Parchments of Awraman

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The Parchments of Awraman are three parchment documents, found in 1909 in a cave in the Hawraman region of Iranian Kurdistan. They were found in Tang-i Var, Kuh-e Salan Mountain, near the village of Shahr Hawraman. The documents were found in a sealed jar by a villager, and then sent to London in October 1913.[1][2]

The documents date from 88/87 BC to 33 AD, with two written in Greek and one in Parthian. They document the sale of a vineyard and other land, and include the names of Pātaspak, son of Tīrēn and Awīl, son of Baænīn.[1] They were translated by philologist Ellis H. Minns and published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies.[3][4]


  1. ^ a b Edmonds, C. J. (1952). "The Place Names of the Avroman Parchments". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 14 (3): 478–82. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00088455. ISSN 0041-977X. 
  2. ^ Nyberg, H. S. (1923). "The Pahlavi documents of Avroman". Le Monde Oriental. 17: 182–230. 
  3. ^ Ellis H. Minns (1915). "Parchments of the Parthian Period from Avroman in Kurdistan". Journal of Hellenic Studies. 35: 98–141. doi:10.2307/624522. 
  4. ^ Sayce, A. H. (1919). "Two Notes on Hellenic Asia I, The Aramaic Parchment from Avroman". Journal of Hellenic Studies. 39: 182–230. JSTOR 624881.