Paralympic symbols

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The Paralympic symbols are the icons, flags, and symbols used by the International Paralympic Committee to promote the Paralympic Games.


The Paralympic motto is "Spirit in Motion". The motto was introduced in 2004 at the Paralympic Games in Athens.[1] The previous motto was "Mind, Body, Spirit", introduced in 1994.[1]

Paralympic symbol[edit]


The Paralympic symbol consists of three agitos, coloured red, blue, and green, the three colours that are most widely represented in national flags around the world.

The symbol of the Paralympic Games is composed of three "agitos", coloured red, blue, and green, encircling a single point, on a white field. The agito ("I move" in Latin) is a symbol of movement in the shape of an asymmetrical crescent.[1][2] The colours of the agitos with the white background stand for the three colours that are most widely represented in national flags around the world. The three agitos encircle a centre point, to emphasize "the role that the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) has of bringing athletes from all corners of the world together and enabling them to compete". The shape also symbolises the Paralympic vision "To enable Paralympic athletes to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the world".[1][2]

The emblem was designed by the agency Scholz & Friends as a modernization of a tri-coloured emblem first adopted in 1992.[3] It was used in a formal capacity for the first time during the closing ceremony of the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, where a new Paralympic flag with the emblem was handed over to Beijing—host of the 2008 Summer Paralympics.[4][3] The agitos were used as part of the branding for a Paralympics for the first time at the 2006 Winter Paralympics.

In October 2019, the IPC unveiled a new corporate identity and a refreshed version of the Agitos emblem; the three crescents were changed to have a more "strict" geometry with consistent shapes and alignment, and the colours were brightened to match those used in the Olympic rings. The IPC also announced a new "brand narrative" of "Change Starts with Sport", to "better communicate the transformational impact the Paralympic Movement has on society and drive the human rights agenda."[5][6]


The first Paralympic symbol (1988–1994) used five pa.

The first designated Paralympic logo was created for the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul and based on a traditional Korean decorative component called a pa {Hangul: 파; Hanja: 巴}, two of which make up the taegeuk symbol at the center of the flag of South Korea. The first Paralympic flag used five pa arranged similarly to the Olympic rings and coloured identically.[1][2]

In 1991, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) formally requested that the International Coordinating Committee of World Sports Organizations for the Disabled (ICC) modify the Paralympic logo due to the similarity between the five pa symbol and the Olympic emblem, and therefore the potential for confusion between the two.[1][2][7][8] In November 1991, IPC members voted against adopting a new logo comprising six overlapping pa in a circle (representing the then 6 IPC regions - Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Middle East and Oceania), opting instead to retain the five-pa symbol. Nevertheless, the IOC made clear that it would refuse future collaborations with the IPC if the five-pa symbol remained in place.[7]

The second Paralympic symbol (1994–2004) used three pa.

During the 1992 Winter Paralympics,[7] a new Paralympic symbol,using a new simplified version utilizing only three pa, representing the new motto of the institution - Body, Soul, and Spirit was reveled.

Following this agreement between the IOC and the IPC, the five-pa symbol would be discontinued after the 1994 Winter Paralympics in Lillehammer, Norway, since the Lillehammer Paralympic Organizing Committee (LPOC) had already started a marketing program based on the five-pa version. The three-pa version remained in place from the closing of the Lillehammer Games through the 2004 Summer Paralympics closing ceremonies held in Athens, Greece.[1][2]

Paralympic emblems[edit]

Each Paralympic Games version has a unique emblem that exemplifies its vision and ideals, much like the Olympic Games. Every emblem is individual and respects the local design and personality of the host nation. Each Paralympic Games version has a unique emblem that exemplifies its vision and ideals, much like the Olympic Games.

See also:Category:Summer Paralympic Games and Category:Winter Paralympic Games for various Paralympic emblems.[9] Those designs incorporates their version of the Paralympic symbol,used at the time,the name and year of the event, and one or more distinctive and cultural elements of the host country or city to identify the event.

It is the responsibility of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to approve Paralympic emblems for the Paralympic Games. The Paralympic emblems are used in promotional materials, by sponsors, and on the uniforms of every Paralympic competitor. All emblems are the property of the IPC.

  • Rome 1960
  • Tokyo 1964
  • Tel Aviv 1968
  • Heidelberg 1972
  • Toronto 1976
  • Örnsköldsvik 1976
  • Arnhem 1980
  • Geilo 1980
  • Stoke Mandeville & New York 1984
  • Innsbruck 1984
  • Seoul 1988
  • Innsbruck 1988
  • Tignes-Albertville 1992 – designed by Jean-Michel Folon
  • Barcelona 1992 – Originally, the Organizing Committee of the XXV Summer Olympic Games (COOB'92) as the first unifield Organizing Committee, proposed to the ICC and the IOC the use of the same logo as the Olympic Games, but with the removal of the Olympic rings and in their place the word "Paralympics".Both IOC and ICC rejected the proposal and in the second version the 5 pa used in Seoul were added. However, the proposal was again rejected.A third proposal was created and was accepted by the two parts. The new logo symbolized an individual (man or woman) in a dynamic attitude in a wheelchair, "a human figure in a sports attitude". It was based on a symbolic depiction of a human figure using a wheelchair. This design is an adapted version of the Olympic logo, with a simple modification: the athlete's legs are replaced by a circle symbolizing,the spinning world, a wheelchair, and the adapted sport. As the Olympic logo red and yellow are the colors of Spain and meaning the sun and the life and blue is used to reference to the Mediterranean Sea and the "Mediterranean-ness" of Barcelona. The use of Times Demi Bold (New Roman) typography references antiquity and Romanness, Latin-ness and seriousness.[10]
  • Lillehammer 1994 – Depicting the sun people. This image portrayed the ideas of power, vitality, strength, and energy, all of which are characteristics of the athletes who took part.[11]
  • Atlanta 1996 – Entitled ‘Starfire’ the logo for the Atlanta Paralympics was meant to represent the fulfilment of an athlete's dream and the phoenix myth. It may be interpreted as the star being the athlete and the fire being the passion that burns in the heart to fulfil their dreams. The fifth point of the star, revealed by the ‘dynamic flow of the rings’ represents the fulfilment of the athletes’ quest.[10]
  • Nagano 1998 – The logo design selected for the Nagano 1998 Winter Paralympics was designed by Sadahiko Kojima following the announcement of a national competition. It represents a simplified form of the Chinese character ‘naga’ for Nagano. It also symbolises a rabbit jumping and playing in snow or on ice with the swift movements that are characteristic of rabbits. This figure was combined with the Games details and the former IPC logo of three tae-gu
  • Sydney 2000 – The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games logo embodies the vitality of Sydney, the spirit of Australia, and the ability and achievement of the Paralympic athlete. The logo depicts a dynamic human form — represented by three graphic shapes — leaping triumphantly forward and "breaking through" towards the Paralympic Games in 2000. It also portrays the Paralympic torch and echoes the sails of Sydney's greatest landmark, the Sydney Opera House. The logo cast by the three Paralympic colors represented by Australia's unique shades of these colors: the rich blue of Sydney Harbour, the warm red of the Outback, and the lush green of the forest .[12]
  • Salt Lake 2002 – The logo for the Salt Lake Paralympics can be split into three distinct parts making up the whole. The sphere at the top represents both the global unity and the new moment of the Paralympic Movement and also the head of the Paralympic athlete, which the overall logo appears to depict. The two broad fluid lines represent the athlete in motion with the three tae-guks, the then IPC logo, beneath the athlete.[12]
  • Athens 2004 – Called as "Son of Sun" was a designed logo inspired by Phaistos Disc,the Erichthonius of Athens mith and the Sun. This design aimed to embody the strength and determination of the Paralympic athlete. It features the profile of an athlete – male or female – looking forward, symbolising optimism for the future. At the same time, this human face attempts to reflect the individual's willpower and determination to succeed in all pursuits. The face's lines are smooth, and the chosen colors is warm and bright shades of orange Hephaestus and Sun colors)– harbinger of the great celebration to come.[13]
  • Torino 2006 – Three graphic elements, used as part of the Olympic Games logo design, with a different position.The figure represent human figures creating an upward soaring movement. Designed by the Benincasa-Husmann Studio[12]
  • Beijing 2008 – Dubbed ‘Sky, Earth and Human Beings’ and unveiled during a grand ceremony at the China Millennium Monument on 13 July 2004, in Beijing, the logo for the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games is in the form of an athlete in motion. It is intended to embody the tremendous efforts that persons with a disability have to make in sport as well as in everyday life. It is typically Chinese in its form and style and the three agitos colours used in a different way, as they represent the sun (red), the sky (blue) and the earth (green). They are also intended to reflect the integration of heart, body and spirit, which are at the core values of chinese culture as well as the Paralympic Games.[14]
  • Vancouver 2010 – "Man becomes Mountain": Captures a recort of Vancouver coast and Whistler's forests, as the common things in the two host cities as the mountains, and the sky.[15]
  • London 2012 – This logo was designed by Wolff Olins, was published on 4 June 2007.Has the same design as the Olympic logo. However, with minor sensorial changes such as the colored lines and small parts and the addition of the words "Paralympic Games" and the Agitos in place at the Olympic Rings.Is a representation of the number 2012, with the Paralympic Agitos embedded within the zero.[16] The standard colours are also green, magenta, orange and blue.In order to differentiate the two logos, tactile and colourful lines and areas marks were made within the number 2012.[17][18] The emblem was released on the same day as the emblem for the Olympic Games.
  • Sochi 2014 – "" was the only Paralympic emblem to include a web address. The mirror of "Sochi" and "2014" 'reflects' that Sochi is a meeting point between sea and mountains. The same essential logo shape is to be used for both the Olympic and Paralympic Games, but with different colours and the agitos replacing the Olympic Rings. The emblem was released on 12 December 2009, ca 11 days after the emblem for the Olympic Games.
  • Rio 2016 – A stylized heart in 3D, symbolizing inclusion, passion, tolerance and the warmth of Brazilian people.[19]
  • PyeongChang 2018 - The same Korean letter that symbolises snow, ice and the Paralympic athletes.The two letters together are said to portray a grand festival for the athletes, the audience and everyone around the globe. The letters sitting side-by-side also signify equality, with South Korea's five cardinal colours being used to represent the uniqueness of each individual.
  • Tokyo 2020 – The Paralympic emblem features the same indigo-coloured checkerboard that was part of the Olympic logo, but positioned as hand fan in a circle form, filled with an indigo-colored checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies the Japanese design". The design replaced the previous design which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium.
  • Beijing 2022 - Had the inspiration of a paralympic seated skier with a Chinese ribbon motif and the Chinese character "飞" (fēi, means fly), with the rainbow colors.
  • Paris 2024 - The emblem for the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was unveiled on 21 October 2019 at the Grand Rex. For the first time, a Paralympic Games will share the exact same emblem as their corresponding Olympics, with no difference or variation to reflect the two events sharing a common "ambitions". When shown to the public it was explained that "In terms of legacy, Paris City believes, that around the world, the people could strengthen the place of sport in their daily life and whatever the age, whatever the disability or ability, all the persons have a place and a role to play in the success of Paris 2024."
  • Milan- Cortina 2026 -On 30 March 2021, following a public vote between two candidates designed by Landor Associates, a design named "Futura" was announced as the emblem of the 2026 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. The Paralympic version is recoloured with a red, blue, and green gradient to symbolise an aurora and the colours of the Paralympic emblem.[20][21][22]
  • Los Angeles 2028 -The emblems for the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on September 1, 2020, featuring an interchangeable "A" reflecting the cultural diversity of Los Angeles.The "final A" will be revealed during the closing ceremony of the 2024 Summer Paralympic Games.



The International Paralympic Committee
The Paralympic agitos
UseSport Small vexillological symbol or pictogram in black and white showing the different uses of the flag
Proportion3:5 or 1:2
Adopted20 October 2019

The Paralympic flag has a white background, with the Paralympic symbol in the centre.

The current version of the Paralympic flag was first flown in 2019.

Flame and torch relay[edit]

Until the 2010 Winter Paralympics, each Organizing Committee was free to choose which method and how the Paralympic torch would be lit.[26] and since the 1988 Summer Paralympics, the Paralympic torch had the role is to maintain the engagement on the host country and keep the energy dissipated in the Olympic Games. With the exception of the 1992 Summer and 1994 Winter Games, when the Olympic flame was conserved at the host city for use at the Paralympic Games. Each city performed its specific ritual days after the closing ceremony and in a unique way respecting its local culture and since then it has been normal for each one to take the Paralympic relay to places where its Olympic counterpart did not go, as was the case in the Atlanta 1996 relay. The first time that the current Paralympic torch relay concept was used was for the 2002 Winter Paralympics. The Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics and Paralympics Organizing Committee (SLOOC) selected 15 communities in the state of Utah to host their local celebrations between the period of March 1–4, 2002 when they lit their local flames. After the local stages were carried out and at the end each torch was sent inside a lantern to Salt Lake City. At the evening before the Opening ceremonies, the 15 flames were merged in a special cauldron at the front of the Utah State Capitol.At the early hours of the next morning, the last leg of the 2002 Winter Paralympic flame relay started and during the Opening Ceremonies the Paralympic cauldron was lit by Chris Waddell and Muffy Davis.[27] The next edition to use this concept was the 2010 Winter Paralympics when indigenous celebrations were held between 3–12 March 2010. They started in Ottawa where bearers from all 10 provinces and 3 Canadian territories participated in the Canadian capital, the flame was born through a ritual carried out by representatives of all Canadian indigenous nations who used their traditional methods to and in the end the ashes were collected and placed in a box that was sent to Vancouver.In addition to Ottawa, outside British Columbia, local celebrations were held in Toronto and Québec City had local legs. These rituals were performed in 9 selected cities and communities in British Columbia. In the early hours of the morning of the day of the opening ceremony, all the boxes with the ashes were opened in a special ceremony also with the first peoples, and the Paralympic flame was born and made its way to the opening ceremony at the BC Place.[28]

The concept used in these editions was refined for the 2012 Summer Paralympics; four regional cauldrons were lit in each of the Home Nations (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) during "Flame Festival" events, as well as a fifth "heritage flame" in Stoke Mandeville, in honour of its role as the birthplace of the Paralympic movement. The four flames were transported to Stoke Mandeville Hospital and combined with the heritage flame during a ceremony on 28 August 2012, creating a singular flame for the final leg of the torch relay to Olympic Stadium for the opening ceremonies.[29][30][31]

Following the Games, calls emerged for the "heritage flame" to become a permanent tradition of the Paralympics.[32] In August 2013, this process was made official as part of a partnership between the IPC and Buckinghamshire County Council; beginning with the 2014 Winter Paralympics, a ceremonial heritage flame is lit during a ceremony at Stoke Mandeville Stadium, which is then contributed to the Paralympic flame created in the host country.[33] For 2014, this ceremony featured Hannah Cockroft generating sparks with her wheelchair to create the flame, and the torch lit by fellow wheelchair athlete Caz Walton.[34] In October 2023, it was announced that future Paralympic torch relays would officially begin with a flame created in Stoke Mandeville, in a direct parallel to the traditional Olympic flame lighting in Olympia.[35][36][37]


The Paralympic medals awarded to winners are another symbol associated with the Paralympic Games. The medals are made of gold-plated silver (commonly described as gold medals), silver, or bronze, and awarded to the top 3 finishers in a particular event.

For each Paralympic Games, the medals are designed differently, reflecting the host of the games.


Anthem of the Future
French: Hymne de l’Avenir
German: Hymne der Zukunft
Hymne de l’Avenir
Hymne der Zukunft

Official anthem of the Paralympic Games and the International Paralympic Committee
LyricsGraeme Connors, 2001
MusicThierry Darnis, March 1996

The Paralympic Anthem, also known as the Paralympic Hymn, is played when the Paralympic Flag is raised. It is a musical piece, "Hymne de l’Avenir" (en. "Anthem of the Future") composed by Thierry Darnis. The anthem was approved by the IPC in March 1996.[38]

Australian country singer Graeme Connors wrote the lyrics for the anthem in 2001. As of 2023, the lyrics are implemented yet.[39]

Paralympic Oath[edit]

The Paralympic Oath is a solemn promise made by one athlete—as a representative of each of the participating Paralympic competitors; and by one judge—as a representative of each officiating Paralympic referee or other official, at the opening ceremonies of each Paralympic Games.

The athlete, from the team of the organizing country, holds a corner of the Paralympic Flag while reciting the oath:

Athletes' Oath

In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Paralympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.[40]

The judge, also from the host nation, holds a corner of the flag but takes a slightly different oath:

Judges' Oath (Officials' Oath)

In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Paralympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship.[41]

The coach, from the host nation, holds a corner of the flag but takes a slightly different oath:

Coaches' Oath

In the name of all coaches and other members of the athletes entourage, I promise that we shall commit ourselves to ensuring that the spirit of sportsmanship and fair play is fully adhered to and upheld in accordance with the fundamental principles of the Paralympic movement.


The first Paralympic Oath was taken at the first Paralympic Games, in Rome in 1960. The Paralympic Oath is identical to the Olympic Oath, with the exception of the word 'Olympic' being substituted by 'Paralympic'. The Oath was originally written by Pierre de Coubertin. The first oath (an Athlete's Oath) was taken at the Olympic Games in Antwerp in 1920. The original text by Coubertin, has since been modified several times. The first Judge's/Official's Oath was taken at the Olympic Games in Sapporo in 1972.[42] The first Coach's Oath was taken at the Paralympic Games in London in 2012.


Athletes and judges that have taken the Paralympic Oath are listed below.[40][42]

Paralympic Oath
Paralympics Athlete Judge (Official) Coach
1960 Summer Paralympics Franco Rossi
1964 Summer Paralympics Shigeo Aono
1968 Summer Paralympics Zvi Ben-Zvi
1972 Summer Paralympics Marga Floer Unknown
1976 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1976 Summer Paralympics Eugene Reimer Unknown
1980 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1980 Summer Paralympics Irene Schmidt Henk Boersbroek
1984 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1984 Summer Paralympics Ólavur Kongsbak (NY)
John Harris (SM)
Jack Abramson (NY)
Ronald Nicholls (SM)
1988 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1988 Summer Paralympics So-Boo Kim Unknown
1992 Winter Paralympics Ludovic Rey-Robert [fr] Unknown
1992 Summer Paralympics José Manuel Rodríguez Ibáñez Unknown
1994 Winter Paralympics Cato Zahl Pedersen Unknown
1996 Summer Paralympics Trischa Zorn Unknown
1998 Winter Paralympics Ryuei Shinohe [ja] Takashi Takano
2000 Summer Paralympics Tracey Cross Mary Longden
2002 Winter Paralympics Sarah Billmeier Unknown
2004 Summer Paralympics Maria Kalpakidou [es] Vlassis Tamvakieras
2006 Winter Paralympics Fabrizio Zardini Mauro Scanacapra
2008 Summer Paralympics Wu Chunmiao[43] Hao Guohua[43]
2010 Winter Paralympics Herve Lord[44] Linda Kirton[45]
2012 Summer Paralympics Liz Johnson[46] Richard Allcroft[46] David Hunter[46]
2014 Winter Paralympics Valery Redkozubov Elena Mokerova Alexander Nazarov[47]
2016 Summer Paralympics Phelipe Rodrigues Raquel Daffre Amaury Veríssimo
2018 Winter Paralympics Lee Ju-seung
2020 Summer Paralympics Shingo Kunieda Nobuyuki Azuma Yumiko Taniguchi
Rie Urata

Paralympic Order[edit]

The Paralympic Order is the highest award of the Paralympic Movement. The recipients get a medal with the IPC logo on it. The Paralympic Order is awarded to individuals for particularly distinguished contribution to the Paralympic Movement.[48][49]


Starting in 2022, the International Paralympic Committee introduced post nominals, PLY, to recognize their contribution to the Paralympic movement, similar to the International Olympic Committee's OLY. It was first awarded to Ragnhild Myklebust and Kevin Coombs.[50][51]


Each Paralympic Games have a mascot, usually an animal native to the area or occasionally human figures representing the cultural heritage. Nowadays, most of the merchandise aimed at young people focuses on the mascots, rather than the Paralympic flag or organization logos.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "New Logo and Motto for IPC". International Paralympic Committee. 2003. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e International Paralympic Committee – The IPC logo, motto and flag,
  3. ^ a b "No. 18: The Agitos, the Paralympic symbol is unveiled". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  4. ^ New Logo and Motto for IPC Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  5. ^ "IPC Launches New Look: Change Starts with Sport". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  6. ^ "Refreshed IPC logo designed to give "parity" with Olympic Rings". 13 February 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Vom Rehabilitationssport zu den Paralympics Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine (German), Sportmuseum Leipzig
  8. ^ Athlete first: a history of the paralympic movement, by Steve Bailey, Google Books
  9. ^ Paralympic Emblems Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  10. ^ a b , Paralympic Anorak
  11. ^ Lillehammer 1994, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  12. ^ a b c An introduction to emblems and mascots of Paralympic Games (photos attached) Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  13. ^ Emblems of Paralympic Summer Games – Athens 2004 Archived 26 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  14. ^ Beijing Paralympics Emblem unveiled (photo attached) Archived 6 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, 13 July 2004
  15. ^ Vancouver 2010 paralympic games Emblem Graphic standards Archived 26 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games
  16. ^ "London 2012 logo to be unveiled". BBC Sport. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  17. ^ "Get involved: Handover – London 2012". Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  18. ^ "Get involved: Handover - London 2012". Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. ^ Paralympic Emblem Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, 25 December 2015
  20. ^ "Milano Cortina 2026, i nuovi simboli. E' 'Futura' il logo scelto, bianco per le olimpiadi, colorato per le paralimpiadi – Sport". Agenzia ANSA (in Italian). 30 March 2021. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  21. ^ "Milan Cortina 2026 unveil "Futura" design as Winter Olympic and Paralympic logo". 30 March 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  22. ^ "'Futura' is the official emblem of Milano Cortina 2026". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  23. ^ "L.A. 2028 unveils dynamic Olympics logo, updated by athletes and celeb creators". 1 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  24. ^ "Athletes, artists and celebrities create unique logos for the 2028 L.A. Olympics". Los Angeles Times. September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  25. ^ "Celebrities, Artists, Athletes Contribute To Animated Logo For 2028 LA Olympics". CBS Los Angeles. 1 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  26. ^ Games symbols and mascots, Get Set – London 2012 Education Programme
  27. ^ "Journey of Fire lites the Paralympic Spirit". Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Paralympics Official Website. 28 February 2000. Archived from the original on 11 December 2004. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  28. ^ "2010 Paralympic Torch Relay: Daily Highlights" Archived 5 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Vancouver 2010 official website (viewed on 2 March)
  29. ^ "London 2012: Scouts to spark Paralympic flame". BBC News. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  30. ^ Taylor, Jerome (15 August 2012). "Mountain cauldrons will spark Paralympic torch relay". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  31. ^ Williams, Tim (22 August 2012). "Paralympics 2012: flames lit across Britain at the start of Paralympic torch relay celebrations". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  32. ^ "Bid to make Stoke Mandeville permanent home of Paralympic Torch lighting gathers momentum". 3 January 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  33. ^ "Stoke Mandeville set to become permanent home for lighting of Paralympic Flame". 8 August 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  34. ^ "First ever Heritage Flame lit at Stoke Mandeville in a historic moment for Paralympic Movement". 1 January 1970. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  35. ^ "Stoke Mandeville revealed as permanent home of Paralympic flame". BBC News. 6 October 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  36. ^ "Stoke Mandeville to stage first standalone Paralympic Flame Lighting Ceremony". 6 October 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  37. ^ "Paralympic Flame to be created at Stoke Mandeville for all future Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  38. ^ IPC Handbook – Bylaws Governance and Organizational Structure Archived 26 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine (.pdf file), International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  39. ^ "The Paralympian 4/2001 - Editorial". 6 January 2002. Archived from the original on 6 January 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  40. ^ a b Paralympic Winter Games History, The Official Web Site of the U.S. Olympic Committee
  41. ^ Summary of the Opening Ceremony Archived 12 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, 6 September 2008
  42. ^ a b Paralympic Oath Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine (.pdf file), International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  43. ^ a b China opens Beijing Paralympic Games in celebration of life and humanity, English People's Daily Online, 7 September 2008
  44. ^ Paralympic Games kick off in Vancouver Archived 22 March 2010 at, National Post, 12 March 2010
  45. ^ Abby curl official to read Paralympic oath Archived 12 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine,, 8 March 2010
  46. ^ a b c Michael Hirst BBC 2012 (30 August 2012). "Paralympic Games 'return home' to UK". Retrieved 19 February 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  47. ^ "Sochi 2014 Paralympic Opening Ceremony lights up Russia". 7 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  48. ^ The Paralympian – Issue 1/2010 Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Paralympian page 14, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  49. ^ Paralympic Order, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  50. ^ "IPC introduces PLY post-nominal titles to recognise Paralympians".
  51. ^ "The Paralympic pioneers who helped create a PLY legacy".

External links[edit]