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A paraspecies (a paraphyletic species) is a species, living or fossil, that gave rise to one or more daughter species without itself becoming extinct.[1] Geographically widespread species that have given rise to one or more daughter species as peripheral isolates without themselves becoming extinct (i.e. through peripatric speciation) are examples of paraspecies.[2]

Paraspecies are expected from evolutionary theory (Crisp and Chandler, 1996), and are empirical realities in many terrestrial and aquatic taxa.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

The evolution of the polar bear from the brown bear is a well-documented example of a living species that gave rise to another living species.[13][14] Another example of a living paraspecies is New Zealand's North Island tuatara Sphenodon punctatus, which gave rise to the Brothers Island tuatara Sphenodon guntheri.[15]

See also[edit]

  • Cladogenesis
  • Anagenesis, also known as "phyletic change", where no branching event occurred (of is known to have occurred)

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ James S. Albert; Roberto E. Reis (8 March 2011). Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes. University of California Press. p. 308. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  2. ^ Ackery, P. R., and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1984. Milkweed Butterflies: Their Cladistics and Biology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 425 pp.
  3. ^ Patton, J. L., and M. F. Smith. 1989. Population structure and the genetic and morphologic divergence among pocket gopher species (Genus Thomomys). Pp. 284-304 in: Speciation and its Consequences (D. Otte and J. A. Endler, eds.). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.
  4. ^ Bell, M. A., and S. A. Foster. 1994. The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. ^ Crisp, M. D.; Chandler, G. T. (1996). "Paraphyletic species". Telopea 6: 813–844. doi:10.7751/telopea19963037. 
  6. ^ Funk, D. J.; Omland, K. E. (2003). "Species-level paraphyly and polyphyly: Frequency, causes, and consequences, with insights from animal mitochondrial DNA". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34: 397–423. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132421. 
  7. ^ Albert, J. S.; Crampton, W. G. R.; Thorsen, D. H.; Lovejoy, N. R. (2004). "Phylogenetic systematics and historical biogeography of the Neotropical electric fish ''Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotidae)". Systematics and Biodiversity 2: 375–417. doi:10.1017/s1477200004001574. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ Turner, T. F.; McPhee, M. V.; Campbell, P.; Winemiller, K. O. (2004). "Phylogeography and intraspecific genetic variation of prochilodontid fishes endemic to rivers of northern South America". Journal of Fish Biology 64: 186–201. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2004.00299.x. 
  10. ^ Hoskin, C. J. (2007). "Description, biology and conservation of a new species of Australian tree frog (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae: Litoria) and an assessment of the remaining populations of Litoria genimaculata Horst, 1883: systematic and conservation implications of an unusual speciation event". Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 91: 549–563. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00805.x. 
  11. ^ Feinstein, J (2008). "Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Black-browed Barbet species complex (Megalaima oorti)". Ibis 150: 40–49. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.2007.00732.x. 
  12. ^ Lozier, J. D.; Foottit, R.; Miller, G.; Mills, N.; Roderick, G. (2008). "Molecular and morphological evaluation of the aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), with a description of a new species". Zootaxa 1688: 1–19. 
  13. ^,_DNA_study_shows
  14. ^ "Ancient Hybridization and an Irish Origin for the Modern Polar Bear Matriline". Current Biology 21: 1251–1258. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.05.058. 
  15. ^ Lutz, Dick (2005). "Tuatara: A Living Fossil". Salem, Oregon: DIMI PRESS. ISBN 0-931625-43-2.