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Paris japonica

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Paris japonica
Flowers and leaves
Close-up of flower
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Genus: Paris
P. japonica
Binomial name
Paris japonica
  • Trillidium japonicum Franch. & Sav.
  • Trillium japonicum (Franch. & Sav.) Matsum.
  • Kinugasa japonica (Franch. & Sav.) Tatew. & Sutô

Paris japonica (キヌガサソウ, Kinugasasō, canopy plant) is a Japanese species of plants in the genus Paris in the family Melanthiaceae.[1]

It is native to sub-alpine regions of Japan. A slow growing perennial, it flowers in July. The rare, showy white star-like flower is borne above a single whorl of about eight stem leaves. It prefers cool, humid, shady places.


Paris japonica is the previous record-holder of the largest genome of any plant yet assayed, about 150 billion base pairs long.[2] An octoploid and suspected allopolyploid hybrid of four species, it has 40 chromosomes. With 150 billion base pairs of DNA in the haploid genome (50 times larger than that of a human haploid genome).[3][4]

The flower has 19 billion more base pairs than the previous record holder, the marbled lungfish, whose 130 billion base pairs weigh in at 132.83 picograms per cell.[3][4] Since then, other organisms have been assayed and reported to have larger genomes; The fork fern, Tmesipteris truncata, has 160.45 billion base pairs per cell.[5] Polychaos dubium may have 670 billion base pairs per cell, but the authors of one study suggest treating that measurement with caution because it was taken before the advent of modern genomic methods.[6]


  1. ^ Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ Fernández, Pol and Amice, Rémy and Bruy, David and Christenhusz, Maarten J. M. and Leitch, Ilia J. and Leitch, Andrew L. and Pokorny, Lisa and Hidalgo, Oriane and Pellicer, Jaume. "A 160 Gbp fork fern genome shatters size record for eukaryotes". iScience. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2024.109889.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b Pellicer, Jaume (1 September 2010). "The largest eukaryotic genome of them all?". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 164 (1): 10–15 – via Oxford Academic.
  4. ^ a b ScienceDaily, Rare Japanese plant has largest genome known to science, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, October 7, 2010
  5. ^ Fernández, Pol; Amice, Rémy; Bruy, David; Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Leitch, Andrew L.; Pokorny, Lisa; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume (May 2024). "A 160 Gbp fork fern genome shatters size record for eukaryotes". iScience: 109889. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2024.109889. ISSN 2589-0042.
  6. ^ McGrath, Casey L. & Katz, Laura A. (2004). "Genome diversity in microbial eukaryotes". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 19 (1): 32–38. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.007. PMID 16701223.

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