Park Avenue Viaduct

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Park Avenue Viaduct
NYC Landmark No. 1127
GCT PAV 2.jpg
A portion of the viaduct crosses 42nd Street at Grand Central Terminal.
LocationPark Avenue between East 40th and 46th Streets
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates40°45′07″N 73°58′40″W / 40.75194°N 73.97778°W / 40.75194; -73.97778Coordinates: 40°45′07″N 73°58′40″W / 40.75194°N 73.97778°W / 40.75194; -73.97778
Built1919
ArchitectWarren & Wetmore; Reed & Stem
Architectural styleBeaux-Arts
NRHP reference No.83001726
NYCL No.1127
Significant dates
Added to NRHPAugust 11, 1983[2]
Designated NYCLSeptember 23, 1980[1]

The Park Avenue Viaduct, also known as the Pershing Square Viaduct, is a roadway in Manhattan, New York City. It carries vehicular traffic on Park Avenue from 40th to 46th Streets around Grand Central Terminal and the MetLife Building, then through the Helmsley Building. All three buildings lie across the north–south line of the avenue. The viaduct itself is composed of two sections: a steel viaduct with two roadways from 40th to 42nd Streets, and a pair of roadways between 42nd and 46th streets. The street-level service roads of Park Avenue, which flank the viaduct between 40th and 42nd streets, are called Pershing Square.

The viaduct was first proposed by New York Central Railroad president William J. Wilgus in 1900 as part of the construction of Grand Central Terminal. Construction on the viaduct's western leg began in 1917, after the terminal had opened, and was complete in 1919. The western leg initially carried two-way traffic, so the eastern leg was completed for northbound traffic in 1928, and the western leg was reconfigured to carry southbound traffic only. An information booth was established in 1939 beneath the viaduct, and the city renovated the viaduct in the early 1990s.

The Park Avenue Viaduct was designated a New York City landmark in 1980 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.

Description[edit]

The viaduct is used by automobile traffic between 40th Street to the south and 46th Street to the north. It is composed of two sections: the steel viaduct between 40th and 42nd streets, and the pair of roadways between 42nd and 46th streets. Immediately to the south of 40th Street is the portal of the Park Avenue Tunnel, which carries northbound traffic from 33rd Street directly onto the viaduct.[3] The posted weight limit for the viaduct is 15 short tons (13 long tons; 14 t), and commercial traffic is prohibited.[4] Pedestrian and bike traffic is generally also prohibited,[5][6] except during "Summer Streets", when Park Avenue is closed to vehicular traffic on selected summer weekends.[6][7]

Route[edit]

Southern section[edit]

Plaque on the viaduct

From the south, traffic from Park Avenue, 40th Street, or the Park Avenue Tunnel enters the steel viaduct. The viaduct rises to a T-intersection just north of 42nd Street, over the street-level entrance to Grand Central Terminal below.[3][8] This segment of the viaduct is 600 feet (180 m) long and consists of a granite approach ramp with stone balustrades, as well as three steel arches, which are separated by granite piers with foliate friezes.[8][9] The central arch has been infilled to create a restaurant space.[8][10] The arches were included because of "aesthetic considerations", but are actually cantilever beams, because true arches would have required excessively large abutments.[11][12] The girders over each pier are each 136 feet (41 m) long by 12 feet (3.7 m) deep, weighing 73 short tons (65 long tons; 66 t) each. They were made in New Jersey and shipped from Delaware to New York, then pulled by 52 horses from the East River.[13]

The deck of the viaduct, above the steel arches, contains railings with plain and foliate panels, as well as lampposts atop each granite pier.[8][9][11] The deck is 60 feet (18 m) wide.[14] The arches of the Pershing Square Viaduct are based on the Pont Alexandre III in Paris,[15] and contain plaques with the words "Pershing Square" at their centers.[10]

Northern section[edit]

At the T-intersection north of 42nd Street, the viaduct splits into two legs.[3] A statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt, longtime owner of New York Central, is at the T-intersection.[16][17] The legs of the viaduct surround the terminal building and the MetLife Building to the north before passing through a pair of portals under the Helmsley Building between 45th and 46th streets. Northbound traffic uses the eastern leg, which runs above a private road called Depew Place, while southbound traffic uses the western leg, which runs above the eastern sidewalk of Vanderbilt Avenue. Both roadways pass above 45th Street without intersection.[3] The roadways then take sharp S-curves into the Helmsley Building, where they descend into triple-story arches that exit onto 46th Street.[18]

The western leg is 35 feet (11 m) wide; the eastern leg is 33 feet (10 m) wide between 42nd and 44th streets, widening to 53 feet (16 m) north of 44th Street. The roadway above 42nd Street, which connects the two legs, is 40 feet (12 m) wide.[19] The portion of the viaduct immediately surrounding the terminal's building has a masonry balustrade with an additional metal guardrail.[3] There is a cast-iron eagle atop the balustrade where the western leg curves onto the connecting roadway above 42nd Street.[20][21] A sidewalk, accessible from the Grand Hyatt hotel, runs along the section of the viaduct that is parallel to 42nd Street.[16]

Pershing Square[edit]

The viaduct crosses over Pershing Square

The street-level service roads of Park Avenue between 40th and 42nd Streets are called Pershing Square. The service roads between 41st and 42nd streets are open only to bikes and pedestrians.[22] The square is named after General John J. Pershing. Consequently, the southern portion of the viaduct between 40th and 42nd streets is also known as the Pershing Square Viaduct.[23]

History[edit]

The New York Central Railroad built the Grand Central Depot in 1869 as the southern terminus of the Park Avenue main line.[24] The depot was located along the axis of Fourth Avenue (later Park Avenue), splitting the avenue into two parts: a section south of 42nd Street and another north of 45th Street.[25] The southern section of Park Avenue was a quiet road running through the upscale enclave of Murray Hill,[26] while the northern section contained an open cut (later covered over), which carried the Park Avenue main line.[24] Further, the northern end of the Park Avenue Tunnel rose to ground level between 40th and 42nd streets, splitting 41st Street into two sections at Park Avenue.[19][27] Depew Place ran along the eastern side of the depot, while Vanderbilt Avenue ran along the western side.[28]

Early plans[edit]

Grand Central Terminal as seen from the southern end of the viaduct

The Park Avenue Viaduct was first proposed by New York Central president William J. Wilgus in 1900, when he suggested replacing Grand Central Depot with Grand Central Terminal.[29] During a design competition for the terminal in 1903, Reed and Stem proposed vehicular viaducts around the terminal building. New York Central ultimately selected Reed and Stem, as well as Warren and Wetmore, to construct Grand Central Terminal.[30][31][32] The two architectural firms had a tense relationship. Over Wilgus' objections, Warren and Wetmore removed a proposed 12-story tower as well as vehicular viaducts that had been part of Reed and Stem's plan.[33] The elevated viaducts were restored, as were several of Reed and Stem's other design elements, as part of an agreement between the two firms in 1909.[32][34] The railroad also bought Depew Place, over which the eastern leg of the viaduct would run.[19][28] Two years later, the New York City Board of Estimate approved New York Central's plans for a viaduct carrying Park Avenue over 42nd Street.[35]

The present plans for the Park Avenue Viaduct were devised in 1912 by Warren and Wetmore.[36] The terminal's construction already provided for roadways to either side of the terminal building, in preparation for the viaduct's eventual completion.[14] The terminal was opened in 1913,[37] but the viaduct could not be built yet because the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, one of the operators of the city's subway system, had not even decided whether to build the Grand Central–42nd Street station under the viaduct's site.[38] The IRT ultimately decided to build the station diagonally under 42nd Street, connecting its new Lexington Avenue Line to the north with the existing subway under Park Avenue to the south, and by mid-1917, subway construction had progressed to the extent that work on the viaduct could commence.[39] Bidding for the viaduct's construction was opened in August 1917. At that time, Fifth Avenue and Madison Avenue (which ran parallel to Park Avenue) were heavily congested, and the viaduct was expected to alleviate some of that traffic.[40]

Construction[edit]

Taxi stand on the viaduct, outside the Grand Hyatt hotel
The western leg of the viaduct during "Summer Streets", temporarily closed to cars

Construction on the viaduct began in November 1917.[41][42] However, further progress was hindered due to the difficulty in securing ornamental steel during World War I.[25] Work resumed in July 1918 when an order for the necessary steel was placed, and builders began erecting the masonry foundation and wall.[14] The viaduct opened on April 16, 1919; the project had cost $768,032, including related infrastructure projects, such as the opening of 41st Street and the relocation of both of the Park Avenue Tunnel's portals.[25][43] When it opened, only automobiles and taxicabs used the Park Avenue Viaduct.[17] The original viaduct took two-way traffic from Park Avenue at 40th Street and carried it around the west side of Grand Central Terminal, terminating at the T-intersection of 45th Street and Vanderbilt Avenue.[a] An elevated service driveway ran to the east of the terminal, above Depew Place; it was used by baggage and mail vans, and provided parking space and an entrance to the Commodore Hotel.[9][25][44] The driveway served the Grand Central post office at 450 Lexington Avenue, as well as a since-demolished baggage building north of the terminal.[45]

Shortly after the viaduct's opening, the area at the bottom of the viaduct was renamed Pershing Square in 1919 to honor World War I general John J. Pershing.[46] The lot immediately to the east had been occupied by Grand Union Hotel, which was condemned via eminent domain in 1914 and subsequently demolished.[34][47] That space was proposed for use as an open plaza[48] with a three-story memorial called "Victory Hall".[49] In July 1920, a realty consortium headed by investor Henry Mandel bought the site.[50][51] Mandel gave the Bowery Savings Bank the eastern portion of the site, which would be developed into an office building at 110 East 42nd Street,[52] completed in 1923.[53][54] The western portion of the site became the Pershing Square Building, also completed in 1923.[55] The "Pershing Square" name would subsequently apply to the service roads of the Park Avenue Viaduct between 40th and 42nd Streets.[9]

Expansion[edit]

The exit of the eastern leg of the viaduct through the Helmsley Building back to ground level

Soon after the viaduct's opening, traffic at 45th Street and Vanderbilt Avenue started to accumulate, causing gridlock at that intersection, since thirteen lanes of traffic converged there.[44][56] By 1920, business associations were advocating for the eastern leg of the viaduct to be opened to public use.[57][58] The city started negotiating with New York Central to open the eastern leg of the viaduct, although the railroad was holding out unless it was granted property on Park Avenue.[59] The city proposed building a ramp from the viaduct that would descend to ground level at 46th Street, while keeping Park Avenue open to traffic between 45th and 46th streets; however, New York Central's proposal would altogether close off that block of Park Avenue.[44] The Manhattan borough president, Julius Miller, proposed giving New York Central the right to erect a building over Park Avenue, in exchange for the railroad giving Depew Place back to the city so that the eastern leg of the viaduct could be built.[60] By November 1922, Miller and the New York Central reached an agreement to submit a proposal for the viaduct to city authorities,[61] and the Board of Estimate approved the proposal in January 1923.[44]

New York Central had made a revised agreement by the city by 1924, which gave the railroad the right to erect a building over Park Avenue.[28][56][62] As part of the project, the section of Park Avenue between 45th and 46th streets would be closed, the eastern leg of the viaduct would be completed, and traffic would be carried around both sides of the terminal and through the New York Central Building before being deposited at Park Avenue and 46th Street. The plans also called for a roadway running above 45th Street's southern sidewalk, connecting the two directions of traffic, as well as the extension of Vanderbilt Avenue north to 47th Street and the widening of Park Avenue.[28][56][62][63] To allow the viaduct's roadways to descend to street level between 45th and 46th streets, the roadways were placed on S-curves supported by stanchions that did not touch the building's frame.[64]

The revised plan was approved by the Board of Estimate in April 1924, and work could start upon the approval of Charles L. Craig, the city controller.[65] However, Craig initially refused to certify the plan, stating that the city had paid much more for Depew Place than the land was worth.[66] After more than a year of re-negotiations, Craig finally certified the plan in December 1925.[65] The next year, work on the New York Central Building's foundations commenced,[60] and the block of Park Avenue between 45th and 46th streets was closed. The eastern leg along Depew Place was opened in February 1928, and northbound traffic was diverted there.[67] Construction was complete by September of that year, with the completion of the western leg, which had been extended to Park Avenue and 46th Street with an overpass over 45th Street.[44] In November 1928, the Vanderbilt statue was installed at the T-intersection above 42nd Street.[68]

Later history[edit]

The entrance to the Pershing Square Cafe, which extends to 41st Street under the viaduct

The space under the viaduct between 41st and 42nd streets was originally used as a trolley barn.[69] In 1938, the city announced that it would build a tourist information center within that space in advance of the 1939 New York World's Fair.[70] The city subsequently built a steel and glass-brick structure under the center arch of the viaduct.[8][10] The structure, located at 90 East 42nd Street,[71] opened in December 1939 and was initially used to provide tourist information.[72][73] During World War II, the space was used by United Service Organizations, and after the war, became an outpost of the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau.[74] By 1960, leaks from the viaduct had damaged the information center. That year, a reconstruction project for the viaduct was announced, which involved repairing trusses as well as installing drainage and a nonskid deck.[75]

The former tourist-information center had become an unemployment office by the 1980s.[8][10] The viaduct had also become dilapidated, with potholes, leaks, and rusted steel supports,[76] so the city government undertook the first major renovations in the viaduct's history.[77] The southbound roadway was closed in July 1984,[76] reopening that November.[77] The northbound roadway was then closed from May 1985[78] to September 1985.[77] The viaduct's original lamps were removed in a 1986 repaving project.[79] An $8 million restoration of the viaduct was announced three years later.[11] As part of the renovation, the Grand Central Partnership would turn the space between 41st and 42nd streets into a restaurant.[80] The original lamps were also restored in 1992.[79]

In 1995, the city and the Grand Central Partnership unveiled plans to restore the space under the viaduct at a cost of $2 million, then lease it as a restaurant.[81] The Pershing Square Cafe signed a lease at the space in 1997.[82] The owner of the renovated space, Michael O'Keeffe, placed so much attention to the renovation of the space that the project's costs increased to $5 million, and the cafe's opening date was pushed back by several months.[83]

Critical reception and landmark designations[edit]

When the Park Avenue Viaduct opened, it was praised as a solution to the traffic congestion around Grand Central Terminal. In 1922, the New-York Tribune called it one of several works of "engineering magic".[84] Christopher Gray, architecture critic at The New York Times, wrote that "the completion of the viaduct suddenly changed Park Avenue from an inconvenient local street to the most modern highway in New York."[11] The building's design in relation to Grand Central Terminal was also lauded. Architecture magazine said that the design "has produced a beautiful and satisfying work of truly monumental character."[13]

The Park Avenue Viaduct was designated a New York City landmark in 1980.[85][1] In its report, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission wrote that the viaduct "is an integral part of the complex circulation system of Grand Central Terminal".[10] The viaduct was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, technically as a "boundary increase" to the Grand Central Terminal's listing, but carrying a separate reference number.[2] Both designations apply only to the section of the viaduct between 40th and 42nd streets.[1][86]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Informational notes

  1. ^ Vanderbilt Avenue continued as a private roadway north of 45th Street; it was opened to the public when the viaduct was extended in 1928.[44]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980, p. 1.
  2. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e Google (June 7, 2020). "Park Avenue Viaduct" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  4. ^ "New York City Bridge Report" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2017. p. 250. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  5. ^ "NYC DOT – Bicycle Maps" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Walsh, Kevin (August 26, 2010). "Car-Free Saturday Part 6: Park Avenue Viaduct". Forgotten New York. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  7. ^ Metro (August 5, 2016). "Summer Streets guide: Traffic closures, schedule, activities". Metro US. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f National Park Service 1983, p. 4.
  9. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980, p. 5.
  10. ^ a b c d e Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980, p. 6.
  11. ^ a b c d Gray, Christopher (October 29, 1989). "Streetscapes: The Grand Central Viaduct; An $8 Million Revival for a Midtown Masterpiece". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  12. ^ Architecture 1919, p. 41.
  13. ^ a b Architecture 1919, p. 44.
  14. ^ a b c "New Park Avenue Viaduct; Work Started Last Week to Be Completed by Next Spring". The New York Times. July 21, 1918. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  15. ^ Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 83.
  16. ^ a b Durante, Dianne L. (2007). Outdoor Monuments of Manhattan: A Historical Guide. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814719862. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Morrison, D.D.; Diehl, L.B. (2019). Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station: Statuary and Sculptures. Images of Rail. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4396-6741-5.
  18. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 19.
  19. ^ a b c "Park Avenue Viaduct to End Traffic Snarl". New York Sun. May 26, 1918. p. 52. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  20. ^ Ferguson, Colleen (August 8, 2018). "Secrets of Grand Central Terminal: missing decorations, hidden staircases and a tiny acorn". The Journal News. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  21. ^ Walsh, Kevin (May 22, 2018). "Grand Central Eagle". Forgotten New York. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  22. ^ Warerkar, Tanay (February 16, 2018). "Busy block near Grand Central Terminal will transform into a pedestrian plaza". Curbed NY. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  23. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980, p. 1.
  24. ^ a b Fitch, James Marston; Waite, Diana S. (1974). Grand Central Terminal and Rockefeller Center: A Historic-critical Estimate of Their Significance. Albany, New York: The Division. p. 3.
  25. ^ a b c d "Park Ave. Viaduct Opens Wednesday". New York Herald. April 13, 1919. p. 17. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  26. ^ Gray, Christopher (July 21, 2011). "Putting the Park in Park Avenue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  27. ^ "Want 41st Street Opened; Eliminate Tunnel Obstructions at Park Avenue as Relief to Traffic Congestion". The New York Times. March 5, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  28. ^ a b c d "Central Tells Plans for New Skyscraper". New York Herald-Tribune. September 18, 1927. p. C1. Retrieved June 11, 2020 – via ProQuest.
  29. ^ Schlichting 2001, pp. 60–62.
  30. ^ Robins & New York Transit Museum 2013, p. 53.
  31. ^ Schlichting 2001, pp. 118–120.
  32. ^ a b "Grand Central Terminal Interior" (PDF). Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 23, 1980. p. 5.
  33. ^ Schlichting 2001, p. 123.
  34. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1980, p. 4.
  35. ^ "Elevated Roadway Around a New Station; Central's Plan to Carry Park Avenue Over Forty-second Street Approved". The New York Times. June 16, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  36. ^ National Park Service 1983, p. 7.
  37. ^ "Modern Terminal Supplies Patrons with Home Comforts". The New York Times. February 2, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  38. ^ "Park Avenue Viaduct Scheme". New York Sun. April 4, 1913. p. 7. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  39. ^ "Park Avenue Viaduct.; Bids for Improvement to be Opened Tomorrow". The New York Times. July 29, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  40. ^ "Bids Opened for the New Park Avenue Viaduct Over Forty-second Street; an Ornamental Structure Landing on Upper Level of Grand Central Terminal Planned to Relieve Traffic on Fifth and Madison Avenues-- Estimated to Cost About $700,000". The New York Times. August 5, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  41. ^ "New Forty-second Street Viaduct; Work Started on Structure to Connect Park Avenue with Grand Central Terminal". The New York Times. November 4, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  42. ^ "Start Park Avenue Viaduct". New York Sun. November 2, 1917. p. 9. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  43. ^ "Link Up Park Av. To Ease Congestion; Civic Bodies Celebrate Opening of Viaduct at 42d Street and Ramp at 33d Street". The New York Times. April 17, 1919. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  44. ^ a b c d e f "New Viaduct Thoroughfare Relieves Park Avenue Traffic Congestion; Result of Many Years' Work" (PDF). The New York Times. September 2, 1928. p. 123. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  45. ^ Schlichting 2001, pp. 62–63.
  46. ^ "Name Street For Pershing; Space in Front of Grand Central Becomes Pershing Square". The New York Times. December 3, 1918. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  47. ^ "The Passing of Old Hotels" (PDF). The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. 93 (2407): 818. May 5, 1914. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2020 – via columbia.edu.
  48. ^ "Plan To Create New Public Square On East Forty-second Street". The New York Times. February 9, 1919. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  49. ^ "Plans for Victory Hall; Board of Estimate to Consider Proposed Pershing Square Building". The New York Times. June 13, 1919. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  50. ^ "Bids $2,900,000 for Grand Union Site; Henry Mandel Offers Upset City Price for Valuable Pershing Square Plot". The New York Times. July 21, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  51. ^ "Builders Buy Grand Union Site" (PDF). The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. 106 (6): 787. August 7, 1920. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2020 – via columbia.edu.
  52. ^ "Pershing Square Building" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. November 25, 2016. p. 7. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  53. ^ "Move $202,000,000 In Crowded Streets; Train of Armored Cars, Machine Guns Bristling, Transfers the Bowery Bank's Wealth". The New York Times. June 24, 1923. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 28, 2019. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  54. ^ "Bowery Savings Opens New Home". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 22, 1923. p. 22. Retrieved October 28, 2019 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com open access.
  55. ^ Seward, Anne (June 22, 1924). "Banking, One Flight up, New City Business Feature". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 27, 2019. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  56. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 6.
  57. ^ "City Likely to Gain Use of Depew Place; Negotiations With New York Central for Roadway East of Terminal". The New York Times. September 15, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  58. ^ "Ask New Roadway at Grand Central". New York Evening World. August 30, 1920. p. 3. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  59. ^ "Viaduct East of Grand Central Planned by City". New-York Tribune. August 1, 1922. p. 8. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  60. ^ a b "N.Y. Central Starts 35-story Building; Wants Bids on 40,000 Tons of Steel for Structure to Span Park Avenue". The New York Times. December 9, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  61. ^ "Traffic Plan Ready for Grand Central". New York Herald. November 5, 1922. p. 8. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  62. ^ a b "Traffic Jam Relief". New York Daily News. April 14, 1924. p. 36. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  63. ^ "Park Av. Traffic to Flow Through 35-story Building; With Second Ramp on East Side of Grand Central Congestion Will Be Greatly Eased". The New York Times. September 18, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  64. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 7.
  65. ^ a b "Park Av. Roadway Plan Goes Through; Craig Certifies Contract for Great Improvement Around Grand Central Terminal". The New York Times. December 29, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  66. ^ "Craig Turns Down Mayor's Contract with N.Y. Central". Brooklyn Times-Union. October 12, 1924. p. 5. Retrieved June 2, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  67. ^ "Depew Place Open to Public Traffic; Miller Draws Aside Cord Which Permits First Cars to Use Grand Central Viaduct". The New York Times. February 5, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  68. ^ "Grand Central Gets Vanderbilt Statue; Huge Figure From Freight Station to Face Automobile Viaduct From Park Avenue". The New York Times. November 29, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  69. ^ Martin, Douglas (November 16, 1995). "Plan for Pershing Square Would Yield New Park". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  70. ^ "Information Aid for World's Fair". New York Daily News. December 19, 1938. p. 279. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  71. ^ "90 East 42nd Street". NYC.gov. New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  72. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1939). "New York City Guide". New York: Random House. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-60354-055-1. (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City.)
  73. ^ "1,200 an Hour Jam City's New Information Booth to Play Quiz". New York Daily News. December 19, 1939. p. 277. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  74. ^ Slatin, Peter (August 22, 1993). "Al Fresco Dining Facing Grand Central?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  75. ^ "Viaduct to Be Closed; Repairs Will Be Made on Park Avenue Segment". The New York Times. January 24, 1960. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  76. ^ a b Rimer, Sara (July 19, 1984). "Park Avenue Viaduct: New Battle in Traffic Wars". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  77. ^ a b c "The City; Park Ave. Viaduct To Reopen Today". The New York Times. September 9, 1985. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  78. ^ "Northbound Park Ave. Shut at Grand Central for Repairs". The New York Times. May 1, 1985. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  79. ^ a b Louie, Elaine (October 8, 1992). "Currents; 1919 Lights Return to A Viaduct". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  80. ^ Shepard, Joan (November 29, 1989). "42d Street plan may get a nibble". New York Daily News. p. 661. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  81. ^ Martin, Douglas (November 16, 1995). "Plan for Pershing Square Would Yield New Park". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  82. ^ Rothstein, Mervyn (May 14, 1997). "Restaurant to Fill Niche Under Park Ave. Viaduct". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  83. ^ Varner, Bill (August 15, 1999). "Cafe to call attention to Pershing Square". The Journal-News. p. 3. Retrieved June 4, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  84. ^ Sparkes, Boyden (August 6, 1922). "Making New York Safe for Pedestrians". New-York Tribune. p. 50. Retrieved June 7, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  85. ^ New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009). Postal, Matthew A. (ed.). Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1.
  86. ^ National Park Service 1983, p. 11.

Sources

External links[edit]