Paramara dynasty

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Paramara Dynasty

Capital Dhar
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
 -  c.800 – c.818 Upendra Krashna Raj Parmar
 -  c.1010 – c.1055 Bhoja I
 -  c.1274 – c.1283 Arjunavarman II
Historical era Classical India
 -  Established 800
 -  Disestablished 1327
Harsola Grant A of Paramara king Siyaka, 949
The Bhojasvāmin temple, Bhojpur
The liṅga at the Bhojasvāmin temple, Bhojpur
Detail of the masonry of the northern dam at Bhojpur
Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal, Vidisha with an inscription of Naravarman

The Paramara / Puar / Panwar dynasty was an early medieval Indian royal Rajput house that originated in the Mount Abu region of Rajasthan[1] [2] and later ruled over the Malwa region in central India. The most significant ruler was Bhoja I. The seat of the Paramara kingdom was Dhārānagara, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh. The Paramara rulers were appointed as governors by the Kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty when Malwa was conquered by the south Indian Emperor Govinda III.[3] The main sources for the history of the Paramara dynasty are the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta and a series of inscriptions, most notably the Udayapur Praśasti at the Udayesvar Temple[4] at Udaypur in Vidisha district, Madhya Pradesh.

"Never had Malwa enjoyed a higher level of political and cultural prestige than it did under the Paramaras."[5]:25-26


The Paramara kingdom was established by the Rashtrakuta dynasty of southern India as governors of Malwa when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty conquered Malwa.[6] According to the Bhavisya Purana, the Kamadhenu (a cow which grants all wishes of one) of the sage Vasishtha was stolen by another sage Vishvamitra. Vasishtha therefore made an offering to the sacrificial fire at Mount Abu. A hero sprang out from the sacrificial fire and brought back the cow to the sage Vasishtha, who bestowed the name Parmar (slayer of the enemy) on him.[7]

Notable Kings[edit]


Upendra, or Krishnaraja, founded the dynasty in Dhara in the middle of the 10th century. They were a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas.[5]:23


Defied the Rashtrakutas.[5]:23


Munja,or Vakpati, was a "glamorous" and "great warrior king." He "humbled the pride of Mewar, Marwar, Lata, Huna, Chedi, and Gurjara rulers." He was a patron supporter of the poets Dhananjaya, Bhatta Halayudha, Dhanika, and Padmagupta.[5]:25

Bhoja I[edit]

Main article: Bhoja

Bhoja I (1010-1055) was the most well-known ruler of this dynasty. He took Konkan in 1020 from the Silhara dynasty. He was best known as a scholar, authoring 23 books, including a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, which is "inferior to none."[5]:25 He established a centre for Sanskrit studies in Dhara Nagari, his capital. His works include the Samaranganasutradhara.

Mahlak Deo[edit]

The last king, who was defeated by Alauddin Khilji.[5]:25


Name[8] Reign Began Reign Ended
1 Upendra 800 818
2 Siyaka 818 843
3 Siyaka I 843 893
4 Vakpatiraja I 893 918
5 Vairisimha II 918 948
6 Siyaka II (Harsha Siyaka). Expanded the kingdom in various battles with neighbours such as Mewar, Indore and in the east touched the Chandela Kingdom. He was defeated by Yashorvarman Chandela. He took Ujjain from the Pratiharas. He later invaded the Rashtrakutas and sacked Manyakheta in the spring of 972. Khottiga Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakutas died fighting, resulting in collapse and overtake of his empire by Western Chalukyas under Tailapa II. 948 974
7 Vakpatiraja II Munja – Defeated Mewar under Narwahana or his son Shakti Kumar and plundered Ahar their new capital. He also invaded Marwar which was under the Chauhanas. He defeated the Kalachuri king Yuvaraja II and sacked his capital Tripuri. His battles with Tailapa II of Western Chalukya are considered epic. He invaded the Western Chalukyas, hoping to defeat the still-evolving new regional power, but Tailapa repelled the invasion and captured him. He died in captivity. 974 995
8 Sindhuraja - Decisively defeated the Hunas north west of Malwa possibly in Indore. He defeated the Chalukyas of Lata (Gujarat) as well as King of Kosala, Kalingaraja. He also defeated the Silhara dynasty of Konkan at Aparanta. He may or may not have been killed in battle with Western Chalukya. 995 1010
9 Bhoja I – Fought with his neighbours with varying results but was able to keep Muslims out of Malwa. He was a polymath and authored many books on various topics including Samarangana-sutradhara. He is considered the greatest king of his dynasty. He is also a subject of early known brain surgery for a tumour by inducing coma using something called sammohini. 1010 1055
10 Jayasimha I - Killed in battle by Kalachuri King Karna. 1055 1068-69
11 Udayaditya - Defeated by Chamundaraja, his vassal at Vagada. Invaded in 1079 by Karna, Solanki ruler of Lata and defeated him at Sudakupa Pass. In reply he along with allies defeated Karna. 1068-69 1087
12 Lakshmanadeva 1087 1094
13 Naravarmandeva Nirvana-Narayana - Lost Bhilsa District to the Chandelas under Salakshanavarman. Also defeated by Chauhanas of Sakambhari under Ajayavarman. He was also defeated by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Solanki ruler of Lata. 1094 1134
14 Yasovarman - Invaded by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Solanki ruler of Gujarat losing to him the greater part of Malwa but restored a portion of the Kingdom with the help of Chauhans of Ajmer. 1134 1142
15 Jayavarman I 1142 1143
Ballala - A usurper, killed in battle by Kaka, a general of Kumarapala, the Solanki ruler of Gujarat. 1143 1150-51
Briefly a province of Kumarpala
16 Vindhyavarman 1160 1193
17 Subhatavarman 1193 1210
18 Arjunavarman I - Restored past glory of his kingdom by defeating the Solankis of Gujarat as well as the Yadava dynasty 1210 1218
19 Devapala 1218 1239
20 Jaitugideva 1239 1256
21 Jayavarman II 1256 1269
22 Jayasimha II 1269 1274
23 Arjunavarman II 1274 1283
24 Bhoja II 1283  ?
25 Mahlakadeva - He was defeated in 1305 by Ain-ul-Mulk Multani and Malwa was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate.  ?
Map showing the find-spots of the inscriptions of the Paramāras

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Paramāras, c. 800-1305 A.D., Pratipal Bhatia, 1970, p. 15
  2. ^ H.V. Trivedi, Editor, Inscriptions of the Paramaras, Chandellas, Kachchhapaghatas and two minor Dynasties", part 2 of the 3-part Vol III of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, edited in 1974 by (published in 1991)
  3. ^ Ancient India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p.294
  4. ^ The Udayesvara Temple, Udayapur: Architecture and Iconography of an 11th. Century Temple in Central India. Volume I. Doria Tichit. Thesis submitted to Cardiff University, Oct 2010, Ch 1.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. ISBN 9789380607344. 
  6. ^ A Brief History of India by Alain Daniélou p.185
  7. ^ Thapar, Romila (1966, reprint 1986). A History of India, Vol.I, Middlesex:Penguin, ISBN 0-14-020769-4, p.228
  8. ^ Malwa through the ages, from the earliest times to 1305. by Kailash Chand Jain, 1972 ISBN 81-208-0824-X, 9788120808249