Parkrun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Parkrun
Parkrun Logo.svg
Parkrun 7th Brigade Park Chermside L1030447.jpg
Runners at Chermside Parkrun in Australia
PredecessorBushy Park Time Trial
UK Time Trial
Formation2 October 2004; 17 years ago (2004-10-02)
FounderPaul Sinton-Hewitt
HeadquartersPhoenix Wharf, Twickenham, Middlesex, UK
ServicesGlobal provision of weekly, timed 5km running events
Membership
Total individual runners (October 2019): 6,301,016
Key people
Paul Sinton-Hewitt
Volunteers
Total individual volunteers (September 2019): 515,283
Websitewww.parkrun.com

Parkrun (stylised as parkrun) is a collection of 5-kilometre (3.1 mi) events for walkers, runners and volunteers that take place every Saturday morning at more than 2,000 locations in 23 countries across five continents.[1] Junior Parkrun (stylised as junior parkrun) is a spin-off event that provides a 2 kilometres (1+14 mi) event for children aged 4–14 on a Sunday morning. Parkrun events are free to enter and are delivered by volunteers, supported by a small group of staff at its headquarters.

Parkrun was founded by Paul Sinton-Hewitt on 2 October 2004 at Bushy Park in London, England. The event was originally called the Bushy Park Time Trial. It grew into a network of similar events called the UK Time Trials, before adopting the name Parkrun in 2008 and expanding into other countries. The first event outside of the United Kingdom was launched in Zimbabwe in 2007, followed by Denmark in 2009, South Africa and Australia in 2011 and the USA in 2012. Sinton-Hewitt received a CBE for his services to grassroots sport in 2014. By October 2018 over 5 million runners were registered worldwide.

Events take place at a range of general locations including parks, stately homes, forests, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, beaches, promenades, prisons and nature reserves. Until September 2021, participants who had completed 50, 100, 250 or 500 runs were rewarded with a free T-shirt, but the milestone T-shirts are no longer free. A purple milestone T-shirt was available for free to those who volunteered on 25 different occasions, but along with the introduction for a charge for the T-shirts, more volunteer T-shirts were introduced, additionally marking 50, 100, 250 and 500 volunteer occasions. Runners can travel to and complete any Parkrun, those that travel are termed "tourists" and can complete challenges. The male record holder is Andrew Baddeley with a time of 13 minutes and 48 seconds. The female record holder is Caitlin Adams with a time of 15 minutes and 38 seconds.[2]

History[edit]

Participants at Bushy Parkrun, the first event location

Parkrun was founded by Paul Sinton-Hewitt on 2 October 2004 at Bushy Park in London, England.[3] Sinton-Hewitt was born in Zimbabwe and went to Potchefstroom High School for Boys as a boarder in South Africa.[4] He became a club runner with a personal best time in the marathon of 2 hours and 36 minutes.[5] In 2004, Sinton-Hewitt was suffering from depression and unable to run due to an injury. He founded Parkrun because he wanted to continue to spend time with his running friends.[4] In a BBC Radio 4 interview he said that the idea for Parkrun came from his time in South Africa 20 years earlier where he had experienced competitive races that took place on the same course at the same time each week.[6] The first event had 13 runners, three volunteers and was managed by Sinton-Hewitt.

Participants lining up to start at Parkrun Łódź in Poland

The Bushy Parkrun was originally known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, and its results were timed with a stopwatch, recorded on paper while washers stamped with a finish number were used as finishing tokens.[7][8] Over the next two years the event took place every week with the number of participants and volunteers growing, and new technology introduced to streamline the processing of results. The second Time Trial was launched at Wimbledon Common in 2007; it was here that the model of having an identical structure at different locations began.[7] That year saw a further six events established.[9] They were initially known as the UK Time Trials before the "parkrun" name was adopted. There were five more locations added in 2008 including the first in Scotland and the first in Wales.

The first event outside the UK was launched in Zimbabwe in 2007, though this event no longer operates. The longest-running Parkrun outside the UK was launched in Denmark in 2009. In 2010, there were 30 new events added including the first in Northern Ireland.[7] In 2011 parkrun began in South Africa and Australia, both of which have seen significant growth in event numbers, and in 2012 Parkrun USA launched. Junior Parkrun started at Bushy Park in 2013.[7] Sinton-Hewitt received a CBE in 2014 for his "services to grassroots sport".[10]

The first event at Serpukhov Parkrun in Russia

A 2013 article in The Guardian noted the rapid growth of Parkrun and suggested this was mainly due to its simplicity and accessibility: runners register online once, turn up at any event, and run.[9] Inclusivity is also a factor,[11] as participants have a wide range of running abilities, from fast club runners to those walking, a wide range of ages from children running with their parents to the elderly, also allowed are wheelchair users, those pushing buggies and people running with their dog.

The Journal of Public Health reported in a 2013 study upon 7,308 Parkrun participants that the events were attractive to people who described themselves as non-runners; with women, older adults and overweight people well represented. It added that participation problems have been minimized, with no upper age limit, no special equipment and no cost. And that while some participants ran before a Parkrun, some are new to exercise, and Parkrun offered the opportunity and support to become active on a continuous weekly basis.[12]

A 2015 qualitative study by the University of Loughborough found that runners attending a Parkrun for the first time were typically motivated for weight loss or an improvement in their physical fitness.[13] On the other hand, there were a range of different motivations for runners to continue regularly taking part, with runners wanting; to beat their personal record time; to reach a certain number of runs and join a milestone club; to enjoy being outdoors at the park; to make new friends through volunteering or to meet existing friends or family for the run.[13]

In 2015, more than 80,000 people were gathering in parks across the world each week to run, jog and walk a Parkrun – more than twice the number who take part in the annual London Marathon.[14] In 2016, 1.1 million different people completed a Parkrun and 142,000 gave their time to volunteer.[15] In 2018, on an average Saturday around a quarter of a million runners took part in 1,500 events spread over 20 countries.[16]

In 2017 the organisation which supports global Parkrun events "Parkrun Global Limited" became a UK registered charity.[17]

Writing in The Independent on 4 September 2018, Jonathan Liew, their Chief Sports Writer, said "parkrun is not simply one of the biggest sporting events in the world, but one of the most important, largely because it entirely upends what we have long been told sport is about."[16] He discusses how sport has become ever more something the public pay to watch, packaged ever more expensively, with the sports people lives tipping over into light entertainment, concluding with the comment "parkrun offers something entirely different: community, opportunity, the outdoors, the simple pleasure of sport and people. In so doing, it has resurrected a vision of sport that has been in recession for a generation."[16]

At the beginning of March 2020, Parkrun events were closed due to the global COVID-19 pandemic.[18] Events resumed in England on 24 July 2021.[19]

Funding[edit]

Parkrun events are free of charge to participants and run principally by volunteers. The majority of Parkrun's income comes from sponsorship and grants, with some commercial income from apparel, wristbands, and accessories. Donations form less than 15% of the charity's income.[20]

Event outline[edit]

Participating in a Parkrun[edit]

A unique Parkrun I.D. is carried by the runner and scanned at the end of a run to record the completion time.

All Parkruns are 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) in length and are free to enter.[21] Anyone can take part, from pensioners to parents with their children, people with their dogs, wheelchair users, people pushing prams, club runners or casual runners, although not all courses are suitable for all participants.[22] Beginner runners, older adults and overweight people are common.[12]

They usually take place at the same time, at the same place, on the same course, once per week. There is no formal procedure before the run with participants asked to arrive shortly before the start time and wait near the starting line.[23] A run director will make announcements giving safety instructions and community news before beginning the run.[24] Participants run or walk the course and are directed by marshals along the correct route to the finish line.[25] As each runner enters the finish funnel, a volunteer records the finishing place number and time. The information recorded by the timers is later uploaded onto a computer, which allows runners to be matched with their times.[26] The results are uploaded to the Parkrun website which also generates a number of statistics. The results available are finishing position for both male and female runners, the time taken to complete the run, whether or not a personal best time has been run, the total number of runs completed by an individual, their age grade result and their position in relation to other veteran or junior runners.[27]

To have a time recorded, runners are asked to register on the Parkrun website, print out a personal I.D. that includes a barcode and bring it to each event. This needs to be done just once, with the barcode valid for any subsequent Parkrun in the world.[28][29][30] Runners can still participate without registering or if they forget to bring their personal barcode, but they will not have their time recorded. If the runner does not have a barcode, their position on the finishers table will be recorded with the name "unknown" and no time. After passing the finish line, each runner is handed a "finish token" corresponding to their position. This is later scanned alongside their personal barcode, if they have one, to link their result with their Parkrun profile.[26]

Occasionally, a runner may leave the finish funnel without receiving a finish token. This is known as "funnel ducking",[31] and can lead to subsequent finish times becoming mismatched. This issue can usually be rectified by having a volunteer join the funnel in place of the ducker, to take a token on their behalf, or by removing their time entirely.[32] Similar issues can arise if someone joins the funnel from the side without having their time recorded, or if a runner refuses to take a finish token.

The Daily Telegraph reported that "what's clever is that it’s not a race against everyone else but a timed run", and that trying to improve your personal best time is a great incentive even for slower runners.[22] The paper further explained that the success of the events is down to them being free and weekly because it allows people to get into a routine.[33] An article in The Telegraph said that a drop in gym usage can be attributed to a backlash against gym membership fees combined with the popularity of events such as Parkrun and fitness tracking devices.[34]

General locations[edit]

Cannon Hill Parkrun is run in a city park on tarmac footpaths

Events take place in a range of general locations (that need not actually be a park), including city parks, country parks, national parks, stately homes, castles, forests, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, beaches, promenades, prisons, racecourses and nature reserves. The runs have different degrees of difficulty, with hilly runs harder to complete than those that are flat. The running surface varies with many city park Parkruns being run on tarmac footpaths, closed roads, grass or a mixture of all three, while forest and country park Parkruns are more likely to be on trails. The weather affects the difficulty of the course with trail runs more liable to be affected by mud or leaves than runs on tarmac paths. Runs that take place in hotter countries often start early in the morning to avoid excess heat and runs in snowier climates have a course chosen to minimise the effect of the snow.

Permanent event closures are rare. Zimbabwe was the first country to host a Parkrun outside the UK, the event started in 2007 but closed several years later. Parkrun Elliðaárdalur closed in 2012 due to operational difficulties in the winter, and Hillerød Parkrun in Denmark closed in 2013. Camp Bastion Parkrun was hosted at a military base in Afghanistan, which shut in 2014. More frequently, Parkruns have formally closed at a location, but have relocated to a venue nearby and changed name.[35]

Volunteers[edit]

Volunteers arranging Perm Parkrun

Each Parkrun event is run entirely by volunteers. To assist the volunteers, Parkrun HQ provides the necessary equipment and there are several different volunteer roles at each Parkrun event.[36] Every event has a 'volunteer' page, with the same basic information about how to get involved as a volunteer, as well as crediting those who have made the effort in the most recent week.[37] The Parkrun website credits those who volunteer each week as "the heart" of Parkrun, and integral to its not-for-profit status.[38] It also provides a useful range of responses to commonly asked questions about volunteering, with information on each of the different roles, in its FAQ section.[39] At the outset of Parkrun, the central organisation sought to simplify the volunteering process to allow new events to be set up with a low number of volunteers, this simplification now allows new volunteers to assist with minimal training.[40]

Each event has a core team who has received permission from Parkrun HQ and the location owner to stage the event. The individual roles are typically filled by different volunteers each week and include the following; a run director who manages the event making announcements and starting the run; a timer who records the time taken, marshals who direct runners to the correct route, barcode scanners who scan finishing tokens, event setup and close down volunteers, tail walkers, pacers and result processors.[41]

According to Steve Flowers at the University of Kent’s business school, Wikipedia and parkrun are both examples of "people’s innovation".[42]

Junior Parkrun[edit]

Junior Parkrun events are weekly, free, 2 km running events for runners aged four to fourteen. Parents are allowed to run with their children but are not eligible for a placed finish. Dogs can be brought to the event but are not allowed to run with their owners. Juniors who have completed 11, 21 or 50 junior runs are awarded a coloured wristband.[43] Events take place on Sunday morning.

Milestone clubs[edit]

The logo on a "Club 50" red Parkrun T-shirt

The number of runs by each participant at all events is recorded and available on the Parkrun website. When a runner reaches 50 runs they join a "milestone club" called the "50 Club" and they can claim a red Parkrun T-shirt. When a runner reaches 100 runs they join the "100 Club" and can claim a black T-shirt. Likewise the "250 Club" offers a green T-shirt and the "500 Club" a blue T-shirt. People under the age of 18 can claim a white T-shirt when they complete 10 runs and there is a purple T-shirt for people who volunteer 25 times.[44] The milestone and volunteer T-shirts were free until September 2021, at which point they became chargeable. At this time, more volunteer T-shirts were introduced, to align with the milestone T-shirts; 50 (red), 100 (black), 250 (green) and 500 (blue).

Parkrun tourism and challenges[edit]

Parkrun tourists travel especially to seek out new runs.[45][46] Runners, when they sign up on the Parkrun website, are asked to pick a "Home Parkrun", usually the one they live closest to and are likely to frequent most. Parkrun tourism is broadly defined as anyone travelling to a run that is not their home Parkrun. Tourism can involve running in a neighbouring park, town, region or even country with some runners travelling to a different run every week.

Parkrun challenges involve completing a number of different runs in a particular way which are personally meaningful but not officially recorded. These include "Londone" which is completing all of the Parkruns in London.[47] The "alphabeteer" is running a Parkrun beginning with each letter of the alphabet[48] and challenges such as "Stayin' Alive" which is completing three runs beginning with B and three beginning with G.[49] A Google Chrome and Firefox extension details further challenges such as "Groundhog Day" which is running the same time at the same Parkrun location in two consecutive weeks and "Regionnaire" which is to complete all of the Parkruns in any region.[50]

Individual running records[edit]

  • Female world record holder: The female record holder is Caitlin Adams with a time of 15:38 set at Lochiel Parkrun, South Australia on 7 August 2021.[51] The previous female record was set by Lauren Reid with a time of 15:45 at Parramatta Parkrun on 23 January 2021.[52]
  • Male world record holder: Andrew Baddeley set a time of 13:48 at Bushy Parkrun on 11 August 2012.[53][54]
  • Age-graded record holder: Fauja Singh set 179.04% at Valentines Parkrun on 31 March 2012 (the day before his 101st birthday) with a time of 38:34.[55]
  • Global record holder for highest number of runs: Darren Wood with 777 runs (as of 2 October 2021).[56]
  • Global record holder for the highest number of different events: Paul Freyne with 527 different Parkrun locations (as of 18 September 2021).[56]

List of Parkrun event countries[edit]

Parkrun is held in the 27 different countries and territories listed below as of 28 August 2021.[57]

Country No. of locations Cite First event name First event location First event date
United Kingdom United Kingdom 703 [58] [a] Bushy Parkrun London 2 October 2004
Australia Australia 415 [59] Main Beach Parkrun Gold Coast 2 April 2011
South Africa South Africa 206 [60] [b] Delta Parkrun Johannesburg 12 November 2011
Russia Russia 105 [61] Kolomenskoe Parkrun & Severnoe Tushino Parkrun[c] Moscow 1 March 2014
Republic of Ireland Ireland 99 [62] Malahide Parkrun Dublin 10 November 2012
Poland Poland 82 [63] [d] Gdynia Parkrun Gdynia 15 October 2011
United States United States 51 [64] Livonia Parkrun Livonia 2 June 2012
Canada Canada 45 [65] Okanagan Parkrun Kelowna 20 August 2016
Germany Germany 45 [66] Georgengarten, Küchenholz & Neckarau[e] Hannover, Leipzig & Mannheim 2 December 2017
New Zealand New Zealand 34 [67] Lower Hutt Parkrun Lower Hutt 5 May 2012
Japan Japan 27 [68] Futakotamagawa Tokyo 6 April 2019
Italy Italy 18 [69] Uditore Parkrun Palermo 23 May 2015
Sweden Sweden 12 [70] Haga Parkrun Stockholm 27 August 2016
Netherlands Netherlands 11 [71] 6 locations [f] 6 locations [g] 29 February 2020
Denmark Denmark 9 [72] Amager Fælled Parkrun Copenhagen 16 May 2009
France France 8 [73] Les Dougnes Parkrun Cubnezais 6 May 2015
Norway Norway 6 [74] Tøyen Parkrun Oslo 26 August 2017
Finland Finland 5 [75] Tampere Parkrun Tampere 14 October 2017
Singapore Singapore 4 [76] East Coast Park Parkrun Singapore 21 June 2014
Namibia Namibia 4 [60] Swakopmund Parkrun Swakopmund 8 April 2017
Malaysia Malaysia 3 [77] Taman Pudu Ulu Parkrun Kuala Lumpur 14 April 2018
Austria Austria 2 Hellbrunn Parkrun Salzburg 14 August 2021
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 2 [58][78] Cape Pembroke Lighthouse Parkrun Stanley 26 October 2019
Eswatini Eswatini 1 [60] Mbabane Parkrun Mbabane 6 May 2017
Jersey Jersey 1 [58][79] Jersey Parkrun Saint Brelade 26 September 2015
Guernsey Guernsey 1 [58][80] Guernsey Parkrun L'Ancresse 9 April 2016
Isle of Man Isle of Man 1 [58][81] Nobles Parkrun Douglas 21 October 2017

List of junior Parkrun event countries[edit]

This is a list of countries which host junior Parkrun.

Country No. of locations Cite First event name First event location First event date
United Kingdom United Kingdom 233 [82] Bushy Juniors Parkrun London 1 April 2010
Republic of Ireland Ireland 15 [82] Rush Junior Parkrun Dublin 13 December 2015
Australia Australia 3 [82] Southport Junior Parkrun Southport 22 April 2018

Events around the world[edit]

Parkrun in Australia[edit]

The first Australian Parkrun event was held at Main Beach, on the Gold Coast, on 2 April 2011.[83] ABC News remarking on Parkrun Australia said "there are competitive runners aiming to win but there are just as many people running for the fun of it. If people want to race each other, that's fine, they can, but if you want to walk that is fine too. Everyone is welcome, from kids to grandparents, it's one of the few sporting events that a family can do together."[84] The two biggest Parkruns in Australia are South Bank in Brisbane, Queensland and Albert Park and Lake in Melbourne, Victoria, the two having alternating attendance records over the years with South Bank holding the current record of 1,010 participants set on Christmas Day, 25 December 2019.[85]

Parkrun in Germany[edit]

The first three parkruns in Germany were Georgengarten parkrun in Hannover, Küchenholz parkrun in Leipzig and Neckarau parkrun in Mannheim, when they all hosted their first event on 2 December 2017. When Aachener Weiher parkrun started in Cologne, it became the first parkrun in the alphabetical list of all parkruns.

Parkrun in Ireland[edit]

The first run in Ireland was at Malahide Castle on 10 November 2012. The rollout of Parkruns in Ireland was assisted by funding from the government's Department of Health with the aim of empowering local communities and encouraging individuals and families to lead active lives. The record attendance was at Marlay Parkrun on 21 January 2017 when there were 795 runners.[86]

Parkrun in Japan[edit]

Parkrun was introduced for the first time to Japan on April 6, 2019, by the Futako-Tamagawa Parkrun event, Tokyo. There are now 24 events held every Saturday morning in Japan.[87]

Parkrun in New Zealand[edit]

The first event was at Lower Hutt on 5th May 2012

Parkrun in Poland[edit]

The first Polish Parkrun took place in Gdynia on 15 Oct 2011. Poland has the first Parkrun to cross the border of another country. Cieszyn Parkrun starts in Poland but crosses into the Czech Republic before returning to Poland.[88] The record attendance was at Poznan Parkrun on 27 Dec 2015 when there were 1111 runners.[89]

Parkrun in Russia[edit]

Parkrun in Russia began simultaneously at Kolomenskoe Parkrun and Severnoe Tushino Parkrun on 1 March 2014.[90] Parkrun Yakutsk Dohsun takes place in Yakutsk, which has an average daily temperature of −8.8 °C (16.2 °F).[91]

Parkrun in South Africa[edit]

Parkrun South Africa was started and promoted by ultramarathoner Bruce Fordyce.[92] The first Parkrun took place at Delta Park in Johannesburg on 12 November 2011 and had 26 participants. It is now one of the larger Parkruns regularly drawing up to 1200 runners and attracting tourists as the first one in the nation.[93] The world record attendance was at North Beach, Durban, which saw 2527 runners on 20 Jan 2018.[94]

Parkrun in the USA[edit]

The first event was at Livonia on 2 June 2012. The Crissy Field Parkrun is run along San Francisco Bay and has sweeping views of Alcatraz and the Golden Gate Bridge.[95]

Festive and special events[edit]

There are festive and special events which do not necessarily occur on a Saturday. Each country chooses its own special event days, which are held optionally by local Parkrun teams.

Country Occasions (Date / Month)
Australia Australia New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Canada Canada New Year's Day (1 January), Canada Day (1 July)
Denmark Denmark New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Finland Finland New Year's Day (1 January)
France France New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Germany Germany New Year's Day (1 January), German Unity Day (3 October)
Republic of Ireland Ireland New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Italy Italy New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Japan Japan New Year's Day (1 January), Greenery Day (4 May)
Malaysia Malaysia New Year's Day (1 January), Malaysia Day (16 September)
New Zealand New Zealand New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
Norway Norway New Year's Day (1 January)
Poland Poland New Year's Day (1 January), Boxing Day (26 December)
Russia Russia New Year's Day (1 January), Orthodox Christmas (7 January)
Singapore Singapore New Year's Day (1 January), Chinese New Year (varies)
South Africa South Africa New Year's Day (1 January), Freedom Day (South Africa) (27 April)
Sweden Sweden New Year's Day (1 January), Swedish National Day (6 June)
United Kingdom United Kingdom New Year's Day (1 January), Christmas Day (25 December)
United States United States New Year's Day (1 January), Thanksgiving (November)

Community[edit]

Health initiatives[edit]

Parkrun endeavours to promote health and wellbeing through a number of initiatives. Its mission statement is "a healthier and happier planet".[96][97] In the UK Parkrun has partnered with the Royal College of General Practitioners in order to promote healthy living through increased physical activity, socialisation and mutual support.[98][99]

Relations with local authorities[edit]

Most events are run with the support and sometimes the sponsorship of local authorities. A notable conflict occurred at Little Stoke Parkrun. Parkrun does not set up events where charges would apply to the organisers or runners.[100] Little Stoke Parkrun had begun with the council's permission in November 2012.[101] In April 2016 the responsible parish council in Stoke Gifford, Bristol, England, voted to charge runners a fee to participate.[102] Despite an online petition and support from the Minister for Sport, the council would not change its decision, so the Parkrun was permanently cancelled.[103] In April 2017 the British Government proposed that in future local councils in England would not be allowed to charge for Parkruns in a public park.[104]

Free Weekly Timed podcast[edit]

In 2018, the Free Weekly Timed official Parkrun podcast debuted. Originally it was co-hosted by Vassos Alexander and Louise Ayling. In late 2019 Louise Ayling left the show and was replaced by Helen Williams. The podcast is broadcast weekly and gives Parkrun community news, features and entertainment.[105]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Run under the jurisdiction of parkrun UK are 5 events which take place on British islands and territories outside of what is technically the UK, so the total has been reduced accordingly. UK events include those for Jersey, Guernsey & Isle of Man which each have one event and are Crown Dependencies as well as 2 events in the Falkland Islands which is a British Overseas Territory;
  2. ^ Run under the jurisdiction of parkrun South Africa are those for Namibia (4) and Eswatini (1), the total for South Africa has been reduced accordingly.
  3. ^ Both events started on the same day.
  4. ^ The Cieszyn parkrun course includes a section that briefly crosses over into neighbouring Czech Republic and is therefore the only parkrun event that takes place across 2 countries;
  5. ^ Three events started on the same day.
  6. ^ Stadspark parkrun – Groningen, Maxima parkrun – Utrecht, Kralingse Bos parkrun – Rotterdam, Goffert parkrun – Nijmegen, Karpendonkse Plas parkrun – Eindhoven, Tapijn parkrun – Maastricht
  7. ^ Groningen, Utrecht, Rotterdam, Nijmegen, Eindhoven & Maastricht

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Countries". www.parkrun.com. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  2. ^ "home | Lochiel parkrun | Lochiel parkrun". www.parkrun.com.au. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  3. ^ "Our story". www.parkrun.com.
  4. ^ a b Saayman, Marianke (16 November 2017). "Founder of parkrun in Potchefstroom after 40 years". Potchefstroom Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  5. ^ "Q&A: parkrun Founder Paul Sinton-Hewitt – Men's Running UK". 27 February 2017.
  6. ^ "Saturday Live – Viv Groskop and Paul Sinton-Hewitt – BBC Sounds". BBC.
  7. ^ a b c d "Our story". www.parkrun.com.
  8. ^ "Paul Sinton-Hewitt Interview".
  9. ^ a b Brilliant, James (11 March 2013). "Parkrun, the running revolution coming soon to a park near you". The Guardian.
  10. ^ "SPOTLIGHT: PAUL SINTON-HEWITT, FOUNDER OF PARKRUN".
  11. ^ Grant, Sheena (20 March 2018). "parkrun's success in East Anglia keeps growing". Sudbury Mercury. Sudbury, Suffolk. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b Stevinson, C.; Hickson, M. (15 August 2013). "Exploring the public health potential of a mass community participation event". Journal of Public Health. 36 (2): 268–274. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdt082. PMID 23954885.
  13. ^ a b Stevinson, Clare. "Understanding people's motivations for taking part in parkrun". National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine.
  14. ^ "How parkrun became a global phenomenon".
  15. ^ McCausland, Malcolm. "Inside Track: parkrun phenomenon continues to spread worldwide". The Irish News.
  16. ^ a b c "How parkrun resurrected a vision of sport that has been lost for years".
  17. ^ "Governing document - Parkrun Global Limited - Register of Charities".
  18. ^ Ben Hobson (21 September 2020). "Return of parkrun scrapped because of surge in Covid-19 cases". Runners World. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Parkrun back on in England after Covid pandemic suspension". BBC News. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  20. ^ Parkrun Global Ltd. Annual Accounts to 31 January 2021, page 19-23
  21. ^ Bachman, Rachel (10 July 2017). "Parkrun Lovers Ask: Why Pay to Run a 5K?" – via www.wsj.com.
  22. ^ a b Harrison, Linda (31 August 2012). "Parkrun: we're all record holders now" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  23. ^ Finn, Adharanand; Ramaswamy, Chitra; Jonze, Tim; Benedictus, Leo; Khaleeli, Homa (30 August 2016). "'We still come if the rain's sideways' – how Britain fell in love with outdoor fitness". The Guardian.
  24. ^ "What does a Run Director Actually Do?". www.parkrun.org.uk.
  25. ^ "Walking the Talk – parkrun UK". www.parkrun.org.uk.
  26. ^ a b "How the magic works". www.parkrun.org.uk.
  27. ^ "Where can I find my results?". parkrun Support.
  28. ^ "TimeOut – Bushy Park Time Trial". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  29. ^ Phillips, Mitch. "parkrun clubs mix world class and weekend warriors".
  30. ^ Phillips, Mitch. "Grass-roots support pushes parkrun to new heights".
  31. ^ "Funnel Ducking Is Not Helpful! | Brueton parkrun". www.parkrun.org.uk. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  32. ^ "Problems for Results Processor - parkrun wiki". wiki.parkrun.com. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  33. ^ Wallop, Harry (25 March 2013). "parkrun: the running phenomenon sweeping the nation" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  34. ^ Bingham, John (11 June 2015). "Peak physique? Britain's 'gym bubble' bursts" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  35. ^ Marston, Carl. "On the run: the rapid rise and occasional fall of parkrun". East Anglian Daily Times. Archant Community Media. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  36. ^ Example from Durham parkun http://www.parkrun.org.uk/durham/news/2013/03/12/volunteer-roles/
  37. ^ Bushy Parkrun volunteer information http://www.parkrun.org.uk/bushy/volunteer/
  38. ^ Parkrun volunteer information Archived 13 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "Volunteering: All you need to know about volunteering at parkrun events". Parkrun. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  40. ^ https://issuu.com/parkrun/docs/parkrun_2017_issuu_v4.1 p.7
  41. ^ "Volunteer Roles – Durham parkrun". www.parkrun.org.uk.
  42. ^ Chakrabortty, Aditya (29 August 2018). "Forget profit. It's love and fun that drive innovation like parkrun – Aditya Chakrabortty". The Guardian.
  43. ^ "What are junior parkruns?". parkrun Support. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  44. ^ Doyle, Simon (8 February 2016). "'Parkrun Jim' set for 250 milestone". Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  45. ^ "parkrun tourism: the running & travelling phenomenon – Fast Running". www.fastrunning.com.
  46. ^ "Running is a global movement".
  47. ^ "What We Learned Running Every Single London Parkrun". 24 January 2017.
  48. ^ Yousif, Layth. "North Herts Road Runners on Tour".
  49. ^ "Lakes runner completes alphabet park run challenge". The Westmorland Gazette.
  50. ^ "Running Challenges". Running Challenges.
  51. ^ "home | Lochiel parkrun | Lochiel parkrun". www.parkrun.com.au. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  52. ^ McGuire, Jane (5 February 2021). "Lauren Reid speaks about breaking the female parkrun record". Runner's World. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  53. ^ "Course Records". Parkrun.
  54. ^ Carter, Kate (31 March 2017). "Andy Baddeley: 'The best thing about running is the running community'" – via www.theguardian.com.
  55. ^ "home | parkrun UK". www.parkrun.org.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  56. ^ a b "Most events". www.parkrun.com. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  57. ^ "Countries". www.parkrun.com.
  58. ^ a b c d e "parkrun UK". Parkrun.
  59. ^ "parkrun Australia". Parkrun.
  60. ^ a b c "parkrun South Africa". Parkrun.
  61. ^ "parkrun Russia". Parkrun.
  62. ^ "parkrun Ireland". Parkrun.
  63. ^ "parkrun Poland". Parkrun.
  64. ^ "parkrun USA". Parkrun.
  65. ^ "parkrun Canada". Parkrun.
  66. ^ "parkrun Germany". Parkrun.
  67. ^ "parkrun New Zealand". Parkrun.
  68. ^ "Parkrun Japan".
  69. ^ "parkrun Italy". Parkrun.
  70. ^ "parkrun Sweden". Parkrun.
  71. ^ "parkrun Netherlands".
  72. ^ "parkrun Denmark". Parkrun.
  73. ^ "parkrun France". Parkrun.
  74. ^ "parkrun Norway". Parkrun.
  75. ^ "parkrun Finland". Parkrun.
  76. ^ "parkrun Singapore". Parkrun.
  77. ^ "parkrun Malaysia".
  78. ^ "Cape Pembroke Lighthouse parkrun – Weekly Free 5km Timed Run".
  79. ^ "Jersey parkrun – Weekly Free 5km Timed Run".
  80. ^ "Guernsey parkrun – Weekly Free 5km Timed Run".
  81. ^ "Nobles parkrun – Weekly Free 5km Timed Run".
  82. ^ a b c "Junior parkrun". Parkrun.
  83. ^ "about us – parkrun Australia". www.parkrun.com.au.
  84. ^ "Parkrun brings communities together, makes running fun". 29 December 2015.
  85. ^ "results | parkrun Australia". www.parkrun.com.au. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  86. ^ "Cork City gets its first 'parkrun' – HSE.ie".
  87. ^ Parkrun in Japan, in partnership with Sumitomo Life in Japanese
  88. ^ "Trasa – Cieszyn parkrun". www.parkrun.pl.
  89. ^ "rezultaty – parkrun Polska". www.parkrun.pl.
  90. ^ "главная | parkrun Россия". www.parkrun.ru. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  91. ^ "главная | parkrun Якутск Дохсун | parkrun Якутск Дохсун". www.parkrun.ru. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  92. ^ Mafika (31 July 2013). "Parkrun takes off in South Africa".
  93. ^ "1 700 runners turn up for Parkrun SA anniversary – Randburg Sun". 14 November 2017.
  94. ^ "results – parkrun South Africa". www.parkrun.co.za.
  95. ^ "course | Crissy Field parkrun". www.parkrun.us. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  96. ^ Tom Williams (6 January 2017). "We've only just begun". Parkrun UK. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  97. ^ Kate Carter (25 April 2018). "Parkrun makes us fitter, but can it make us happier as well?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  98. ^ "Boosting community health; becoming a 'parkrun' practice". Practice Business. Intelligent Media. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  99. ^ "Parkrun Practice". Royal College of General Practitioners. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  100. ^ Genevieve Roberts (28 December 2015). "How Parkrun became a global phenomenon". The Independent. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  101. ^ "Little Stoke parkrun". Parkrun UK. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  102. ^ "Council votes to charge Parkrun for Little Stoke event". BBC News. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  103. ^ "Minister backs free Parkrun after Stoke Gifford furore". BBC News. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  104. ^ "Ban on council park fun run fees proposed in England". BBC News. 15 April 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  105. ^ "Free Weekly Timed". Retrieved 17 March 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bourne, Debra (2014). Parkrun: much more than just a run in the park. Chequered Flag Publishing. ISBN 9780956946072.

External links[edit]