Park (Korean surname)

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Park
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationBak
McCune–ReischauerPak
Percentage of family names in South Korea
  Kim
  Lee
  Park
  Choi
  Jung

Park or Bak () is the third-most-common surname in Korea,[1] traditionally traced back to King Hyeokgeose Park (박혁거세) and theoretically inclusive of all of his descendants. The name "Park" or Bak is usually assumed to come from the Korean noun Bak (), which means "gourd".[2] As of the South Korean census of 2015, there were 4,192,074 people by this name in South Korea or roughly 8.4% of the population.[1]

Founding legend[edit]

All the Park clans in Korea trace their ancestry back to the first king of Silla, Hyeokgeose. According to a legend, the leaders of the six clans of the Jinhan confederacy were gathering on a hilltop to choose a king, when they looked down and saw lightning strike at the foot of the Yangsan mountain and a white horse bow at the same place. When they went there to check, they found a red egg, which hatched a baby boy. They bathed the boy in the nearby stream, and he was emitting bright light, and the sun and the moon rose at the same time, indicating the divine birth of the child. Thus the child was named Hyeokgeose, meaning "ruling with a bright light", and his clan name became Bak, or "gourd" after the round shape of the egg he hatched from. At age 13 he was given the title geoseogan (거서간), the equivalent of "king" at the time. The birth legends of early Korean kings were necessary to validate the "divine" nature of their rule.[2][3]

Clans[edit]

5,6,7,8,9th president of South Korea, Park Chung hee. He is from Goryeong clan of the Baks.
Bak chan ho is a former baseball player. He is from the Chungju clan of the Baks.
Bak Jae Sang is a singer. He is from the Miryang clan of the Baks. [4]
Bak Tae Hwan is a South Korean swimming player. He is from the Miryang clan of the Baks.
Bak ji sung, a former Manchester United South Korean football player. He is from the Miryang Clan of the Baks.
Bak Junghwan, South Korean Baduk player.

As with other Korean surnames, different lineages, known as bon-gwan or clans, are inherited from a father by his children. These designate the region of Korea, or paternal ancestor, from which they claim to originate. Out of the kings of Silla, ten had the Park surname. During the rule of King Pasa (80–112), the Park clans became divided and during the reign of King Gyeongmyeong (917–924) they became even more fractured, creating several lineages. This is when the nine Park clans named after the nine sons of Gyeongmyeong came into existence.[5]

70–80% of the current bearers of the surname belong to the Miryang Bak clan. In 2015, there were 314 Bak clans in South Korea, with about 4.19 million people altogether.[6]

The clans which produced the most number of notable people in Korean history are collectively called the "8 Parks", these are: the Miryang Park clan (밀양박씨), the Bannam Park clan (반남박씨), the Goryeong Park clan (고령박씨), the Hamyang Park clan (함양박씨), the Juksan Park clan (죽산박씨), the Suncheon Park clan (순천박씨), the Muan Park clan (무안박씨) and the Chungju Park clan (충주박씨).[5][6]

Clan name (Region) Clan progenitor Percentage (%)
(2015)
Miryang[1] Grand Prince Eon-chim of Milseong, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 74.04
Hamyang Bak Seon, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 3.9
Others Ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 3.8
Bannam (Naju) Lord Hojang, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 3.8
Suncheon Bak Yeong Kyu, Gyeon Hwon's son-in-law, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 3.8
Juksan (Andong) Grand Prince Eunnip of Juksan, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 1.5
Goryeong Park Eun-seong, Grand Prince of Goyang, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 1.0
Yeonghae (Yeongdeok) Park Je-sang, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 0.7
Chungju Park Sang, ultimately from Hyeokgeose of Silla 0.8

Marriage within a clan[edit]

Traditionally, a man and a woman in the same clan could not marry, so the combination of the bon-gwan and the family name of a husband had to differ from those of his wife. Until 1997, this was also the law, but this was ruled unconstitutional.

Position in society[edit]

House of Park
Parent houseItself
CountryKorea
Founded57 BC
FounderKing Hyeokgeose
Final rulerKing Gyeongae
TitlesKing of Silla
DissolutionFall of Silla in 935

King Hyeokgeose was said to have founded the Korean kingdom of Silla at the age of thirteen in 57 BC. Bak was one of three houses of the Korean kingdom of Silla. Among the houses of Bak, Gim, and Seok, princes rotated on the throne of Silla. According to historical records, all three houses have been recorded as having worshipped the founding father, Bak Hyeokgeose as their ancestral shrine. For example, the 4th king Talhae of Silla, the 9th king Beolhyu of Silla, the 10th king Naehae of Silla, the 11th king Jobun of Silla, the 12th king Cheomhae of Silla, the 14th King Yurye of Silla and the 15th king Girim of Silla were house of Seok, but according to the Samguk sagi Silla bongi, all of them worshipped Bak Hyeokgeose as their progenitor. In addition, the 13th king Michu of Silla, the 16th king Heulhae of Silla, the 17th king Naemul of Silla, the 18th king Silseong of Silla, the 19th king Nulji of Silla, the 20th king Jabi of Silla, the 21st king Soji of Silla, the 22nd king Jijeung of Silla, the 40th king Aejang of Silla, the 41st king Heondeok of Silla and the 42nd king Heungdeok of Silla are descendants of Gim Al-ji, but according to the Samguk sagi Silla bongi, all of them worshipped Bak Hyeokgeose as their progenitor. In addition, according to Samguk sagi, the Shrine Shingung(神宮) was founded in the birthplace of the progenitor Bak Hyeokgeose(朴赫居世) and every king has been recorded as paying their respects at this shrine. All of these historical records imply that the three lineages of Bak, Seok, and Gim worshipped Bak Hyeokgeose as their founding ancestor. [7]

When Seonggols have died out followed by two consecutive queens, Kim Chun-Chu from Jingol began to monopolize the throne, which lasts 258 years. However, even during this period, the Kims did not fully occupy the throne. In the later period of Silla, the Bak clan from Jingol succeed in restoring the throne. During the last century of the dynasty, the Bak clan from Jingol regained the ruling house position in 728 years. However, the Bak dynasty was cut off when Gyeongae of Silla was forced to commit suicide by Gyeon Hwon of the Hubaekje Kingdom. The reign of the Bak clan lasted only 15 years. After that, Gim Bu became the last king of Silla, but soon surrendered to the Wang Geon of Goryeo and Silla finally collapsed in 992 years.

During the Unified Silla the Miryang Bak Clan, along with Gimhae Gim clan became the most prominent of the Aristocracy, based on the Bone Rank System. Within the bone rank system, the two clans of Gimhae Gims and Miryang Baks were considered the most Jingol, or "True Bone". As Seong gol, or Divine bones died out through intermarriage, these two clans became the dominant noble houses on the peninsula following the conquest of rival dynasties.

After the fall of Silla, it continued as a major noble house of Goryeo. During the Goryeo dynasty, many of the people who passed the highest-level state examination, which was implemented to recruit ranking officials during the Goryeo Dynasty, were Parks. The first General to defeat the Mongols in world history was General Park Seo, who commanded the successful defense of the fortress of Guju in 1231 against the forces led by Mongol General Sartaq.

During Joseon dynasty, Parks continued to thrive as one of the main Yangban households. With the Gabo Reform of 1894, when the caste system was abolished, some peasants adopted the surname of Park, bloating the population of the Park family. Simultaneously with the abolition of the Gwageo national service examination, the Yangban system came to an end. During the Japanese Occupation Period, three of the ten Korean aristocrats admitted into Japanese House of Peers were of the Park Clan.

According to Kojiki, Nihon Shoki and Harimu no Kuni Fudoki, one of Bak Princes, recorded in various names as Amenohiboko(天日槍), Amenohihoko, Hiboko, Amenohibokonomikoto, Amenohibokonomikoto and Amanohiboko migrated to Japan in 27 BC [8] and Itoi clan, Miyake clan, Tachibanamori clan, Tajima clan, Itoi clan and Tajimamori are recorded as decesdants of Amenohiboko. [9] Also, according to Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, Harimu no Kuni Fudoki, Shōji roku and Shinsen Shōjiroku, Amenohiboko and Emperor Ōjin are depicted as the same person [10] and Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor of Japan is recorded as Bak Hyeokgeose's younger brother. [11]

Family lineage[edit]

 
 
 
彥波瀲武鸕鷀草葺不合尊
 
玉依姬
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
彥五瀨命稻飯命三毛入野命
天孫氏
稚三毛野尊
神武天皇
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
新羅王室(朴姓)〕
 
 
 
皇室
 

Notable people[edit]

Kings[edit]

Kings of Silla in order of their reign:

Historical people[edit]

  • General Park Seo (Defeated the Mongol Army of Sartak at Battle of Kusong 1231)
  • Park Soon ko:박순 (고려) (?-1402). Military subordinate to Taejo of Joseon. Accompanied Taejo in all military campaigns from the anti-Japanese pirate campaigns in the south to Liaodong invasion of 1388. Personally delivered the message of Redeployment from Wihwado to King Ui of Goryeo in behalf of Taejo. Was appointed the high commander of Joseon Army following the founding of the dynasty. Killed during the Northeastern Rebellion of 1398 ko:조사의의 난
  • Pak Paeng-nyeon (1417–1456) was a scholar-official of the early Joseon Dynasty, and is known as one of the six martyred ministers. He was born to a yangban family of the Suncheon Pak lineage, and was the son of high minister Pak Jeongrim. He joined in a plot to overthrow Sejo and restore Danjong in 1456, but the plot was uncovered through the betrayal of fellow plotter Kim Jil. Sejo admired Pak's abilities and offered to pardon him if he were to deny his involvement and acknowledge Sejo as his king. Park died in prison from torture. Revered as a model of Confucian Loyalty. Alone among the six martyred ministers to have a surviving male descendant. One of his female servant passed off his youngest son as her own, thereby ensuring the family name. All other family and relatives were executed.
  • Park Joong Seon ko:박중선 (1435–1481) Passed the National Military Service Exam with the highest score in 1460 at the age of 35. Held in high esteem by the new King Sejo for his excellent riding and archery skills, frequently accompanying the king as his personal body guard on hunts. Married off his daughter to the Crown Prince in 1366, becoming an in-law of the King. In 1367, appointed a Provincial General to put down the Northeastern Rebellion, earning further accolades becoming the youngest Minister of Defense in Joseon history.
  • Park Jin (1560–1597) Served in the military intelligence following his passing of the national military service exam. Transferred to Infantry 4 years before the Japanese Invasion of 1592. Defeated by the Japanese at the Battle of Miryang (Clan home), before regaining his honor in follow on victories, including the battle of Yeongcheon and the Second Battle of Gyeongju. Was instrumental in convincing Sayaga, the highest ranking Samurai General of the invasion force to surrender. In 1597, near the end of the war, a Ming Chinese General 누승선(婁承先) accused him falsely of disobeying official order, tortured him, resulting in his death. Korean investigators confirmed broken ribs and sternum on his body.
  • Park Yeon (박연) (1595– after 1666). Jan Janse de Weltevree, after his 1627 shipwreck, was drowned to Jeju Island and was not allowed to leave Korea. Thus he adopted a Korean name.
  • Pak Jega (1750–1815) was a Korean Scholar of Practical Learning Silhak who advocated modern commercial reformation for Joseon dynasty after visiting China on official capacity. A strong critic of the Confucian scholars first mentality, he was banished to the provinces in 1805.
  • Park Gyu-su 박규수 (1807–1877). He passed the national service exam in 1848, and as an inspector, put down the 1862 Peasant Rebellion in Jinju, reducing the tax burden and punishing the corrupt official of the city. As the Inspector General of Pyeong An Province in 1866, when USS General Sherman General Sherman Incident made its expedition into Pyeong Yang, ordered the attack on the ship when the sailors began attacking and looting the populace, resulting in the burning and sinking of the ship. Also a geographer, cartographer, and poet in the classical style. Became a notable member of the modernization movement in late Joseon until his death in 1877.
  • Park Jeong Yang ko:박정양 (1842–1905) was the First Ambassador of Joseon to the United States in 1887, and a member of Kim Hong Jip cabinet.

Soldiers[edit]

  • Militia Leader Park KiSeo (Organized a militia to resist the Donghak rebels in Jeolla Province in 1895. Liberated several town in ChungCheong Province before dying in battle.)
  • General Park Jong Heon (Chief of Staff, Republic of Korea Air Force 2010–2012 AD)

Actors[edit]

Actresses[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Comedians[edit]

Directors[edit]

Literary figures[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Singers[edit]

Voice actors[edit]

Other[edit]

Fictional characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "2015년 인구주택총조사 전수집계결과 보도자료" [Results of the 2015 Census of Population and Housing survey]. Korean Statistical Information Service. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b The National Folk Museum of Korea (2014). Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Literature: Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. III. 길잡이미디어. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9788928900848.
  3. ^ "Pak Hyeokgeose: the founder of the Silla kingdom was respected and courageous". Korea.net. 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
  4. ^ Nichols, Michelle (October 23, 2012). "U.N. chief to meet South Korean pop star, Austrian skydiver". Reuters. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "박" (in Korean). Doopedia. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
  6. ^ a b "박씨" (in Korean). Korea Economic Daily. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  7. ^ Kim, Jongseong (2016-09-08). 신라 왕실의 비밀 [The secret of the Silla royal family] (in Korean). Korea: 역사의아침. ISBN 9791187493006.
  8. ^ "日本書紀巻第六". seisaku.bz. 720. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  9. ^ "新撰姓氏録". eonet.jp. 815. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  10. ^ "日本書紀巻第十". seisaku.bz. 720. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  11. ^ "新良貴 彦波瀲武鸕鷀草葦不合尊男 稻飯命之後也. 是出於 新良國王 稻飯命. 出於 新羅國王者 祖令, 新良貴 於新良國卽爲國主 稻飮命者新羅國王之祖也". 新撰姓氏錄. 815. Retrieved 2019-06-12.