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Temporal range: Early Miocene–Middle Miocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Genus: Paracynarctus
(Wang and Tedford, 1992)
Type species
Epicyon haydeni
  • P. kelloggi
  • P. sinclairi

Paracynarctus is an extinct genus of the Borophaginae and a terrestrial canine (bear-dog) which inhabited most of North America during the Early Hemingfordian stage of the Early Miocene subepoch through the Early Barstovian stage of the Middle Miocene subepoch 20.6—13.6 Ma, existing for approximately 7 million years.[2]

As with other Borophaginae, Paracynarctus was a "bone-crushing dog" with powerful teeth and jaws, and hyena-like features.


Fossil specimens of two individuals' body mass were examined by Legendre and Roth. The first specimen was estimated to weigh 8.57 kg (19 lb). The second specimen was estimated to weigh 8.18 kg (18 lb).[3]


  • P. kelloggi (synonymous with Cynodesmus casei) was recombined as Tomarctus kelloggi several times and again as Cynarctus kelloggi by Wang (1994) and again by Wang as Paracynarctus kelloggi.[4]
  • P. sinclairi was named by X. Wang.[5]

Fossil distribution[edit]

P. kelloggi was originally found Virgin Valley, Nevada in a Barstovian terrestrial horizon.[4]

Sister genera[edit]



  1. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 243. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Paracynarctus Taxonomy, Species
  3. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia).
  4. ^ a b PaleoBiology Database: Paracynarctus kelloggi Species
  5. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Paracynarctus sinclairi Species