Paresh Baruah

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Paresh Baruah
Born (1956-05-01) 1 May 1956 (age 64)
Known forVice-chairperson and the commander-in-chief of the ULFA
Criminal statusWanted
Spouse(s)Boby Bhuyan Baruah
ChildrenAnkur Khan Sunlee, Akash Khan Wanlee
MotiveIndependent Assam.
Criminal chargeSecessionist movement against lawfully established Indian Government

Paresh Baruah, also known by his alias Paresh Asom,[1] ULFA, which is seeking Independence for Assam from the Indian Union. He is the vice-chairperson and the commander-in-chief of the United Liberation Front of Assam – Independent (ULFA – I).[2][3] Baruah lives in Yunnan, China where he receives funding and patronage from Chinese intelligence agencies. He insists that the Han Chinese are friends of the Assamese and want to help them become independent, even though his influence has largely diminished.[4]

He is currently residing in his Chinese safe haven near Myanmar-China Border.[5]

Early life and family[edit]

Paresh Baruah was born in 1956 at Birpara (campo), Assam, India to a Motok family.

In December 2010, Paresh e-mailed the Indo-Asian News Service reporting that his elder son (19) has been abducted in Bangladesh "to exert mental pressure on his family and to force him to surrender."[6] Later, the ULFA said that his son was beaten sorely by the kidnappers "to pressure him to disclose his father's whereabouts, sources of income and business", but was allowed to leave after painstaking interrogation.[7] The organisation further claimed that Baruah's son was terrified to stay tight-lipped about his kidnapping.[8] In his e-mail, Baruah also wrote:

"My son is not important or bigger than my people and the cause for which we are struggling. No one can make me or my family weak just because my son has been kidnapped, and let me tell you, we are prepared to sacrifice our son but at no cost I would waiver [sic] on my stand."[6]

He described the incident as a stratagem of Indian officials but they denied the accusation.[9]

Times of Assam has claimed that the Indian intelligent agencies may be trying to ferret out Baruah by closely monitoring Sunlee. The newspaper further claimed that numerous pictures of Sunlee were gathered by the intelligence agencies in early 2012.[10] The Union Home Secretary of India has said that Baruah's family is not desirous to return to India, because of their stiff attitude. A collaborator of Baruah has said that two aides of Arabinda Rajkhowa were sent to Bangladesh to convince his and Anup Chetia's family to come back to India.[10]

Demand for Aai Asom and role as ULFA leader[edit]

In 2004, Baruah was constantly in touch with some academics including Indira Goswami and numerous organisations, but he was switched to a secure location to undergo a surgery due to a medical emergency, which temporarily halted the communication.[11] Around 2008, he was again in frequent e-mail communication with the Assamese author, Indira Goswami. She acted as a mediator in proposed peace talks between ULFA leaders and the government of India. He was alleged to have insisted on the Independence of Assam, and the peace talks did not take place.

In January 2010, G. K. Pillai had substantial talks with his official Myanmar counterpart at Nay Pyi Taw on numerous issues, but Baruah was one of the main focal points. Later, an official from the Ministry of Home Affairs conveyed to the press that Myanmar has promised to capture Baruah, if he is discovered in the country.[12] Later in August, the Indian agencies claimed that within January, Baruah was legally provided the Chinese visa which authorised him to stay in China for a maximum time period of six months. The agencies further claimed that the Chinese visa was given to him on a Bangladeshi passport which was further reported to had been issued under his alias Kamrul Zaman.[13] But, the Chinese Foreign Ministry had repudiated the allegations, claiming that it had never rendered assistance to the ULFA's commander-in-chief.[14]

A photograph of Kalita and the ULFA cadres holding arms and dressed in combat fatigues was strategically provided to the press by the organisation in 2011. The organisation also distributed a video of Baruah to the media groups in which he was dancing with the cadres of ULFA, during the Bihu festival. The video was seen as an attempt to intimidate the government of India and the ULFA members who agreed to lay down arms. In the video, the ULFA cadres can be heard shouting slogans in favour of the secession of Assam. Earlier, the Indian government had granted bails to some of the high ranking arrested leaders of the ULFA "to try and isolate Baruah and hold formal peace talks".[15]

In September 2011, the Myanmar Army was able to trace Manjit along with some ULFA members in the forest regions of north-west Myanmar and struck at them. But, despite of sustaining injuries, he survived the onslaught.[16] The same year, the then Home Secretary of India told media that the government of Myanmar has taken a journalist into custody, who was believed to have gone there to interview Baruah. A senior ULFA leader, Jivan Moran, was also arrested along with the reporter. This followed a hoax in media that Baruah had also been captured, but the Home Secretary denied receiving any such information.[17]

Manjit was extensively reported to have shifted to China, but in 2012, he was sighted in Nagaland, goalkeeping in a football match between the team of the United Liberation Front of Assam, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) and the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) versus the People's Liberation Army of Manipur.[18] The football match was organised as an attempt to promote cooperation between the insurgent organisations operating in India's North-East.[18] Baruah has ruled out negotiations with the government of India without addressing the question of Independence for Assam, and described the "peace talks" between the "pro-talk faction" with the Indian government as "a sell-out by Ulfa chairman Arabinda Rajkhowa and other leaders."[19] But, he added that the ULFA's "demand for Independence does not mean secession". He further declared that the "anti-talk faction" of ULFA will not halt their battle for the "Aai Asom (motherland)", and he had issued the "pro-talk faction" a deadline of three months to "break talks with the government and return to the outfit."[19] After the ultimatum of three months was over without any response from Rajkhowa, the ULFA ousted him from his appointed ranks in the ULFA on 8 August 2012, and announced that Abhizeet Asom, who was working as the acting chairman, would serve the organisation as its chairperson since the day.[20] Later on 30 April 2013, the wing led by Baruah, which adhere uncompromisingly to the demand of the Independence of Assam renamed the organisation as the ULFA – Independent.[2] They believe the organisation's new name is "in tune with its uncompromising quest for liberation of Assam" from what they view as the "colonial Indian rule".[21] Baruah said that he does recognises Rajkhowa's work but Asom is a more politically conscious individual.[22]

"I would prefer death as pride rather than being a Commander of principleless cadres and in time, I will prove that. I can't betray 14,000 martyrs."[23]

In March 2013, he castigated Rajkhowa's pronouncement to the journalists that Baruah is still the whole ULFA's commander-in-chief and will also join the ongoing talks," affirming that "he [Baruah] would never come forward for talks with the government under the framework of Constitution as it would not be able to solve the conflict as the solution lay only in restoration of Independence of Assam."[24] He further accused the pro-talk faction of forgetting the 14,000 ULFA cadres who drew their last breath while battling with who he termed as the "Indian occupational forces."[24]

Bhimkanta Buragohain alias Mama, who was one of the senior-most leaders of ULFA, and had held a meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2011 to achieve an understanding between the pro-talk faction of ULFA and the Indian government, once said:

"I'm sure that if we make some progress in talks, then he [Paresh Baruah] will have no choice but to join us, but if we fail, then he will have a big party in the jungle."[18]

Manjit expressed sorrow on Buragohain's demise on 19 December 2011, and issued a joint official statement with Bormon stating that the ULFA's members are grieving over his death. He described the passing away of Buragohain as a "huge loss" to the organisation. They further declared a three days mourning, and announced to keep the ULFA's flags lowered in its camps.[25]

One of his collaborator had alleged that G. K. Pillai had attempted to spread rumor regarding Baruah, to fabricate misconception about him amongst the people of Assam.[10]

On 30 January 2014, a special court in Chittagong commuted death sentence to Baruah and 13 others for smuggling in 10 truckloads of firearms in 2004.[26] However, Baruah is unlikely to get intimidated by the Bangladeshi court's verdict, and is expected to continue with his activities.[27]

Views on the Maoist movement in India[edit]

He has an empathy with the Naxalites, and recently said in interview that the ULFA and the Communist Party of India (Maoist) have a "tactical understanding".[28] In an e-mail sent to the media, he further quoted:

"Maoism in India has been born out of the government's failure to address to the minimum needs of the common man. We may have different ideologies but we share a common quest – of overthrowing the current social system and replacing it with a new one; our enemy is common and, on this count, the Maoists have our complete moral support."[29]

Kishenji also acknowledged that the ULFA's "way" is dissimilar from the Maoists'. The "experts" hold the view the link between the Maoists and the ULFA "would remain on a purely strategic level" only.[30]


In April 2013, the news media alleged that on 10 April, Baruah had aggressively warned the artists to refrain from signing and performing on Hindi songs during the Rongali Bihu celebrations, and threatened to kill Zubeen Garg for not following their words. Tarun Gogoi also appreciated Garg for not listening to the ULFA. But, while being interviewed by an Assamese television channel, Baruah elucidated that the ULFA made "only an appeal to all artistes not to sing Hindi songs at Bihu functions" and that their "appeal" was misapprehend as a warning. He also stated that Garg must express regret for his comments over the organisation's appeal.[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Manjit kalita's Facebook profile is fake: Ulfa". Hindustan Times. Guwahati. Indo-Asian News Service. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  2. ^ a b "Paresh Baruah faction now called Ulfa-Independent". The Times of India. Guwahati. 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  3. ^ M Rama Rao (23 January 2007). "India: Tackling the ULFA Monster". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  4. ^ Sentinel, Asia. "Beijing Said to Fund Separatist India Movement". Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  5. ^ "ULFA-I chief Paresh Baruah faces his outfit crumbling: Intel". 8 May 2019. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Son kidnapped to force my surrender: ULFA chief". The New Indian Express. Guwahati. Indo-Asian News Service. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  7. ^ Sushanta Talukdar (26 December 2010). "ULFA claims clues to Barua son's kidnappers". The Hindu. Guwahati. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  8. ^ "Paresh Barua's son tortured before release: ULFA". Zee News. Shillong. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  9. ^ Subir Bhaumik (23 December 2010). "India's Ulfa rebel leader: Son abducted in Bangladesh". BBC News. Kolkata. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "Family of Paresh Baruah isn't interested to return". Times of Assam. 23 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  11. ^ Sushanta Talukdar (18 December 2004). "Paresh Barua shifted for medical attention: ULFA". The Hindu. Guwahati. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  12. ^ "Myanmar to help India catch Ulfa chief Paresh Baruah". Daily News and Analysis. New Delhi. Press Trust of India. 24 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  13. ^ Choudhury, R. Dutta (1 September 2010). "ULFA-China links come to light". The Assam Tribune. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  14. ^ "ULFA rubbishes ex-home secy claim of China aiding NE rebels". Imphal Free Press. Guwahati: Kangla. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Dancing ULFA leader Paresh Baruah dares government". NDTV. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  16. ^ "ULFA chief Paresh Baruah shot at by Myanmar army: Sources". NDTV. 10 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  17. ^ "ULFA leader Paresh Baruah, Indian journalist detained in Myanmar". The Indian Express. New Delhi. 4 December 2011. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  18. ^ a b c Rajeev Bhattacharyya (5 May 2012), "A volcano awakes", The Week, Nagaland, archived from the original on 23 October 2013, retrieved 22 October 2013
  19. ^ a b Nazakat, Syed (5 May 2012), "Slow and not steady", The Week, archived from the original on 23 October 2013, retrieved 22 October 2013
  20. ^ "ULFA expells [sic] Arabinda Rajkhowa, introduces new chairman". Times of Assam. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  21. ^ "ULFA anti-talks becomes ULFA (Independent)". The Shillong Times. Guwahati. 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  22. ^ Choudhury, R. Dutta (24 February 2013). "Surrenders not to affect ULFA struggle, says Paresh Baruah". The Assam Tribune. Guwahati. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  23. ^ "I am not going to finish halfway up the Mountain – Paresh Baruah". Times of Assam. 7 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  24. ^ a b Bora, Bijay Sankar (8 March 2013). "Assam tangle can't be resolved under Constitution: Barua". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  25. ^ "ULFA mourns demise of their Father Bhimkanta Burhagohain". Times of Assam. 20 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  26. ^ "Assam Govt refuses to comment on Death Sentence to Paresh Barua". Biharprabha News. Indo-Asian News Service. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  27. ^ "Death penalty may not deter the ULFA chief", Rajeev Bhattacharyya, 11 (Issue 7), 15 February 2014, archived from the original on 26 February 2014, retrieved 22 February 2014
  28. ^ Rahul Pandita (16 May 2013), Red Shadow over Assam, OPEN, archived from the original on 24 October 2013, retrieved 27 October 2013
  29. ^ "Paresh Baruah extends moral support to Maoists". The Times of India. Guwahati. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  30. ^ Mandal, Caesar. "Green Hunt forces Red brigade into N-E territory". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. Kishanji, however, conceded that their way is different from that of Ulfas. Experts, too, believe that the Red brigades relationship with Ulfa would remain on a purely strategic level.
  31. ^ "Zubeen defies 'life threat' by Paresh Baruah". The Times of India. Guwahati. 20 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.

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