Parc des Buttes Chaumont
|Parc des Buttes-Chaumont|
|Location||19th arrondissement, Paris|
|Area||61 acres (25 ha)|
|Created||1 April 1867|
|Operated by||Direction des Espaces Verts et de l’Environnement (DEVE)|
|Status||Open all year|
|Public transit access||Located near the Métro stations: Buttes Chaumont, Laumière and Botzaris|
The Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (pronounced [paʁk de byt ʃomɔ̃]) is a public park situated in northeastern Paris, in the 19th arrondissement. Occupying 24.7 hectares (61 acres), it is the fifth-largest park in Paris, after the Bois de Vincennes, the Bois de Boulogne, the Parc de la Villette and the Tuileries Garden.
It was opened in 1867, late in the regime of Emperor Napoleon III, and was built by Jean-Charles Alphand, who created all the major parks of Napoleon III. The park has 5.5 kilometres (3.4 miles) of roads and 2.2 kilometres (1.4 miles) of paths. The most famous feature of the park is the Temple de la Sibylle, inspired by the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy, perched at the top of a cliff fifty metres above the waters of the artificial lake.
The park took its name from the bleak hill which occupied the site, which, because of the chemical composition of its soil, was almost bare of vegetation – it was called Chauve-mont, or bare hill. The area, just outside the limits of Paris until the mid-19th century, had a sinister reputation; it was close to the site of the Gibbet of Montfaucon, the notorious place where the bodies of hanged criminals were displayed after their executions from the 13th century until 1760. After the 1789 Revolution, it became a refuse dump, and then a place for cutting up horse carcasses and a depository for sewage. The director of public works of Paris and builder of the Park, Jean-Charles Alphand, reported that "the site spread infectious emanations not only to the neighboring areas, but, following the direction of the wind, over the entire city."
Another part of the site was a former gypsum and limestone quarry mined for the construction of buildings in Paris and in the United States. This raw material was used for a long time to have plaster and lime. In order to make lime, gypsum was heated in furnaces. This activity was maintained until the second half of the 19th century. By the end of the 1850s, the quarry was exhausted. That quarry also yielded Eocene mammal fossils, including Palaeotherium, which were studied by Georges Cuvier. This not-very-promising site was chosen by Baron Haussmann, the Prefet of Paris, for the site of a new public park for the recreation and pleasure of the rapidly growing population of the new 19th and 20th arrondissements of Paris, which had been annexed to the city in 1860.
The work on the park began in 1864, under the direction of Alphand, who used all the experience and lessons he had learned in making the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes. Two years were required simply to terrace the land. Then a railroad track was laid to bring in cars carrying two hundred thousand cubic meters of topsoil. A thousand workers remade the landscape, digging a lake and shaping the lawns and hillsides. Explosives were used to sculpt the buttes themselves and the former quarry into a picturesque mountain fifty meters high with cliffs, an interior grotto, pinnacles and arches. Hydraulic pumps were installed to lift the water from the canal of the Ourcq River up the highest point on the promontory, to create a dramatic waterfall.
The chief gardener of Paris, horticulturist Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps, then went to work, planting thousands of trees, shrubs and flowers, along with sloping lawns. At the same time, the city's chief architect, Gabriel Davioud, designed the miniature Roman temple on the top of the promontory, modeled after that at Tivoli near Rome, as well as belvederes, restaurants modeled after Swiss chalets, and gatehouses like rustic cottages, completing the imaginary landscape. The park was opened on 1 April 1867, coinciding with the opening of the Paris Universal Exposition, and instantly became a popular success with the Parisians.
Features of the park
The lake and the Île du Belvédère
The heart of the park is an artificial lake of 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres) surrounding the Île de la Belvédère, a rocky island with steep cliffs made from the old gypsum quarry. On the top is the Temple de la Sibylle, fifty meters above the lake. The island is connected by two bridges with the rest of the park. the island is surrounded by paths, and a steep stairway of 173 steps leads from the top of the belvedere down through the grotto to the edge of the lake.
The Temple de la Sibylle
The most famous feature of the park is the Temple de la Sibylle, a miniature version of the famous ancient Roman Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy. The original temple was the subject of many romantic landscape paintings from the 17th to the 19th century, and inspired similar architectural follies in the English landscape garden of the 18th century. The temple was designed by Gabriel Davioud, the city architect for Paris, who designed picturesque monuments for the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Monceau, and other city parks. He also designed some of the most famous fountains of Paris, including the Fontaine Saint-Michel. The temple was finished in 1867.
The grotto and waterfalls
The grotto is a vestige of the old gypsum and limestone quarry that occupied part of the site, now adjacent to rue Botzaris on the south side of the park. It is fourteen meters wide and twenty meters high, and has been sculpted and decorated with artificial stalactites as long as eight meters to make it resemble a natural grotto, in the style of the romantic English landscape garden of the 18th and 19th century. An artificial waterfall, fed by pumps, cascades from the top of the cave and down through the grotto to the lake.
A 12-metre (39 ft) masonry bridge, 22 metres (72 ft) above the lake, known as the "suicide bridge", allows access to the belvedere from the south side of the park. After a series of well-publicized suicides, the bridge is now fenced with wire mesh.
A 63-meter long suspension bridge, designed by Gustave Eiffel in 1867, allows access to the island in the lake.
Most of the architecture of the park, from the Temple de la Sibylle, the cafes and gatehouses to the fences and rain shelters, was designed by Gabriel Davioud, chief architect for the city of Paris. He created a picturesque, rustic style for the parks of Paris, sometimes inspired by ancient Rome, sometimes by the chalets and bridges of the Swiss Alps.
A rain shelter, made of concrete hand sculpted to look like wood in a technique known as "faux bois"
Davioud's paths on the Belvedere feature handrails made of hand-crafted concrete "faux bois".
The main entrance to the park is at Place Armand-Carrel, where the mairie (town hall) of the 19th arrondissement, also designed by Davioud, is located. There are five other large gates to the park: Porte Bolivar, Porte de la Villette, Porte Secrétan, Porte de Crimée, and Porte Fessart, as well as seven smaller gates on the park perimeter.
The park currently hosts three restaurants (Pavillon du Lac, Pavillon Puebla, and Rosa Bonheur), two reception halls, two Guignol theatres, and two waffle stands. Notably, in 1892, the two Guignol theatres were established in the park and have become popular attractions for generations of visitors.
As part of a citywide wireless Internet-access plan, the park has activated four wi-fi zones.
When established in 1867, the park was envisioned by Napoleon III as a garden showcase. This original intent of the park continues to guide the park's direction. Currently, there are over 47 species of plants, trees, and shrubs cultivated in the park. Many of the plants and trees found in the park were those originally planted when the park was created.
The park boasts many varieties of indigenous and exotic trees (many of which are Asian species): in particular, several cedars of Lebanon planted in 1880, Himalayan cedars, Ginkgo Biloba, Byzantine hazelnuts, Siberian elms, European hollies, and bamboo-leafed prickly ashes, among many others.
Tree species found in the park include:
- Oriental Plane
- Ornamental Pears
- Common Alder
- European Beech
- Giant Sequoia
- European Black Pine
- Large-leaved Linden
- Tulip Tree
|Located near the Métro stations: Buttes Chaumont, Laumière and Botzaris.|
In September, the park hosts Paris's annual Silhouette Short Film Festival. The Silhouette Festival features seven days of French and international short films, followed by an awards ceremony.
In 2008, a modern version of the traditional Guinguette, Rosa Bonheur, was established inside the park. This unique restaurant and dance venue is government-sponsored by the Mairie of the 19th arrondissement.
- Jarrassé, Dominique (2007). Grammaire des jardins Parisiens (in French). Parigramme. ISBN 978-2-84096-476-6.
- Centre des monuments nationaux (2002). Le guide du patrimoine en France (in French). Éditions du patrimoine. ISBN 978-2-85822-760-0.
- de Moncan, Patrice (2007). Les jardins du Baron Haussmann (in French). Les Éditions du Mécène. ISBN 978-2-907970-914.
- Downie, David (2005). "Montsouris and Buttes-Chaumont: the art of the faux". Paris, Paris: Journey into the City of Light. Fort Bragg: Transatlantic Press. pp. 34–41. ISBN 0-9769251-0-9.
- Fierro, Alfred (1999). "Buttes-Chaumont". Life and History of the 19th Arrondissement. Paris: Editions Hervas. pp. 80–100. ISBN 2-903118-29-9.
- Strohmayer, Ulf. "Urban Design and Civic Spaces: Nature at the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont in Paris. Cultural Geographies, 2006, 13, 4, 557-576".
- The Trees of Park Buttes Chaumont. Paris: Direction des Espaces Verts et de l'Environment. 2005. pp. 3–4.
- Tate, Alan (2001). "Parc des Buttes Chaumont, Paris". Great City Parks. London: Spon Press. pp. 47–59. ISBN 0-419-24420-4.
- Hedi Slimane (2002). Interview for Index Magazine.
Notes and citations
- Dominique Jarrassé, Grammaire des jardins Parisiens, pg. 122
- De Moncan, Patrice, Les Jardins du Baron Haussmann, citing Edouard André, Les Jardins de Paris.
- Patrice de Moncan, Paris - Les Jardins du Baron Haussmann, p. 101.
- Alphand, Les Promenades de Paris. Cited in Patrice de Moncan.
- "Parc des Buttes Chaumont facts". Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Patrice de Moncan, Paris - Les Jardins du Baron Haussmann, pp. 101-106.
- Structurae list of important works of civil engineering
- "Index Magazine". www.indexmagazine.com. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parc des Buttes-Chaumont.|
- Paris Office of Tourism: Parc des Buttes Chaumont (in English)
- Les Parc des Buttes Chaumont – current photographs and of the years 1900 (in English)
- High Resolution Travel Photographs of Parc des Buttes Chaumont – current high resolution photographs (in English)
- Theatre Guignol Anatole official site (in French)
- Le Guignol de Paris (in French)
- Parc des Buttes Chaumont (in English)
- Rosa Bonheur – website of the restaurant in the park