Parkland formula

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The Parkland formula is a burn formula used to estimate the amount of replacement fluid required for the first 24 hours in a burn patient so as to ensure they remain hemodynamically stable.[1] The milliliter amount of fluid required for the first 24 hours -usually Lactated Ringer's- is four times the product of the body weight and the burn percentage (i.e. body surface area affected by burns).[2] The first half of the fluid is given within 8 hours from the burn incident, and the remaining over the next 16 hours. Only area covered by second-degree burns or greater is taken into consideration, as first-degree burns do not cause hemodynamically significant fluid shift to warrant fluid replacement.[3]

The Parkland formula is mathematically expressed as:[2]

where mass is in kilograms (kg), area as a percentage of total body surface area, and volume is in milliliters (mL). For example, a person weighing 75 kg with burns to 20% of his or her body surface area would require 4 x 75 x 20 = 6,000 mL of fluid replacement within 24 hours. The first half of this amount is delivered within 8 hours from the burn incident, and the remaining fluid is delivered in the next 16 hours.[4]

The burn percentage in adults can be estimated by applying the Wallace rule of nines (see total body surface area): 9% for each arm, 18% for each leg, 18% for the front of the torso, 18% for the back of the torso, and 9% for the head and 1% for the perineum.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Surgical Treatment of Burns : Treatment and management". MedScape. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Sunny, Joseph. "Parkland formula". MedSoft. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Surgical Treatment of Burns Treatment & Management". Surgical Treatment of Burns Treatment & Management. May 15, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Parkland's formula for emergency fluid management". Emergency Medicine. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "MD+Calc: Parkland Formula for Burns". Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

Further reading[edit]