|Classification and external resources|
|Specialty||Physical medicine and rehabilitation|
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek: παραπληγίη "half-striking". It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition such as spina bifida that affects the neural elements of the spinal canal. The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. Common victims of this impairment are veterans or members of the armed forces. If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia.
Individuals with paraplegia can range in their level of disability, requiring treatments to vary from case to case. From a rehabilitation standpoint, the most important factor is to gain as much functionality and independence back as possible. Physiotherapists spend many hours within a rehabilitation setting working on strength, range of motion/stretching and transfer skills. Wheelchair mobility is also an important skill to learn. Most paraplegics will be dependent on a wheelchair as a mode of transportation. Thus it is extremely important to teach them the basic skills to gain their independence. Activities of daily living (ADLs) can be quite challenging at first for those with a spinal cord injury (SCI). With the aid of physiotherapists and occupational therapists, individuals with an SCI can learn new skills and adapt previous ones to maximize independence, often living independently within the community.
Regeneration of the spinal cord
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) have been transplanted with success into the spinal cord of Polish man named Darek Fidyka, who was the victim of a knife attack that left him paraplegic in 2010. In 2014, Fidyka underwent pioneering spinal surgery that used OEC grafts to 'bridge the gap' in his severed spinal cord. The surgery was performed in Poland in collaboration with Prof Geoff Raisman, chair of neural regeneration at University College London's Institute of Neurology, and his research team. The olfactory cells were taken from the patients olfactory bulbs in his brain and then grown in the lab, these cells were then injected above and below the impaired spinal tissue. Fidyka regained sensory and motor function in his lower limbs, notably on the side of the transplanted OEC's. He is believed to be the first person in the world to recover sensory function from a complete severing of the spinal nerves.
- Adapted automobile
- Cauda equina syndrome
- Regeneration in humans
- The Body Silent
- Sexuality after spinal cord injury
- Spinal cord injury research
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- Ozelie R, Sipple C, Foy T, et al. (2009). "SCIRehab Project series: the occupational therapy taxonomy". J Spinal Cord Med. 32 (3): 283–97. PMC . PMID 19810630.
- Tzonichaki I, Kleftaras G (2002). "Paraplegia from spinal cord injury: self-esteem, loneliness, and life satisfaction". OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 22 (3): 96–103.
- Walsh, Fergus (21 October 2014). "Paralysed man walks again after cell transplant". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Quinn, Ben (21 October 2014). "Paralysed man Darek Fidyka walks again after pioneering surgery". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
The 38-year-old, who is believed to be the first person in the world to recover from complete severing of the spinal nerves, can now walk with a frame and has been able to resume an independent life, even to the extent of driving a car, while sensation has returned to his lower limbs.
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