33 1739 Byz lat syr cop
τοῦ θεου (God) — א* B

Acts 17:13 omits text καὶ ταράσσοντες (and agitated) with E Byz

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "The Conversion of Saul (Paul)". The Western Collection; Papyri; Letters of Paul. Dublin, Ireland: Chester Beatty Library. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2009. 
  2. ^ Kurt and Barbara Aland, Der Text des Neuen Testaments. Einführung in die wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1989, p. 109. ISBN 3-438-06011-6
  3. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  4. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press (New York - Oxford, 2005), p. 54.
  5. ^ Huston 1955, p. 262
  6. ^ Huston 1955, pp. 265, 268, 270-271.
  7. ^ Barbara Aland, The Significance of the Chester Beatty in Early Church History, in: The Earliest Gospels ed. Charles Horton, London 2004, p. 110.
  8. ^ Ernest Cadman Colwell, “Scribal Habits in the Early Papyri: A Study in the Corruption of the Text,” in: "The Bible in Modern Scholarship" ed. J. P. Hyatt, New York: Abingdon Press 1965, p.383.
  9. ^ Hurtado, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text, 1981.
  10. ^ Epp 1974, p. 395
  11. ^ Aland et al. (eds), Greek New Testament, 4th rev. ed., Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1998
  12. ^ Timothy J. Finney. "How To Discover Textual Groups". Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  13. ^ Streeter, B. H. (1924). The Four Gospels. London: Macmillan. pp. 27, 108. 
  14. ^ Holger Strutwolf and Klaus Wachtel (eds), Novum Testamentum Graecum: Editio Critica Maior: Parallel Pericopes: Special Volume Regarding the Synoptic Gospels (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 2011)
  15. ^ PAM (partitioning around medoids) is a multivariate analysis technique. For a description, see Timothy J. Finney. "Views of New Testament Textual Space". Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  16. ^ T. C. Skeat, A Codicological Analysis of the Chester Beatty Papyrus Codex of Gospels and Acts (P 45), in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004, p. 147.

Further reading[edit]

  • Frederic G. Kenyon, Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri II/1: The Gospels and Acts, Text, London 1933.
  • Epp, Eldon Jay. "The Twentieth Century Interlude in New Testament Textual Criticism". Journal of Biblical Literature. vol. 93, No. 3 (Sep., 1974), pp. 386–414
  • Hurtado, Larry W. Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark. Studies and Documents 43. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981.
  • Hurtado, Larry W., “P45 and the Textual History of the Gospel of Mark,” in The Earliest Gospels: The Origins and Transmission of the Earliest Christian Gospels--The Contribution of the Chester Beatty Gospel Codex P45, ed. Charles Horton (London: T&T Clark International, 2004) pp. 132–48.
  • Huston, Hollis W. "Mark 6 and 11 in \mathfrak{P}45 and in the Caesarean Text." Journal of Biblical Literature. vol. 64, No. 4 (Dec., 1955) pp. 262–271
  • Metzger, Bruce M., The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 54.
  • Ayuso, El texto cesariense del papiro de Chester Beatty en ela Evangelio de San Marcos, EB. IV (1934), 268-281.
  • T. C. Skeat, A Codicological Analysis of the Chester Beatty Papyrus Codex of Gospels and Acts (P 45), in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004.
  • Comfort, Philip W.; David P. Barrett (2001). The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. pp. 155–201. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9. 
  • P.L. Hedley, The Egyptian Texts of the Gospels and Acts, The Church quarterly review 1934, ss. 188-230.

External links[edit]

  • Robert B. Waltz. 'NT Manuscripts: Papyri, Papyri \mathfrak{P}45.' The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism. Retrieved June 10, 2013
  • [1], an image and description of Acts 8.34 - 9.6.
  • [2], an image and description of Acts 17.9-17.