Parkland Memorial Hospital
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
|Parkland Memorial Hospital|
|Parkland Health & Hospital System|
|Location||5200 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas, U.S.|
|Hospital type||General and Teaching|
|Affiliated university||UT Southwestern Medical Center|
|Emergency department||Level I Trauma Center|
|Lists||Hospitals in U.S.|
The original hospital opened in 1894 in a wooden building on a 17-acre (6.9 ha) meadow located at Oak Lawn Avenue and Maple. The name Parkland came from the land on which the hospital was built, originally purchased by the city as a park. A brick building (the first hospital brick building erected in Texas, now owned by the Trammell Crow Company) replaced the wooden facility in 1913.
In 1954, Parkland moved to 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard about a mile from its original site. On August 20, 2015 Parkland moved from 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard to the new hospital located across the street at 5200 Harry Hines Boulevard. 
Parkland is best known as the hospital where three individuals associated with the assassination of John F. Kennedy either died or were pronounced dead: John F. Kennedy himself, his assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, and Jack Ruby, who killed Oswald. The 2013 film Parkland dramatizes the deaths of Kennedy and Oswald in the hospital.
After he was shot on November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was rushed to Parkland, where he was pronounced dead at 1 p.m. in Trauma Room 1. At the same time, Texas Governor John Connally, wounded in the same shooting, was treated in Trauma Room 2, and survived.
Two days after the assassination, Oswald was rushed to Parkland after being shot in the abdomen by Ruby and died in operating room #5 after over 90 minutes of surgery. Ruby died on January 3, 1967 in the same emergency room, from a pulmonary embolism associated with lung cancer.
Since Ruby's death in 1967, the emergency room has been remodeled and the area where Kennedy was pronounced dead, Oswald was operated on and died and Ruby died now serves as the hospital's emergency radiology department. A plaque there marks the location where Trauma Room 1 was located. Parkland's JFK history wall will be noted at the new hospital.
Parkland is the Dallas County public hospital; funds are primarily provided by a specially designated property tax on Dallas County residents.
Parkland serves as one of Dallas's four Level I Trauma Centers (alongside Baylor University Medical Center, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, and Children's Medical Center), a primary care center for Dallas County residents, and (along with UT Southwestern) as a medical and surgical referral center for North Texas and parts of Southern Oklahoma. Thus, virtually all medical and surgical subspecialties are represented—which makes Parkland a destination for post-graduate medical training. The Parkland Burn Center, one of the largest civilian burn units in the U.S., is famous for the Parkland Formula for fluid resuscitation, developed by Charles R. Baxter in the 1960s. The fame of the Parkland formula is due to its being one of the first treatments for burn that included rehydration and electrolytic management.
At 968 licensed beds, Parkland ranks among the largest teaching hospitals in the nation. Texas Woman's University began its Bachelor of Science nursing program at Parkland in 1954 and it is still located within walking distance of the Parkland campus. Parkland also serves as the major teaching hospital of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
It has the distinction of delivering more infants under one roof than any other hospital in the nation, averaging 15-16,000 deliveries per year. Parkland Memorial has eleven prenatal clinics and employs 80 doctors training to become obstetricians-gynecologists and 45 nurse-midwives. In 2005, the staff delivered 15,590 babies, an average of more than 42 infants per day. Parkland created one of the first high-risk antenatal units in the nation and had the first neonatal intensive care unit in North Texas.
Parkland has approximately 240,000 emergency visits a year, for the co-located main emergency room (153,915 visits in 2013), and the urgent care unit (60,013 visits in 2013).
New Parkland Hospital
Parkland sees a high volume of patients in its overcrowded 50+-year-old facility. Actual hospital beds can regularly be seen in the hallways. If renovated and brought up to current standards, capacity in the existing facility would have been reduced rather than expanded, an unacceptable outcome in Dallas, which is one of the nation's fastest-growing cities. This situation led to the Dallas County Commissioners Court to propose replacing the building with a new 1,700,000-square-foot (160,000 m2), 17-story, 862-bed facility, along with a new 380,000-square-foot (35,000 m2) outpatient center, a 275,000-square-foot (25,500 m2) office facility, and parking for 6,000 cars. The total cost would be $1.27 billion, to be paid for through three avenues: 1) a $747 million bond proposition (contingent on voter approval, which was obtained in November 2008), 2) $350 million of cash from current and future operations, and 3) $150 million from private donations.
The board approved nearly $100 million in contracts and hired two architectural firms – HDR, Inc. (based in Omaha, Nebraska, but operates a large practice in Dallas) and Corgan Associates Inc. (based in Dallas) – to design the new building. (A parking garage was completed as a design/build project by Whiting-Turner Construction and the architecture firm of Omniplan in January 2012.) One major feature of the new facility is that movements of staff and supplies will be handled in separate corridors and elevators from those used by patients and visitors. The formal groundbreaking ceremony was held in October 2010, and construction is ongoing as of the fall of 2012, with a planned completion date of 2014 and an opening in early 2015. The new facility is directly across Harry Hines Boulevard from the former hospital complex, and will be served by the Medical District station of DART light rail, which opened in December 2010.  In addition to Dallas County taxpayers funding the public hospital, large private donations were made as well, over the next five years; one major donation of $1 million was made by the Bank of America Charitable Foundation. Donors will also have their names permanently etched in glass panels in the two-story, glass atrium main lobby.
Hatcher Station Health Center
In May, 2014, a new 44,300-square-foot, Parkland Health & Hospital System-affiliated outpatient clinic near Fair Park began construction on a 7-acre site adjacent to DART’s Hatcher Station. The project will be ready for occupancy in first quarter, 2015. The $19.8 million clinic, which was designed by BOKA Powell for Frazier Revitalization Inc. and Parkland Health & Hospital System, will serve geriatric and behavioral health patients, along with adults, women, children, and infants. It also will provide on-site diagnostic imaging and lab services. Exam rooms will feature flexible equipment setups, and an on-site conference facility will accommodate education and wellness programs. The clinic, officially named Hatcher Station Health Center, opened on May 19, 2015.
Psychiatric emergency room
Abuse of patients in the hospital's psychiatric emergency room has been documented and brought about federal oversight of the hospital. On March 16, 2014, a nurse forced a roll of toilet paper into the mouth of a patient who had spit at him. Texas health authorities investigated the incident and found that Parkland was in “substantial compliance” with federal Medicare regulations in late 2014.
- "Parkland's History". parklandhospital.com. 2015-10-27. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- "Parkland Hospital on Maple Avenue, first wood-frame building", http://utswlibrary.omeka.net/items/show/47, July 3, 2011 .
- "Parkland Hospital on Maple Avenue, with doctors and nurses in front", http://utswlibrary.omeka.net/, July 3, 2011, retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "New Parkland Hospital Opens Doors to Patients". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Parkland's JFK history will be noted at new hospital - Modern Healthcare". Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Baxter, Charles R.; Shires, Tom (1968), "Physiological Response to Crystalloid Resuscitation of Severe Burns", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 150 (3): 874–894, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb14738.x
- "A look back at Parkland throughout the years", http://www.dallassouthnews.org/, Jan 12, 2012, retrieved April 2, 2013.
- Baxter, CR (Oct 1974). "Fluid volume and electrolyte changes of the early postburn period.". Clin Plast Surg 1 (4): 693–703. PMID 4609676.
- Dallas Morning News
- "Statistics". Parklands Hospital. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- About the New Hospital - Financing Plan
- Jacobson, Sherry (October 28, 2010). "Parkland Memorial Hospital promises to be 'patient-centered' with new design". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Wilonsky, Robert (November 30, 2010). "Further and Further Inside the New Parkland". Dallas Observer. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Gager, Russ. "Parkland Health and Hospital System". Construction Today. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Moffeit, Miles (June 20, 2014). "Parkland Memorial isn’t alone: abuse of disabled also persists at state-run centers". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Miles Moffeit and Brooks Egerton (June 14, 2014). "Parkland psych ER is again scene of patient abuse". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Jacobson, Sherry (November 14, 2014). "Despite problems, Parkland hospital found in "substantial compliance" with Medicare rules". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
- Parkland Memorial Hospital Official Site
- New Parkland Hospital Official Site
- Parkland Formula Formula created by Dr. Baxter of Parkland Hospital