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Temporal range: Miocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivoramorpha
Suborder: Caniformia
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Borophaginae
Genus: Paratomarctus
Wang, 1999
Binomial name
Paratomarctus temerarius
Wang, 1999
Type species
Paratomarctus temerarius
Paratomarctus range.png
Range of Paratomarctus based on fossil distribution

Paratomarctus an extinct member of the Borophaginae, subtribe Borophagina, a terrestrial canine (bone-crushing dog) which inhabited most of North America from the Harrisonian stage to Early Barstovian stage of the Miocene epoch living 16.3—5.3 mya, existed for approximately 11 million years.[1]

Canid competitors[edit]

Paratomarctus was one of the last of the Borophaginae and shared its North American habitat with other canidae: Borophagus (23.3—3.6 Mya), Epicyon (20.6—5.330 Ma), Carpocyon (20.4—3.9 Ma), Aelurodon (23.03—4.9 Ma), and the first emerging wolf, Canis lepophagus appearing 10.3 Ma.


Paratomarctus was named and assigned to Borophagina by Wang et al. (1999). It was recombined as Tephrocyon temerarius by Matthew and Cook (1909), Peterson (1910), Merriam (1913), Matthew (1918) and Merriam (1919); it was recombined as Tomarctus temerarius by Matthew (1924), Green (1948), Galbreath (1953), Downs (1956), Sutton (1977), Voorhies (1990) and Munthe (1998); it was recombined as Paratomarctus temerarius by Wang et al. (1999).[2][3][4]


Two specimens were examined by Legendre and Roth for body mass. The first specimen was estimated to weigh 12.9 kg (28 lb). The second specimen was estimated to weigh 12 kg (26 lb).[5]

Fossil range[edit]

Fossils were uncovered throughout most of the western United States.


  1. ^ Paleobiology Database: Paratomarctus basic info
  2. ^ J. C. Merriam. 1913. Notes on the canid genus Tephrocyon. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geology 7(22):359-372
  3. ^ W. D. Matthew. 1924. Third contribution to the Snake Creek Fauna. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 50:59-210
  4. ^ X. Wang, R. H. Tedford, and B. E. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora: Canidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 243:1-392
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology