Paradoxurinae

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Paradoxurinae
Binturong in Overloon.jpg
Binturong (Arctictis binturong)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Subfamily: Paradoxurinae
Gray, 1864
Genera

see Classification

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.[1] Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.[2][3]

Classification[edit]

Living species[edit]

Genus Species Distribution and IUCN Red List status
Paradoxurus Cuvier, 1822[4] Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) (Pallas, 1777)[5]
Asian or Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Chambal by Dr. Raju Kasambe (6).JPG
LC[6]
Asian Palm Civet area.png
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis) (Pallas, 1778)[7]
Paradoxurus zeylonensis.jpg
VU[8]
Golden Palm Civet range.png
Brown palm civet (P. jerdoni) Blanford, 1885[9]
ParadoxurusJerdoniSmit.jpg
LC[10]
Jerdon's Palm Civet range.png
Arctictis Temminck, 1824[11] Binturong (A. binturong) (Raffles, 1822)[12]
Binturong in Overloon.jpg
VU[13]
Binturong area.png
Paguma Gray, 1831[14] Masked palm civet (P. larvata) (Smith, 1827)[15]
Palm civet on tree (detail).jpg
LC[16]
Masked Palm Civet area.png
Arctogalidia Merriam, 1897[17] Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata) (Gray, 1832)[18]
Small-toothed Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata stigmatica) (8076736823) (cut).jpg
LC[19]
Small-toothed Palm Cive area.png

Phylogenetic tree[edit]

The phylogenetic relationships of Paradoxurinae are shown in the following cladogram:[20][21]

 Paradoxurinae 
 Paradoxurus 

Paradoxurus zeylonensis (Golden palm civet)

Paradoxurus montanus (Sri Lankan brown palm civet)

Paradoxurus stenocephalus (Golden dry-zone palm civet)

Paradoxurus aureus (Golden wet-zone palm civet)

Paradoxurus jerdoni (Jerdon's palm civet)

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Asian palm civet)

 Macrogalidia 

Macrogalidia musschenbroekii (Sulawesi palm civet)

 Paguma 

Paguma larvata (Masked palm civet)

 Arctictis 

Arctictis binturong (Binturong)

Extinct genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gray, J. E. (1864). "A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae), founded on the collection in the British Museum". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1864: 502–579.
  2. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1933). The rarer genera of oriental Viverridae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London '1933'(4): 969–1035.
  3. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, London. Pp. 376–439.
  4. ^ Cuvier, F. (1822). "Du genre Paradoxure et de deux espèces nouvelles qui s'y rapportent". In Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, É.; Cuvier, G. (eds.). Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. 9. Paris: A. Belin. pp. 41–48.
  5. ^ Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Das Zwitterstinktier Viverra hermaphrodita". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. p. 426.
  6. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Timmins, R. J.; Choudhury, A.; Chutipong, W.; Willcox, D.H.A.; Mudappa, D.; Rahman, H.; Widmann, P.; Wilting, A. & Xu, W. (2016). "Paradoxurus hermaphroditus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41693A45217835.
  7. ^ Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Der Boshond Viverra zeylonensis". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 451–452.
  8. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Mudappa, D.; Pethiyagoda, R.; Woolgar, J.; de Silva Wijeyeratne, G. & Hall, J. (2016). "Paradoxurus zeylonensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41694A45218119.
  9. ^ Blanford, W.T. (1855). "Exhibition and description of a skull of an apparently new Species of Paradoxurus (Paradoxurus jerdoni)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 612–613.
  10. ^ Mudappa, D.; Choudhury, A. & Punjabi, G. A. (2016). "Paradoxurus jerdoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T16104A45201757.
  11. ^ Temminck, C. J. (1824). "XVII Genre Arctictis". Monographies de mammalogie. Paris: Dufour & d'Ocagne. p. xxi.
  12. ^ Raffles, T. S. (1822). "XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, made on account of the Honourable East India Company, in the Island of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under the Direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough', with additional Notices illustrative of the Natural History of those Countries". The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. XIII: 239–274.
  13. ^ Willcox, D. H. A.; Chutipong, W.; Gray, T. N. E.; Cheyne, S.; Semiadi, G.; Rahman, H.; Coudrat, C. N. Z.; Jennings, A.; Ghimirey, Y.; Ross, J.; et al. (2016). "Arctictis binturong". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41690A45217088.
  14. ^ Gray, J. E. (1831). "Paguma". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 1. London: Zoological Society of London. p. 95.
  15. ^ Smith, C.H. (1827). "Gulo larvatus, the Masked Glutton". In Griffith, E. (ed.). The animal kingdom : arranged in conformity with its organization. 2. Mammalia. London: G.B. Whittaker. p. 281.
  16. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Timmins, R. J.; Chutipong, W.; Choudhury, A.; Mathai, J.; Willcox, D. H. A.; Ghimirey, Y.; Chan, B. & Ross, J. (2016). "Paguma larvata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41692A45217601.
  17. ^ Merriam, C. H. (1897). "The generic names Ictis, Arctogale, and Arctogalidia". Science. 5 (112): 302. doi:10.1126/science.5.112.302. PMID 17741859.
  18. ^ Gray, J. E. (1832). "On the family of Viverridae and its generic sub-divisions, with an enumeration of the species of several new ones". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 2: 63–68.
  19. ^ Willcox, D.H.A.; Duckworth, J. W.; Timmins, R. J.; Chutipong, W.; Choudhury, A.; Roberton, S.; Long, B.; Hearn, A. & Ross, J. (2016). "Arctogalidia trivirgata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41691A45217378.
  20. ^ Gaubert, P. & Cordeiro-Estrela, P. (2006). "Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41 (2): 266–278. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.034. PMID 16837215. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-04. Retrieved 2019-07-01.open access
  21. ^ Nyakatura, K. & Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. (2012). "Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates". BMC Biology. 10: 12. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-12. PMC 3307490. PMID 22369503.
  22. ^ Savage, R. J. G. (1965). "Fossil mammals of Africa: 19, The Miocene Carnivora of East Africa". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). 10 (8): 239–316.
  23. ^ Adrian, B.; Werdelin, L. & Grossman, A. (2018). "New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya" (PDF). Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1 10A): 1–19. doi:10.26879/778.
  24. ^ Morales, J. & Pickford, M. (2005). "Carnivores from the Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation (13-12 Ma), Kenya" (PDF). Estudios Geológicos. 61 (3–6): 271–284. doi:10.3989/egeol.05613-668.
  25. ^ a b Werdelin, L. (2019). "Middle Miocene Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from Fort Ternan, western Kenya" (PDF). Geodiversitas. 41 (6): 267. doi:10.5252/geodiversitas2019v41a6. S2CID 146620949.
  26. ^ Dehghani, R. & Werdelin, L. (2008). "A new small carnivoran from the Middle Miocene of Fort Ternan, Kenya". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 248 (2): 233–244. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0248-0233.
  27. ^ Grohé, C.; Bonis, L. D.; Chaimanee, Y.; Chavasseau, O.; Rugbumrung, M.; Yamee, C.; Suraprasit, K.; Gibert, C.; Surault, J.; Blondel, C.; Jaeger, J.-J. (2020). "The Late Middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin of Northern Thailand: The Richest Neogene Assemblage of Carnivora from Southeast Asia and a Paleobiogeographic Analysis of Miocene Asian Carnivorans". American Museum Novitates. 2020 (3952): 1–57. doi:10.1206/3952.1. S2CID 219296152.