Aerial view of Yongxing Island (Woody Island), the seat of Sansha
Location Sansha jurisdiction (in pink) in Hainan
Location of the major islands in Sansha
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Prefecture||24 July 2012|
|City seat||Woody Island
|• CPC Municipal Party Secretary||Fu Zhuang (符戆)|
|• Mayor||A Dong (阿东)|
|• Land||< 13 km2 (< 5 sq mi)|
|• Water||~2,000,000 km2 (~772,000 sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HI-03|
|Territorial Dispute: There are on-going territorial disputes in the entire area covered by the city, whose administrative authority is not internationally recognized.|
"Sansha", as written in Chinese
|Literal meaning||three sands (referring to the Chinese names for the three island groups)|
Sansha is a prefecture-level city of Hainan province of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is located on Woody island and administers (actually or nominally) several island groups and undersea atolls in the South China Sea including the Spratly Islands, the Paracel Islands, Macclesfield Bank, Scarborough Shoal, and a number of other ungrouped maritime features. The entire territory is disputed, and the PRC's de facto control over the area varies.
Sansha has equal administrative status to a prefecture-level city, and was created on 24 July 2012. Reports in 2012 in the China daily stated that the establishment of Sansha was simply an upgrade of the administrative status of these island groups from the previous county-level Administrative Office,. Subsequent developments have turned Sansha city (located on Woody island) into a small town with a small non commercial airport and a small harbor with two sets of breakwaters. Sansha administers a group of 260 islands, reefs and beaches located in the Spratlys (Nansha), Paracel, Xisha islands and Zhongsha islands (Macclesfield bank).
Also see History of Woody island
In March 1953, as talks were proceeding with the French on the handing over of Hainan and territories south of Guangdong to the People's Republic of China, the Chinese State Council authorized the establishment of a separate "Guangdong Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority" as a county-level administrative division on Woody Island (Yongxing Dao). However, the island continued to support a threadbare population of fisherfolk at that time. In March 1959, during China's Cultural Revolution, when Revolutionary Committees were being set up across the country, this authority was upgraded to the "Guangdong Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Revolutionary Committee". In October 1984, the administration of Sansha consisting of Yong xing dao (Woody island) and other islands in the South China sea was transferred to Hainan. This coincided with the establishment of Hainan as a separate administrative region. In September 1988,the authority's name was officially changed to the "Hainan Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority". On 25 December 2006, Woody Island 'census-town's' first-ever "Residents' and Fishermen's Congress" was held. Three representatives at the township and village levels were selected to represent the census-town's Neighborhood Committee of the North and South Villages. The Neighborhood Committee began work on Woody Island the following day with an office at the Border Guards of the Paracels' Police Station. These were the first ever actual subdivisions created within the county-level authority.
The prospect of the establishment of a "city" on Woody Island was first publicized on 19 November 2007 in a report by Mingpao, a Hong Kong-based newspaper, through a telephone interview with a Mr. Zhang of the Propaganda Department of Wenchang, Hainan. This report claimed that a county-level city was to be established by the PRC State Council in November 2007 to administer three disputed archipelagos in the South China Sea: the Paracel Islands, Macclesfield Bank (Zhongsha Islands) and the Spratly Islands. This was to replace the county-level "Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority". The city of Wenchang would provide[vague] supplies and logistics to the to-be-established city.
On 23 July 2012 the PRC Central Military Commission announced it had authorized the People's Liberation Army Guangzhou Military Command to form a "garrison command" in Sansha City. The troops would be responsible for managing the city's national defence mobilisation, military reserve, and carrying out military operations.
On 24 July 2012, the PRC officially established the city of Sansha in Yongxing Island.
Sansha is governed by a municipal congress of 60 delegates directly elected, with a standing committee of 15 members. It is further subdivided into 3 islands-districts at county-level, 3 towns/management committees at the township-level, and further into 11 residential communities at village-level, based on the island groups:
County-level divisions (International Name)
|Township-level divisions||Village-level divisions
Xisha District (Paracel Islands)
District seat: Yongxing
|Yongxing Town Management Area
Yǒngxìng Zhèn Guǎnlǐqū
|Yongxing Residential Community 永兴社区 Yǒngxìng Shèqū|
|Yingqu Residential Community 营区社区 Yíngqū Shèqū|
|Qilianyu Management Area
|Beidao Residential Community 北岛社区 Běidǎo Shèqū|
|Zhaoshu Residential Community 赵述社区 Zhàoshù Shèqū|
|Yonglequndao Management Area
Yǒnglè Qúndǎo Guǎnlǐqū
|Jinqing Residential Community 晋卿社区 Jìnqīng Shèqū|
|Yinyu Residential Community 银屿社区 Yínyǔ Shèqū|
|Lingyang Residential Community 羚羊社区 Língyáng Shèqū|
|Ganquan Residential Community 甘泉社区 Gānquán Shèqū|
|Yagong Residential Community 鸭公社区 Yāgōng Shèqū|
Nansha District (Spratly Islands)
District seat: Yongshu
|Direct Prefectural-controlled||Yongshu Residential Community 永暑社区 Yǒngshǔ Shèqū|
|Meiji Residential Community 美济社区 Měijì Shèqū|
|(unincorporated) Zhubi Island 渚碧岛 Zhǔbì Dǎo|
|(unincorporated) Huangyang Island 华阳岛 Huáyáng Dǎo|
|(unincorporated) Chigua Island 赤瓜岛 Chìguā Dǎo|
|(unincorporated) Nanxun Island 南薰岛 Nánxūn Dǎo|
|(unincorporated) Dongmen Island 东门岛 Dōngmén Dǎo|
Zhongsha District (Macclesfield Bank & Scarborough Shoal)
Zhōngshā Qúndǎo De Dǎojiāo Jíqí Hǎiyù
District seat: Huangyan
|(unincorporated) Huangyan Island 黄岩岛 Huángyán Dǎo|
|(unincorporated) Zhongsha Bank 中沙大环礁 Zhōngshā Dàhuán Jiāo|
Industries and facilities
Also see Woody island
Less than 1000 people live in Sansha city (which is located on Woody island, a small island in the Spratlys). They tend to practice fishing, and selling products to the occasional cruise ship (MV Qionghai 3 and MV Sansha 1) whose tourists visit the island. In November 2016, the Hainan government started to allow large companies to register themselves in Sansha, by providing extensive tax benefits to them. This resulted in 157 large national and multinational companies registering themselves in Sansha.
In 2016, a government school and a public library were opened in the island, primarily for children of the islanders. In the same year, a desalinating plant was established to provide drinking water to the island's residents.
"Greening the islands"
The second stage of a greening project for Sansha was announced on 30 June 2014. It states: "According to the investment plan, 18 million yuan (about 2.92 million U.S. dollars) will be used to build desalination systems and grow trees on Xishazhou Island (West Sand - NW Crescent Group) in the hope of turning the island into a new oasis." The article makes references to the greening of:
- Ganquan Island (Robert Island) - W Crescent Group between Antelope Reef and Pattle Island, where an environmental protection station was set up in February 2014
- Jinqin (Drummond Island) - E Crescent Group
- Lingyangjiao (Antelope Reef) - W Crescent Group between Money and Robert Islands
- Xishazhou Island (West Sand) - NW Crescent Group
- Yagong Island - NE Crescent Group, between Tree Island and Observation Bank
- Yinyu (Observation Bank / Silver Islet) - NE Crescent Group
- Yongxing Island (Woody Island) - Centre of Amphitrite group
- Zhaoshu (Tree Island) - N Crescent Group
It also mentions substantial infrastructure upgrades to Woody Island, including waste-water treatment, garbage aggregation and treatment, desalination (1 megalitre/day) and upgrades to photovoltaic equipment.
Controversy and protests
Because Sansha's jurisdiction comprises island groups that several nations besides the PRC claim as their own, the "city" is considered by some as controversial.
In 2007, the Foreign Ministry of Vietnam protested against the city's proposed establishment, which had been recently  approved by the PRC's State Council, as Vietnam claims two of the three island groups that comprise Sansha. This was later followed by student demonstrations at the Chinese embassy in Hanoi, and at a consulate in Ho Chi Minh City.
Days prior to the official establishment of the city in late July 2012, Vietnam again stated its opposition and was joined in its protests by the Philippines. The United States Department of State also weighed in on the issue stating, "we remain concerned should there be any unilateral moves of this kind that would seem to prejudge an issue." The chair of the US Senate Foreign Relations East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, Jim Webb, also made a statement regarding Sansha and questioned whether the city's creation was a violation of international law. While Senator Webb stated that the establishment of Sansha was China "creating a governmental system out of nothing", the Chinese government has included the island groups that comprise Sansha in its administrative structure since 1959. Before these island groups were under the nominal administration of Sansha, they were nominally administered by an administrative office under the provincial government of Hainan.
Western reaction to the 2012 declaration of the Chinese government elevating the administrative status of Sansha was not positive. The United States Department of State called the change in the administrative status of the territory "unilateral", and the move has received criticism from nations engaged in the South China Sea dispute, particularly the Philippines and Vietnam.
The centre of government for Sansha is located on Woody Island (Yongxing Dao) in the Paracels, where about 1,000 Chinese (PRC) reside. With a land area of 210ha, Woody Island is the largest contiguous land area in the South China Sea. The total land area of Sansha, which includes the islands in the Paracel and Spratly groups, is less than 5 square miles (13 km2). Nationally, Sansha is the smallest prefecture-level city, by both population and land area, but the largest by total area, and is also the southernmost prefecture-level city of the PRC.
- Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China
- South China Sea Islands
- Territorial disputes in the South China Sea
- Kalayaan, Palawan, Philippines
- Trường Sa, Khánh Hòa, Vietnam
- "South China's Sansha City boasts improved infrastructure". Xinhua. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- 三沙概览 . sansha.gov.cn (in Chinese). Government of Sansha. Retrieved 13 March 2015. not including the floating population of 2,000 and more; only residents are counted
- "China sets up Sansha City to administer South China Sea islands". Sina. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Hiufu Wong, CNN. "China to open disputed islands to tourism". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "China throws 'birthday party' for new city at the heart of disputed South China Sea (of course, the neighbours weren't invited)". Mail Online. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "China Declares New 'City' On Tiny, Remote Island". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "China establishes Sansha City". Xinhua. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Sansha garrison". China Daily. 7 July 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Lague, David (25 Jul 2012). "China's hawks gaining sway in South China sea dispute". Reuters. Hong Kong. Retrieved 7 Aug 2012.
- "Sansha Travel Guide". www.travelchinaguide.com. Travel China. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "China's Jurisdiction over the South China Sea". Beijing Review.
- "Vietnam, China: The Dispute over Significant Waterways". Free Intelligence Reports. Stratfor. 4 December 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.[dead link]
- BBC News, China Approves Military Garrison, 23 July 2012
- "Sansha government". Xinhua Net. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 8 Aug 2012.
- 2013国家统计局统计用区划代码, National Bureau of Statistics of the PRC, 2013.
- Xisha District effectively maintains control over all the features of the Paracels.
- Nasha District has actual control over 7 islands reclaimed on top of reefs or atolls.
- Zhongsha District does not have actual control of this area. Note also that there are no settlements and no inhabitants in this area, nor are there any islands, nor is there any land above water.
- "China's Sansha island draws world's largest companies". Xinhua. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "China's southernmost school opens inc". Xinhua. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "First library opened in Sansha in South China Sea". Xinhua. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "New desalinator put into use in China's Sansha". Xinhua. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "China Focus: South China islands see green transformation". news.xinhuanet.com. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Hà Nội và Sài Gòn biểu tình chống Trung Quốc". Đài Á Châu Tự do. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "Vietnam objects to China's establishment of San Sha city on the Hainan Island". Ministry of Foreign Affairs' spokesman Mr. Le Dzung answers questions on 3rd December 2007. Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Symon, Andrew (20 December 2007). "China, Vietnam churn diplomatic waters". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- For Vietnamese stated opposition, see "REFILE-PRESS DIGEST – Vietnam newspapers – June 22". Reuters. 21 Jun 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- For Philippines stated opposition, see "Philippines summons Chinese ambassador to protest Sansha city". Sina. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Victoria Nuland, Spokesperson: Daily Press Briefing, Washington, DC, July 24, 2012". United States Department of State. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Senator Webb: China's military and governmental expansion into South China Sea might be a "Violation of International Law"". United States Senate. 25 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "China opposes US statement on S. China Sea". CCTV. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional responses. Asia Report N°229. International Crisis Group. July 2012. p. 5. Retrieved 7 Aug 2012.
- "Philippines Slams China's Establishment of Sansha City in South China Sea". VOA. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
- "Vietnam, Philippines refuse to recognize China's Sansha district". WantChinaTimes.com. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
- Alexa Olesen (24 July 2012). "Sansha, China's New 'City', Strengthens Country's Foothold In Disputed Waters". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
- "Vietnam, Philippines Slam Garrison Plans". China Digital Times (CDT). 24 July 2012. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
- Stephen Engle (15 Aug 2012). "Vietnam Protests China's Plans for Sansha City Garrison". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 9 Dec 2014.
- Pratas Island has an area of 240ha, but this includes a 60ha lagoon.
- USA Today, Tiny island in South China Sea is stirring up tensions, Calum MacLeod, 12 July 2012
- Alexa Olesen (Associated Press) (24 July 2012). "China dubs tiny island new city in sea claim bid". chron.com. Retrieved 24 July 2012.[dead link]
- Forsythe, Michael; Soble, Jonathan; Landler, Mark; Huang, Yufan; Li, Mia (17 February 2016). "Missiles Deployed on Disputed South China Sea Island, Officials Say". The New York Times. p. A6. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 February 2016.
- Sansha Government (in simplified Chinese)
- Administrative divisions of Hainan Province
- Hainan Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority
- Hainan Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority Woody Island Census Town
- Subdivision Information of the Hainan Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority
- US criticises China garrison