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Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Chlamydiae
Class: Chlamydiae
Order: Chlamydiales
Family: Parachlamydiaceae
Everett et al., 1999 [1]

Parachlamydiaceae is a family of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales. Species in this family have a Chlamydia–like cycle of replication and their ribosomal RNA genes are 80–90% identical to ribosomal genes in the Chlamydiaceae. The Parachlamydiaceae naturally infect amoebae and can be grown in cultured Vero cells. The Parachlamydiaceae are not recognized by monoclonal antibodies that detect Chlamydiaceae lipopolysaccharide.[citation needed]

Parachlamydiaceae species currently include:[2][3]

Isolated Endosymbionts include:

  • Hall's coccus
  • P9
  • UV-7
  • endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. TUME1
  • endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWC22
  • endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWE1

Uncultured lineages include:[2]

  • Neochlamydia turtle type 1
  • environmental Neochlamydia
  • corvenA4
  • cvC15
  • cvC7
  • cvE5

Parachlamydia acanthamoebae has variable Gram staining characteristics and is mesophilic. Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba hosting these strains were isolated from asymptomatic women in Germany and also in an outbreak of humidifier fever (‘Hall’s coccus’) in Vermont USA.[citation needed] Four patients from Nova Scotia whose sera recognized Hall’s coccus did not show serological cross-reaction with antigens from the Chlamydiaceae.[4]


Metachlamydia lacustris and Protochlamydia species were found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but have no standing with the Bacteriological Code (1990 and subsequent Revision) as detailed by List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) as a result of the following reasons:
• No pure culture isolated or available for prokaryotes.
• Not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection.
• Not approved and published by the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSB/IJSEM).


  1. ^ Karin D. E. Everett, Robin M. Bush & Arthur A. Andersen (1999). "Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for identification of organisms". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 49 (2): 415–440. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-2-415. PMID 10319462.
  2. ^ a b See the NCBI webpage on Parachlamydiaceae Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  3. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Chlamydiae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
  4. ^ R. J. Birtles; T. J. Rowbotham; C. Storey; T. J. Marrie; D. Raoult (1997). "Chlamydia-like obligate parasite of free-living amoebae". The Lancet. 349 (9056): 925–926. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)62701-8. PMID 9093261.