Para (community development block)

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Para
Community development block
Para is located in West Bengal
Para
Para
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 23°31′00″N 86°31′00″E / 23.51667°N 86.51667°E / 23.51667; 86.51667
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictPurulia
Parliamentary constituencyPurulia
Assembly constituencyPara
Area
 • Total312.59 km2 (120.69 sq mi)
Elevation
192 m (630 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total200,621
 • Density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
723155 (Para)
723162 (Dubra)
723126 (Anara RS)
723146 (Santaldih TP)
Telephone/STD code03251
Vehicle registrationWB-55, WB-56
Literacy Rate65.62 per cent
Websitehttp://parablock.org/
http://purulia.gov.in/

Para is a community development block (CD block) that forms an administrative division in the Raghunathpur subdivision of the Purulia district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The Jaina Bhagavati-Sutra of the 5th century AD mentions that Purulia was one of the sixteen mahajanapadas and was a part of the kingdom known as Vajra-bhumi in ancient times. In 1833, the Manbhum district was carved out of the Jungle Mahals district, with headquarters at Manbazar. In 1838, the headquarters was transferred to Purulia. In 1956, the Manbhum district was partitioned between Bihar and West Bengal under the States Reorganization Act and the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act 1956.[1]

Geography[edit]

Para is located at 23°31′N 86°31′E / 23.52°N 86.52°E / 23.52; 86.52.

The Para CD block is located in the north-western part of the district. The area becomes undulating with hillocks of hard rocks, which are extended from the high Chota Nagpur Plateau. There are some hills ranging from 150 to 750 meters approximately in altitude.[2]

The Para CD block is bounded by the Raghunathpur II CD block on the north, the Raghunathpur I and Kashipur CD blocks on the east, the Hura and Purulia II CD blocks on the south and the Jhalda II CD block and the Chandankiyari CD block, in the Bokaro district of Jharkhand, on the west.[3]

The Para CD block has an area of 312.59 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 136 gram sansads (village councils), 135 mouzas, 118 inhabited villages and 5 census towns. Para and Santaldih (partly) police stations serve this block.[4] Headquarters of this CD block is at Para.[5][6]

Gram panchayats of the Para CD block/panchayat samiti are: Anara, Bahara, Deoli, Dubra, Jabarra Jhapra I, Jabara Jhapra II, Nadiha Surulia, Para and Udaipur-Joinagar.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

According to the 2011 Census of India, the Para CD block had a total population of 200,621, of which 167,997 were rural and 32,624 were urban. There were 103,306 (51%) males and 97,315 (49%) females. There were 29,376 persons in the age range of 0 to 6 years. The Scheduled Castes numbered 66,751 (33.27%) and the Scheduled Tribes numbered 10,335 (5.15%). [8]

According to the 2001 census, the Para CD block had a total population of 174,596, out of which 90,259 were males and 84,337 were females. The Para CD block registered a population growth of 15.45 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the Purulia district was 13.96 per cent.[9] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[10]

Census towns in the Para CD block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Santaldih Power Project Town (2,507), Kanki (6,884), Dubra (5,506), Chapari (6,556) and Shankara (11,171).[8]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in the Para CD block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Para (9,697), Anara (5,517) and Phusrabai 4,207).[8] Other villages in Para CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Deuli (2,044), Jabarra (3,244), Nadiha (2,029), Baharra (2,241), Suruliya (3,405) and Jhapra alias Udaipur (2,944).[8]

Literacy[edit]

According to the 2011 census, the total number of literate persons in the Para CD block was 112,377 (65.62% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 70,311 (79.61% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 42,066 (50.73%) of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 28.88%.[8]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

In the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother tongue for 76.6% of the population of the district, followed by Santali 11.4%, Kurmali Thar 7.7%, Hindi 1.9%, Urdu 1.1%, Khortha/ Khotta 0.3%, Telugu 0.2%, Odia 0.1%, Mundari 0.1% and other languages 0.4%.[11]

There is a tribal presence in many of the CD blocks of the district. Santali was spoken by around 14% of the population of the earlier Manbhum district. Some people also speak Mundari or Kolarian languages such as Kurmali, Mundari and the languages of the Bhumij or Mahli communities.[12]

Religion in Para CD block
Hindu
79.53%
Muslim
18.37%
Christian
0.10%
Others
2.00%

In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 159,554 and formed 79.53% of the population in the Para CD block. Muslims numbered 36,853 and formed 18.37% of the population. Christians numbered 195 and formed 0.10% of the population. Others numbered 4,019 and formed 2.00% of the population.[13] Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[14] and other religious communities.[13]

Rural Poverty[edit]

According to the Rural Household Survey in 2005, 32.85% of total number of families were BPL families in Purulia district.[15]According to a World Bank report, as of 2012, 31-38% of the population in Purulia, Murshidabad, Uttar Dinajpur and Jalpaiguri districts were below poverty level, the highest among the districts of West Bengal, which had an average 20% of the population below poverty line.[16]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Livelihood
in Para CD block

  Cultivators (16.95%)
  Agricultural labourers (35.34%)
  Household industries (3.34%)
  Other Workers (44.37%)

In the Para CD block in 2011, among the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 12,249 and formed 16.95%, agricultural labourers numbered 25,529 and formed 35.34%, household industry workers numbered 2,410 and formed 3.34% and other workers numbered 32,059 and formed 44.37%.[17]Total workers numbered 72,247 and formed 36.01% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 128,374 and formed 63.99% of the population.[18]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[19]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 118 inhabited villages in the Para CD block, as per the District Census Handbook, Puruliya, 2011, 100% villages have power supply. 117 villages (99.15%) have drinking water supply. 16 villages (13.56%) have post offices. 113 villages (95.76%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 40 villages (33.90%) have pucca (paved) approach roads and 55 villages (46.61%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 4 villages (3.39%) have banks.[20]

Agriculture[edit]

In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in the Para CD block could be classified as follows: bargadars 1.90%, patta (document) holders 11.35%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 3.88%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 28.42% and agricultural labourers 54.44%.[21]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in the Para CD block was 9,794.63 hectares, out of which 2,792.00 hectares were by canals, 6,162.63 hectares by tank water, 235.0 hectares by open dug wells and 635.00 hectares by other means.[21]

In 2013-14, the Para CD block produced 33,070 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 14,499 hectares. It also produced wheat, mustard and potatoes.[21]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, the Para CD block had offices of 8 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[21]

Backward Regions Grant Fund[edit]

The Purulia district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[22][23]

Transport[edit]

In 2013-14, the Para CD block had 7 originating/ terminating bus routes.[21]

The Adra-Gomoh branch line of the South-Eastern Railway passes through this CD block. There is a station at Santaldih.[24]

The Adra-Chandil section of the Asansol-Tatanagar-Kharagpur line of the South Eastern Railway passes through this CD block and there is a station at Anara.[25]

The State Highway 8 running from Santaldih (in the Purulia district) to Majhdia (in the Nadia district) originates in this CD block.[26]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, the Para CD block had 166 primary schools with 18,432 students, 26 middle schools with 2,143 students, 3 high schools with 2,250 students and 16 higher secondary schools with 17,204 students. Para CD Block had 2 professional/ technical institutions with 179 students and 289 institutions with 10,029 students for special and non-formal education.[21]

See also – Education in India

According to the 2011 census, in Para CD block, amongst the 118 inhabited villages, 8 villages did not have a school, 30 villages had two or more primary schools, 31 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 14 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[27]

Culture[edit]

There are 10th-11th century deuls at Para village, possibly with some royal connections.[28]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, the Para CD block had 1 block primary health centre, 3 primary health centres, 1 medical centre of PSU/ other department and 1 private nursing home with total 156 beds and 29 doctors. 15,895 patients were treated indoor and 331,506 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD block.[21]

Para Rural Hospital, with 30 beds at Para, is the major government medical facility in the Para CD block. There are primary health centres at Nadiha (with 10 beds), Ashar Bandh (PO Tentulbari) (with 2 beds) and Phursrabad (with 4 beds).[29][30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical background". Purulia District. Archived from the original on 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
  2. ^ "District Census Handbook Puruliya" (PDF). pages 11,12. Directorate of Census Operations West Bengal. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  3. ^ "Purulia district". Blocks in Purulia district. Purulia district administration. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  4. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purulia". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Para Development Block". Purulia district administration. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Puruliya" (PDF). Map of District Puruliya with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Purulia - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  9. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Puruliya District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook Puruliya, Series 20, Part XXA" (PDF). page 44: Mother tongue. Directorate of Census Operations West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Bengal District Gazetteers - Manbhum by H. Coupland, ICS". Section 72, First Published 1911. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  13. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  14. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  15. ^ "West Bengal Summary". Rural Household Survey 2005. Department of Panchayat & Rural Development, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  16. ^ "West Bengal: Poverty, Growth and Inequality" (PDF). World Bank Group. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  17. ^ "District Census Handbook Puruliya, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories of Economic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  18. ^ "District Census Handbook Puruliya, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  19. ^ "District Census Handbook Puruliya, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 23. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  20. ^ "District Census Handbook, Puruliya, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 79, Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purulia". Tables 21.1, 8.2, 8.2(a), 5.1, 5.1(b), 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 18.3, 20.1, 21,2, 4.1, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  23. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  24. ^ "58604 Gomoh-Kharagpur Passenger". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  25. ^ "63594 Asansol-Purulia MEMU". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  26. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  27. ^ "District Census Handbook, Puruliya, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 976-77, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  28. ^ Dutta, Rangan. "Temples of Para, Purulia". Wordpress. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Rural Hospitals. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Primary Health Centres. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 18 January 2020.