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Parinda

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Parinda
Parinda.jpg
Poster
Directed byVidhu Vinod Chopra
Produced byVidhu Vinod Chopra
Screenplay byShiv Kumar Subramaniam
Story byVidhu Vinod Chopra
(Also Scenario)
StarringJackie Shroff
Anil Kapoor
Nana Patekar
Madhuri Dixit
Anupam Kher
Music byR. D. Burman
CinematographyBinod Pradhan
Edited byRenu Saluja
Production
company
Distributed byVinod Chopra Films
Release date
  • 3 November 1989 (1989-11-03)
Running time
148 minutes[1]
CountryIndia
LanguageHindi
Budget12 lakh (US$17,000)[2]

Parinda (English: Bird) is a 1989 Indian crime drama film co-written, produced and directed by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. The film stars Nana Patekar, Jackie Shroff, Anil Kapoor and Madhuri Dixit in the lead roles, with Suresh Oberoi and Tom Alter in supporting roles. Anupam Kher makes a special appearance in the film. Chopra wrote its story and scenario, while Shiv Kumar Subramaniam wrote the screenplay. Dialogue was written by Imtiyaz Husain. R. D. Burman composed the music and Khurshid Hallauri wrote the lyrics. Binod Pradhan served as the film's cinematographer and Renu Saluja was its editor.

Parinda follows Kishan (Shroff), who works for the underworld don Anna (Patekar). Kishan's brother Karan (Kapoor) returns home from the United States after completing his studies. Anna's men kill Karan's friend Prakash (Kher) in front of Karan; the two brothers are then caught on different sides of morality when Karan decides to murder Anna.

Chopra conceived the film after his low-budget suspense thriller Khamosh (1985) failed to find a distributor for a theatrical release. This motivated Chopra to make a more mainstream film with well-known actors, and he wrote a new story about two brothers. Parinda received critical acclaim when released. It is considered by many to be the turning point in the introduction of realism in Hindi cinema. Parinda also won two National Film Awards and five Filmfare Awards, and was India's official selection for the 1990 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but it was not nominated. In 2015, Chopra remade Parinda as a Hollywood film titled Broken Horses.

Plot[edit]

Kishen (Jackie Shroff) and Karan (Anil Kapoor) are brothers who grew up alone on the streets of Mumbai. To provide Karan with a better upbringing and education, Kishen joins Anna Seth (Nana Patekar), a gangster. Anna owns an oil factory, which is a front to cover up his illegal activities. Karan, unaware his brother is working for a gang, returns to Mumbai after completing his studies abroad. Inspector Prakash (Anupam Kher), Karan's friend, is aware of Anna's illegal activities and tries to arrest him, but fails due to lack of evidence. Anna plans to kill Prakash when he and Karan meet after Karan's return to India. Knowing this, Kishan books Karan a seat on a flight to Delhi to avoid involving him in this situation, but the flight is delayed and Anna's henchmen shoot Prakash, who dies in Karan's arms.

Paro (Madhuri Dixit), Prakash's sister, holds Karan responsible for her brother's death. Through Iqbal (Sameer Kharkar), a previous messenger of Anna, Karan discovers Anna is a criminal who killed his own family, since then he is afraid of fire. Karan also discovers Anna is Prakash's murderer and Kishan works for him. Kishan also briefs Karan about Anna's rivalry with Musa (Tom Alter). Karan tells Paro Anna and his brother killed Prakash and he was unaware about it. Later, Karan recognises Abdul (Suresh Oberoi) as one of Prakash's killers and decides to testify against him. Kishan warns Karan that if he does not back off, he will die. When Anna's men arrive and shoot at Karan, Kishan is shot and wounded in the crossfire and is treated by a nurse. During testimony at the police station, Abdul tells Karan that if he testifies, the nurse treating his brother will kill him. Karan leaves in fear of his brother's life. He later joins Anna's gang. Anna, testing his resolve, tells Karan to kill Iqbal. Iqbal shoots himself so Karan can execute his plan without any guilt.

Later, Anna orders Karan to kill Musa and sends Francis (Shiv Kumar Subramaniam) to escort him. Karan kills Francis instead and joins Musa. Rama Reddy (Kamal Chopra) is kidnapped and taken to Mussa, who offers him work. Karan takes pictures of Rama and Musa together and shows it to Anna, telling him Rama shot Francis. Karan then kills Rama on Anna's orders. With the help of Musa, Karan eliminates Abdul, finishing all the three of Prakash's killers. Karan and Paro get married and decide to leave the city and settle in their old village. Anna goes out to kill Musa, believing Musa killed his men, but Musa tells Anna it was Karan all along. Karan and Paro are killed by Anna on their wedding night. Kishan kills Anna in revenge for his brother's death.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

In 1985, director Vidhu Vinod Chopra made the suspense thriller film Khamosh, starring Naseeruddin Shah, Shabana Azmi and Amol Palekar. The film failed to find distributors and Chopra released it himself with only one print at Mumbai's Regal Cinema.[3] In retrospect, Chopra expressed his frustration that nobody would buy Khamosh and he decided to make a more commercial Hindi film about two brothers on the streets of Mumbai, which became Parinda.[4] Chopra cast Nana Patekar after he saw him in a play called Purush.[4] Naseeruddin Shah and Nana Patekar were considered for the role of Kishan, which later went to Jackie Shroff.[3][5] Kapoor told Chopra that Patekar was not suitable for the role of his elder brother.[6] He was then offered the role of Anna, the kurta-pajama wearing gangster of the film.[6] Anil Kapoor, who was cast in the role of Karan, asked Jackie Shroff to play his elder brother.[3] Shroff was initially hesitant to do the film because he did not want to get typecast in the elder brother role. Later, Kapoor made Shroff listen to the songs and he agreed to do the film.[3] Madhuri Dixit was cast for Parinda after auditioning for the part.[7]

The film's climax was shot at the Gateway of India during night.

The location for Anna's headquarters in the film was a water tank on Antop Hill, which was spread with the scrap of nearby slum dwellers. Chopra had rented the site from Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation for 500 (US$7.00).[4] Parinda was initially named Kabutarkhana.[4] While filming the final scene's fire sequence, a fire the crew lost control of a fire they built using rubber solution and petrol, leading to Patekar suffering from serious burns.[4] He was critically injured and hospitalised for nearly two months,[4] and returned to filming after a year. The set was rebuilt in Film City, where the fire sequence was re-shot under more controlled conditions.[4]

The sequence in which Karan and Prakash reunite was filmed at Kabootar Khana, a Mumbai landmark where hundreds of pigeons gather.[4] Chopra said this location was " ... one of the first things I spotted, probably because of all the pigeons flying around, when I stepped out of Dadar station. I thought through the pigeons would could convey the concept of emancipation of the spirit of the dying man."[4] Shopkeepers in that area shut their shops for the shoot believing Chopra was the younger brother of the Prime Minister.[4] The film's climax was shot at the Gateway of India on three different New Year Eves because of the minuscule budget.[4] Parinda was shot in 66 days.[4] Some sequences were also shot at Babulnath Temple.[8] The shoestring budget also resulted in Chopra and Patekar getting water bottles on set from home.[9] Suresh Oberoi learned to play the flute from Danny Denzongpa for the film, who was earlier cast in the role of Abdul but could not perform in the film.[7]

Debutant Sanjay Leela Bhansali served as the associate director for songs in the film.[10] The cinematography and editing were done by Binod Pradhan and Renu Saluja, respectively.[10] For a shot in the film where Shroff slaps Kapoor, Kapoor took thirty takes till he was satisfied with his performance.[10] The screenplay of Parinda was written by Chopra and Shiv Kumar Subramaniam, who also acted in the film.[11] The dialogues were penned by Imtiyaz Husain.[11] The film was filmed and is set in Mumbai.[12]

Soundtrack[edit]

Parinda
Soundtrack album by
GenreFeature film soundtrack
Length23:16
LanguageHindi
LabelTips Industries Limited
ProducerWeston Musicassettes/R. D. Burman

The soundtrack of Parinda was composed by R. D. Burman and its lyrics were written by Khurshid Hallauri. The album consisted of four songs, including two versions of "Kitni Hai Pyari Pyari"—one sad and one slow.[13][14] The song "Tum Se Milke" also had a sad version.[13] The vocals were performed by Asha Bhosle, Suresh Wadkar and Shailendra Singh. "Tum Se Milke" is one of the most popular romantic numbers in Indian cinema.[10] The soundtrack album of the film was released in January 1989 under the banner of Weston Musicassettes (now Tips Industries Limited).[15]

Singer Shaan made his playback singing debut by singing one line for "Kitni Hai Pyari Pyari".[16] He was fifteen years old at that time.[17] Filmfare wrote about Parinda's music in their "100 Filmfare Days" series, saying, "RD Burman's music adds depth to Parinda's drama".[18] "Tum Se Milke" is based on Leo Sayer's 1977 single "When I Need You".[19]

Track listing
No.TitleLyricsSinger(s)Length
1."Kitni Hai Pyari Pyari"Khurshid HallauriSuresh Wadkar, Shailendra Singh04.14
2."Pyar Ke Mod Pe"Khurshid HallauriSuresh Wadkar, Asha Bhosle06:31
3."Sehra Mein Dulha Hoga"Khurshid HallauriSuresh Wadkar, Shailendra Singh06:32
4."Tum Se Milke"Khurshid HallauriSuresh Wadkar, Asha Bhosle05:11

Release and legacy[edit]

Parinda was released theatrically on 3 November 1989.[20] The Central Board of Film Certification gave the film an 'A' (restricted to adults) certificate, due to its depiction of violence.[21] The film was promoted with the tagline, "the most powerful film ever made".[22] In a 2010 interview, film critic and Chopra's wife Anupama Chopra said, "there was so much buzz about Parinda" before the release of the film.[23] After the film's release, Chopra went to Alankar cinema in Girgaon to see the audience's reactions, but found some people were not happy with it.[24]

Parinda is credited by several critics for introducing realism into mainstream Hindi cinema and redefining the portrayal of the underworld in films.[10][25][26][27] It is also considered a landmark film and one of the best of Indian cinema.[18][28] The film was included in CNN-IBN's 2013 list of the "100 greatest Indian films of all time", Mint's list of "70 iconic films of Indian cinema", Filmfare "100 Filmfare Days" series and the "70 iconic movies of independent India" list by Rachel Dwyer.[29][18][30][31] Vidhu Vinod Chopra, despite having made two critically acclaimed films, remained relatively unknown until the release of this film.[32] While reviewing Vikram Chandra's 2007 novel Sacred Games (who is Anupama Chopra's brother), critic Carl Bromley called the film "hands down the most powerful and influential Hindi gangster film of the last two decades [..]"; he also mentioned that the books legacy "might prove similar to Parinda".[33] Abhishek Srivastava of Firstpost called the film "in true sense a precursor to the mafia films that Ram Gopal Varma experimented with in most of his films."[34]

British director Danny Boyle cited Parinda as one of the films that helped him understand Mumbai for his Academy Award-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008).[35] Filmmaker Nikhil Advani credits Parinda for changing his life and inspiring him to become a director.[36] Director Dibakar Banerjee said in an interview that Parinda was a game-changer for him.[37] Anurag Kashyap said that the first two Indian films who's violence had "impacted" him were Parinda and Shiva (1990). He said that the scene involving a dead body being dumped inside a wood machine, Patekar's character and the fire scene in the climax, had an emotional impact on him.[38] The film is credited for showing the way for realistic crime films in Hindi cinema in following years.[39] Patekar's role as the psychopathic don is considered to be one of the best performances of his career.[40][41][42] Film-critic Gayatri Gauri of Firstpost wrote, "Parinda was well-crafted, slickly-written and brilliantly executed".[43] It was selected as the official Indian submission for the 1990 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film but was not nominated.[44] Chopra co-wrote, produced and directed Broken Horses (2015), an English-language Hollywood remake of Parinda that stars Vincent D'Onofrio, Anton Yelchin and Chris Marquette. It was released on 9 April 2015, receiving generally unfavorable reviews and became a box office failure.[45][46]

In 2012, several films of Chopra were released theatrically as part of a retrospective including Parinda.[47] In April 2017, Chopra submitted the supplementary materials from six of his films to the preservation vaults of National Film Archive of India. The materials include lobby cards, film posters, song booklets, contact sheets, promotional catalogues and working stills from Khamosh, Parinda, 1942: A Love Story (1994), Mission Kashmir (2000) and Eklavya: The Royal Guard (2007).[48]

Analysis[edit]

Parinda is noted for the realism it introduced to mainstream Hindi cinema; several critics drew parallels between the violence and the location in the film. Author and film professor Ranjani Mazumdar in her book Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City wrote that Parinda uses some popular locations such as the Gateway of India, a nearby fountain and the Babulnath temple as "spaces of terror". She wrote, "These display sites, which are central to the cartography of Bombay, are turned into nodes of violence and death".[8] Mazumdar also said the film destroyed the image of Bombay as the 'dream city' and turned it into a violent nightmare.[49] According to Filmfare, Parinda blurs the lines of black and white for its heroes and adds shades of grey to the villain; writing, "As two brothers face-off on conflicting sides of morality, Parinda speaks of themes like family values, bonding, unemployment, illegal trades etc."[18] Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen note in their book Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema that Parinda represented a "postmodern variation" of the crime genre in Hindi cinema.[50]

The film also explores the themes of childhood and memory; all of its major characters are orphans.[49] The city in the film is shattered into "dark, morbid spaces with all the characters framed within a light and shadow zone".[49] Tapan K. Ghosh, in his book Bollywood Baddies: Villains, Vamps and Henchmen in Hindi Cinema, said the film showcased the sociopolitical scenario of that time and showed "smuggling rivalry on a gruesome scale".[51] Authors Swaralipi Nandi and Esha Chatterjee, in their book Spectacles of Blood: A Study of Masculinity and Violence in Postcolonial Films, drew metaphorical similarities between Parinda and Martin Scorsese's crime drama Mean Streets (1973), stating that both films explore the masculinity of young men who commit violence and reject societal norms because of a lack of guidance.[52] Through its frequent use of night shots and dark spaces, Parinda uses the aesthetics of film noir in its visual style.[53]

Accolades[edit]

At the 37th National Film Awards, Parinda received the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor for Nana Patekar and Best Editing for Renu Saluja. At the 35th Filmfare Awards, the film was nominated in six categories and won five of them.

Award Category Nominee Result Ref.
National Film Awards Best Supporting Actor Nana Patekar Won [54]
Best Editing Renu Saluja Won [55]
Filmfare Awards Best Director Vidhu Vinod Chopra Won [18]
Best Actor Jackie Shroff Won [18]
Best Supporting Actor Nana Patekar Won [56]
Best Editing Renu Saluja Won [57]
Best Screenplay Shiv Kumar Subramaniam Won [58]
Best Film Vidhu Vinod Chopra Nominated [58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]