Papyrus 75

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Papyrus 75
New Testament manuscript
End of the Gospel of Luke and beginning of the Gospel of John
End of the Gospel of Luke and beginning of the Gospel of John
NameP. Bodmer XIV–XV
TextLuke 3:18–24:53 + John 1–15 (extensive portions)
Date175–225 (Martin and Kasser), late third century-early fourth century (Orsini), fourth century (Nongbri)
FoundPabau, Egypt
Now atVatican Library, Rome
CiteV. Martin, R. Kasser, Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV
Size26 cm x 13 cm
TypeAlexandrian text-type
Notevery close to P66, B, 0162

Papyrus 75 (75, Papyrus Bodmer XIVXV) is an early Greek New Testament papyrus. It is generally described as "the most significant" papyrus of the New Testament to be discovered so far.[1] This evaluation of the manuscript is a result of the early date that has usually been assigned to it (circa 175–225 CE) and the fact that its text so closely resembles that of the fourth-century Codex Vaticanus. However, the early date of 75, and therefore its importance for the textual criticism of the New Testament, was called into question in 2016.[2][3]


75 was discovered in the 1950s and once belonged to the Swiss book collector Martin Bodmer (thus its original designation, P. Bodmer XIV–XV). It was sold in 2006 and donated to the Vatican Library, which now refers to the manuscript as "Hanna Papyrus 1 (Mater Verbi)".[4] Originally "[it] contained about 144 pages ... of which 102 have survived, either in whole or in part."[5] It "contains about half the text of ... two Gospels"[6]  – Luke (Papyrus Bodmer XIV) and John (Papyrus Bodmer XV) in Greek. It was originally assigned on the basis of its handwriting to circa 175–225 CE, but it has recently been asserted on the basis of comparative evidence that handwriting very similar to that of 75 was still in use in the fourth century.[2] In any event, 75 is one of the earliest manuscripts (along with 4)[7] of the Gospel of Luke. "The surviving fragment contains Luke 3:18–24:53."[7][8] An unusual feature of this codex is that when the Gospel of Luke ends, the Gospel of John begins on the same page.[9]

It lacks text of Christ's agony at Gethsemane (Luke 22:43–44)[10]:278 and the Pericope Adulterae.[10]:322

It uses a staurogram (⳨) in Luke 9:23, 14:27, and 24:7.[11]


The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Kurt Aland placed it in Category I.[12] The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than to Codex Sinaiticus. Agreement between 75 and codex B is 92% in John,[13] and 94% in Luke.[14] It concurs with 111.[15]

According to Kurt Aland, 75 is the key for understanding the primitive textual history of New Testament,[16] but recently Brent Nongbri has argued that restricting the date of 75 to the late second or early third century is not realistic, and that the similarity of the text of 75 to that of Codex Vaticanus might be better explained by considering both books as products of the fourth century.[2]

Textual variants[edit]

In Luke 8:21 it reads αυτον instead of αυτους; the reading is supported by Minuscule 705 and Codex Veronensis.[10]:213

In Luke 11:4, the phrase αλλα ρυσαι ημας απο του πονηρου (but deliver us from evil) is omitted. The omission of this phrase is also supported by the following manuscripts: Sinaiticus (א)*, 2.b, Vaticanus (B), Codex Regius, f1, 700, vg, sys, sa, bobt.[10]:230

In Luke 16:19 the manuscript reads Ανθρωπος δε τις ην πλουσιος, ονοματι Ν[ιν]ευης, και ενεδιδυσκετο "There was a rich man, with the name N[in]eue, who clothed himself",[17] This reading has support from the Sahidic version and the two Greek minuscule manuscripts 36 and 37, in addition to a scholion of uncertain date have ευρον δε τινες και του πλουσιου εν τισιν αντιγραφοις τουνομα Νινευης λεγομενον.[18]

Luke 22:43–44 is omitted, as in codices Sinaiticus (א)2a, Alexandrinus (A), Vaticanus (B), Petropolitanus Purpureus (N), Borgianus (T), Washingtonianus (W), 579, l 844, sys, sa, bobt.[10]:278

In Luke 23:34, 75 has omitted the words: "And Jesus said: Father forgive them, they know not what they do." This omission is supported by the manuscripts Sinaiticus (א)2a, Vaticanus (B), Bezae (D)*, Washingtonianus (W), Koridethi (Θ), Uncial 070, 579, 1241, ita, d, sys, sa, bobt.[10]:283

Luke 24:26

δοξαν – majority of mss
βασιλειαν – 75* [10]:289

John 10:7

η θυρα (door) – majority
ο ποιμην (shepherd) – 75 sa, ac [10]:332

The manuscript also lacks the Pericope of the Adulteress, usually placed in translations at John 7:53–8:11. This omission is supported by the manuscripts 66 | א | B | Avid | Cvid | L | N | T | W | X | Δ | Θ | Ψ | 0141. | 0211. | 3. | 9.* | 22. | 33, | 72. | 96. | 97. | 106. | 108. | 123. | 131. | 139. | 157. | 179.* | 249. | 250. | 253. | 565. | 1241. | 1333. | 1424. | 2768. | a | f | l | q | sy | ly | pbo | bopt; Or Hiermss; plus according to Tischendorf, at least 50 others (see manuscript evidence against PdA).[10]:322[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Aland and Aland, The Text of the New Testament (1989), p. 244
  2. ^ a b c Nongbri B (2016). "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodm XIV-XV (75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament". Journal of Biblical Literature. 135 (2): 405–437. doi:10.15699/jbl.1352.2016.2803. Retrieved 22 Nov 2020.
  3. ^ Orsini, "I papiri Bodmer: scritture e libri", 77
  4. ^ Head, Peter M. (2015-02-19). "Evangelical Textual Criticism: A New Name for 75". Evangelical Textual Criticism. Retrieved 2020-04-13.
  5. ^ Metzger+Ehrman (2005), p.58
  6. ^ Bodmer Papyrus 14–15 arrives at the Vatican
  7. ^ a b Gregory (2003) p.28
  8. ^ Wilker
  9. ^ Edwards (1976), p. 194
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nestle, Eberhard; Nestle, Erwin; B. Aland; K. Aland; J. Karavidopoulos; C. M. Martini; B. M. Metzger (2012). Novum Testamentum Graece (28 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-438-05159-2.
  11. ^ Hurtado, Larry W. (2006). The Earliest Christian Artifacts. Grand Rapids, Michigan / Cambridge U.K: Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 141. ISBN 0-8028-2895-7.
  12. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  13. ^ S. A. Edwards, P75 Under the Magnifying Glass, Novum Testamentum, XVIII, fasc. 3, pp. 211-212.
  14. ^ Gordon D. Fee, 75, 66, and Origen: The Myth of Early Textual Recension in Alexandria, in: E. J. Epp & G. D. Fee, Studies in the Theory & Method of NT Textual Criticism, Wm. Eerdmans (1993), pp. 247-273.
  15. ^ Comfort, Philip W. (2005). Encountering the Manuscripts. An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers. p. 76. ISBN 0-8054-3145-4.
  16. ^ Reconsidering 75 in the Frame of a Various Egyptian Tradition
  17. ^ Philip Comfort, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (2001), p. 551.
  18. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1977, p. 136.
  19. ^ Tischendorf, Constantin von (1869). Novum Testamentum Graece. 1 (8th ed.). Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient. pp. 826–830.


  • V. Martin, R. Kasser, Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV: Evangiles de Luc et Jean, Vol. 1, Papyrus Bodmer XIV: Evangile de Luc chap. 3-24; vol. 2, Papyrus Bodmer XV: Evangile de Jean chap. 1-15, Cologny-Geneva: Biblioteca Bodmeriana, 1961.
  • B. Nongbri, "Reconsidering the Place of Papyrus Bodmer XIV–XV (75) in the Textual Criticism of the New Testament", 11Journal of Biblical Literature11 135, no. 2 (2016): 405–437
  • P. Orsini, "I papiri Bodmer: scritture e libri", Adamantius 21 (2015), 60–78
  • K. Aland and B. Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes, 2nd rev. ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995)
  • Gregory, A. The Reception of Luke and Acts in the Period Before Irenaeus, Mohr Siebeck, (2003) ISBN 3-16-148086-4, p. 28
  • Metzger, Bruce Manning; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The text of the New Testament: its transmission, corruption, and restoration. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 58–9. ISBN 978-0-19-516122-9.
  • Aland, Kurt (2009). "Neue Neutestamentliche Papyri III". New Testament Studies. 22 (4): 375–96. doi:10.1017/S0028688500010080.
  • Comfort, Philip W.; David P. Barrett (2001). The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. pp. 501–608. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9.


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