Parapiptadenia rigida

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Parapiptadenia rigida
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Clade: Mimosoid clade
Genus: Parapiptadenia
P. rigida
Binomial name
Parapiptadenia rigida
Range of Parapiptadenia rigida
  • Piptadenia rigida Benth.
  • Piptadenia rigida var. grandis Lindm.
  • Piptadenia rigida var. typica Lindm.
  • Prosopis elegans Spreng.
  • Senegalia angico (Mart.) Seigler & Ebinger

Parapiptadenia rigida is a perennial shrub or tree. It is not a threatened species. It is native to Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Common names include angico, angico-cedro, angico-do-banhado, angico-dos-montes, angico-verdadeiro, angico-vermelho (in Spanish angico is changed for anchico), guarucaia and paric.[2]

Parapiptadenia rigida grows from about 18m to 30m in height and it has a straight trunk which has slightly furrowed bark. The foliage is dark green and the flowers are greenish-yellow 5 cm to 9 cm long. It blooms in the spring. The seed pods grow 9 cm to 16 cm in length. The seeds are flat, oval and brown. It is found along the lengths of rivers.


Essential oils[edit]

Essential oils from the tree are becoming more widely recognized in industrial fragrance production.[3]


Gum from the tree can be used in the same way as gum arabic.[4]

Traditional uses[edit]

Extracts from the tree have astringent, expectorant, anti-diarrheal, and hemorrhage-arresting properties.[citation needed][5] It is used for its antiseptic properties in southern Brazil.[6] The bark has a high tannin content of 15.0%[7] and it is used in folk medicine as a bitter-tasting tonic and body cleanser.[citation needed] It is used to treat rickets, lack of appetite and muscle weakness.[8] Parapiptadenia rigida is psychoactive.[9][verification needed]


The tree's bark contains 15.0% tannin.[10]


Its dense, wood is resistant to the elements and is used for construction,[11] carpentry, beams for bridges,[8] poles and firewood.[12] The wood is said to be unaffected by insects including termites and it can last more than 20 years unpainted.

Mechanical properties[edit]

It has a "Janka Hardness" of 2300-3700 lb.,[13] a parallel "bending strength" of 16900 psi, a parallel "compression strength" of 8500 psi and a density of 720–1199 kg/m3[14][15] at a moisture content of 12-15%. Its modulus of elasticity is 157 801 kg/cm2.[16]

For hardwood flooring it is called "pepperwood."[13]


  1. ^ "Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  2. ^ International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS)
  3. ^ Perfumer and Flavorist Magazine Archived 2007-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke, p. 98
  5. ^ PDF Múltiplos Usos de Espécies Vegetais Pela Farmacologia Guarani Através De Iinformações Històricas
  6. ^ Bionews Online
  7. ^ Google Books Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke p. 96
  8. ^ a b Árvoresdeirati [dead link]
  9. ^ Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3-85502-570-3 at " : Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen von Christian Rätsch". Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  10. ^ Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke
  11. ^ Florestar Estatístico Archived 2004-11-23 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Bericht ueber die Exkursion des Lehrstuhls fuer Vegetationsoekologie durch Suedamerika 2005 Archived 2006-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ a b J.G. Architectural
  14. ^ Argentinean Hard Woods
  15. ^ World AgroForestry
  16. ^ Ficha Técnica: Anchico Colorado (Spanish) Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]