List of Parliamentary constituencies in Hertfordshire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A small county slightly to the south and east of the centre of the country, and completely bounded by other counties.
The county of Hertfordshire in relation to England

The county of Hertfordshire in England is divided into eleven Parliamentary constituencies. Each of the eleven elects a Member of Parliament (MP) to represent it at the United Kingdom (UK) Parliament in Westminster. As of the 2017 general election, all of Hertfordshire's eleven MPs are Conservatives. The county currently has two urban borough constituencies (BC) – Broxbourne and Watford – while the other nine are classed as more rural county constituencies (CC).

Hertfordshire has been represented in Parliament since 1290. The number of MPs and the parts represented have changed considerably over time. The number of MPs representing the county increased from four in 1885 to eleven in 1997, being increased by one at each major redistribution which came into effect for the general elections of 1918, 1945, 1950, 1955, February 1974, 1983 and 1997. The penultimate recommendations made by the Boundary Commission for England still stand, effected by the Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007 as used since the 2010 general election. Locally this saw minor alterations.

Present Constituencies[edit]

Context of the 2019 result. The county elected 10 Tory MPs and 1 Lib. Dem. MP. Luton, Bedfordshire returned two Labour candidates, it forms a small projection into the county's shape.

Limits of the seats were amended by the Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies carried out by the Boundary Commission for England for future elections which have included 2010, 2015, 2017 and 2019. Each constituency is made up of whole or partial local government wards, which elect councillors at English local elections. Nine are designated as county constituencies (in which candidates can spend more per head than their borough counterparts). Two are borough constituencies.

[1]   Conservative   Labour   Liberal Democrat ¤

Name[nb 1] Electorate[2] Majority[3][nb 2] Member of Parliament[3] Nearest opposition[3] Map
Broxbourne BC 73,182 19,807   Charles Walker[4]   Sean Waters ‡
A fairly small constituency in the southeast part of the county.
Hemel Hempstead CC 74,035 14,563 Michael Penning Nabila Ahmed ‡
A medium-sized constituency. It is slightly to the northwest of the centre of the county.
Hertford and Stortford CC 81,765 19,620 Julie Marson Chris Vince ‡
A medium-sized constituency located in the east of the county.
Hertsmere CC 73,971 21,313 Oliver Dowden Holly Kal-Weiss ‡
A small-to-medium sized constituency, located in the south of the county.
Hitchin and Harpenden CC 76,323 6,895 Bim Afolami Sam Collins ¤
A fairly large constituency, stretching from the centre of the county northwards.
North East Hertfordshire CC 76,123 18,189 Oliver Heald Kelley Green ‡
The largest constituency in the county, primarily located in the northeast of the county. Its northernmost parts are considerably further north than constituencies in the west.
South West Hertfordshire CC 80,499 14,408 Gagan Mohindra David Gauke
A medium sized constituency. It is long and thin in shape, stretching from the northwest to the southwest of the county.
St Albans CC 73,727 6,293 Daisy Cooper ¤ Anne Main
A small-to-medium sized constituency, slightly west of the centre of the county. It is bordered entirely by other constituencies in the county.
Stevenage CC 71,562 8,562 Stephen McPartland Jill Borcherds ‡
A small constituency located slightly north of the centre of the county. It is bordered exclusively by other constituencies in the county.
Watford BC 83,359 4,433 Dean Russell Chris Ostrowski ‡
A small constituency, southwest of the centre of the county.
Welwyn Hatfield CC 74,892 10,955 Grant Shapps Rosie Newbigging ‡
A medium sized constituency at the centre of the county. It is entirely bounded by other constituencies in the county.

History of constituencies and boundaries[edit]


  Former constituency
  * Constituency for the 2017 United Kingdom general election
Constituency Years
1290–1298 1298–1307 1307–1852 1852–1885 1885–1918 1918–1945 1945–1950 1950–1955 1955–1974 1974–1983 1983–1997 1997–*
Hertfordshire[5] 1290–1885  
Hertford[5][6]   1298–1974
St Albans[nb 3][5][6]   1307–1852   1885–*
Watford[6]   1885–*
Hitchin[6]   1885–1983
Hemel Hempstead[7]   1918–1983 1997–*
Barnet   1945–1974 Part of Greater London from 1965
South West Hertfordshire[8][9]   1950–*
East Hertfordshire[10]   1955–1983
Hertford and Stevenage   1974–1983
South Hertfordshire   1974–1983
Welwyn Hatfield   1974–*
North Hertfordshire   1983–1997
West Hertfordshire   1983–1997
Broxbourne   1983–*
Hertford and Stortford   1983–*
Hertsmere   1983–*
Stevenage 1983–*
Hitchin and Harpenden   1997–*
North East Hertfordshire   1997–*
The head and shoulders of a middle-aged man, wearing a brown jacket, white shirt and black bow-tie.
Arthur Balfour was MP for Hertford between 1874 and 1885, and later Prime Minister.

Prior to 1885[edit]

Hertfordshire was first represented in the English parliament in the thirteenth century, during the reign of King Edward I.[5][11] Edward held a meeting of Parliament in the county in 1295.[12] By 1307, the county's representation in parliament consisted of two representatives, known as Knights of the Shire, who represented the county as a whole. In addition, the city of St Albans and borough of Hertford elected two representatives of their own.[5] Parliament's role evolved over the next five centuries, from a body existing primarily to advise the monarch on taxation, into a legislative body in its own right following the English Civil War. However, Hertfordshire's constituency makeup within it remained unchanged until 1832, when the County's representation was increased to 3 MPs by the Great Reform Act. In 1852, the constituency of St Albans was disenfranchised and under the Reform Act of 1867, the representation of the Boroughs of Hertford was reduced to 1 MP.

Constituencies formerly sending two or three MPs[edit]

The head and shoulders of a middle-aged man, wearing a brown jacket and a black top.
William Lamb, MP for Hertfordshire 1819–1826 and Prime Minister of the UK 1835–1841 as Viscount Melbourne, leading from the House of Lords

Under the Reform Acts of 1832, 1867 and 1884–85, it became more common for constituencies to be represented by a single MP. This became universal on the abolition of the last few few two-member Boroughs and last university constituencies under the Representation of the People Act 1948. Before these reforms, the House of Commons had far fewer constituencies – the majority of which were represented by two and, in a few cases, more than two MPs and such instances locally are listed below, with the increase or reduction in representation being implemented at general elections held in those years.[5]

Name From To Number of MPs
Hertford 1298[nb 4] 1868 2
Hertfordshire 1290 1832 2
1832 1885 3
St Albans[nb 5] 1307[nb 6] 1852 2


Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 the County was divided into four single-member constituencies, namely the Eastern of Hertford Division (which absorbed the abolished Parliamentary Borough of Hertford), the Northern or Hitchin Division, the Mid or St Albans Division and the Western or Watford Division.[13]

The table shows an approximate representation of the development of constituencies in Hertfordshire since 1885. The text below gives a more detailed description.

1885–1945 1918–1945 1945–1950 1950–1955 1955–1974 1974–1983 1983–1997 1997–present
Watford CC Hemel Hempstead CC1 Hemel Hempstead CC1 Hemel Hempstead CC1 Hemel Hempstead CC1 Hemel Hempstead CC West Hertfordshire CC Hemel Hempstead CC
Watford CC Watford CC South West Hertfordshire CC South West Hertfordshire CC South West Hertfordshire CC South West Hertfordshire CC South West Hertfordshire CC
Watford BC Watford BC Watford BC Watford BC Watford BC
St Albans CC1 St Albans CC Barnet CC Barnet CC Barnet CC Transferred to Greater London (Chipping Barnet BC)
St Albans CC St Albans CC St Albans CC St Albans CC1 St Albans CC1 St Albans CC
South Hertfordshire CC Hertsmere CC Hertsmere CC
Hertford CC Welwyn and

Hatfield CC

Welwyn Hatfield CC Welwyn Hatfield CC
Hitchin CC Hitchin CC Hitchin CC Hitchin CC Hitchin CC Hitchin CC North Hertfordshire CC Hitchin and

Harpenden CC1

North East Hertfordshire CC
Hertford and Stevenage CC Stevenage CC Stevenage CC
Hertford CC Hertford CC Hertford CC Hertford CC East Hertfordshire CC East Hertfordshire CC Hertford and

Stortford CC

Hertford and

Stortford CC

Broxbourne BC Broxbourne BC
BC = Borough Constituency (prior to 1950 – Parliamentary Borough or Division thereof)

CC = County Constituency (prior to 1950 – Parliamentary County of Division thereof)

1Constituency containing the town of Harpenden


Under the Representation of the People Act 1918, the additional County Division of Hemel Hempstead was created.[7] This was largely formed from the northern half of the Watford Division, including Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring and also included north-western part of the St Albans Division, including Harpenden.

During this period, the demographics of voters in the county changed significantly, with four new towns being designated in the county in the three years from 1946–48.[14][15][16] Meanwhile the eligibility to vote was extended from men who held property of a high enough value, to universal suffrage for all adults over the age of 21, as a result of the Representation of the People Acts in 1918 and 1928.[17]


The House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1944 set up Boundaries Commissions to carry out periodic reviews of the distribution of parliamentary constituencies. It also authorised an initial review to subdivide abnormally large constituencies (those exceeding an electorate of 100,000) in time for the 1945 election.[18] This was implemented by the Redistribution of Seats Order 1945 under which Hertfordshire was allocated an additional seat. As a consequence, the new County Constituency of Barnet was formed from the St Albans constituency, comprising the Urban Districts of Barnet and East Barnet, and the Rural District of Elstree.[19]


The Representation of the People Act 1948 increased the county's representation once again, from 6 to 7 MPs, with the creation of the County Constituency of South West Hertfordshire, which was formed from the old Watford constituency, excluding the part comprising the Municipal Borough of Watford (which comprised the redesignated Borough Constituency of Watford). The new seat also included the parish of Abbots Langley, transferred from Hemel Hempstead. Elsewhere, the Rural District of Welwyn was transferred from Hitchin to St Albans, the Rural District of Hatfield from St Albans to Barnet and the parish of Wheathampstead from St Albans to Hemel Hempstead.


The First Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies resulted in the creation of the County Constituency of East Hertfordshire from the bulk of the Hertford constituency, with a small rural area transferred from Hitchin. Hertford saw significant changes with only the Municipal Borough and the part of the Rural District of Hertford retained. The Urban District of Welwyn Garden City and the Rural District of Welwyn were transferred from St Albans; the Rural District of Hatfield was transferred from Barnet; and the remainder of the Rural District of Hertford was transferred from Hitchin.


The next national boundary change came into effect for the February 1974 election following the recommendations of the Second Periodic Review and saw significant changes affecting Hertfordshire. Three new constituencies were introduced, offset by the abolition of two. Only Watford remained unchanged.

Barnet was abolished following the creation of the county of Greater London nine years earlier in 1965. The Urban Districts of Barnet and East Barnet had been incorporated into the London Borough of Barnet in Greater London and now formed the basis for the new Borough Constituency of Chipping Barnet. The Rural District of Elstree was retained in Hertfordshire and was included in the new County Constituency of South Hertfordshire which also comprised the Urban District of Potters Bar which had been transferred from Middlesex to Hertfordshire following the creation of Greater London and was now transferred from the abolished Borough Constituency of Enfield West. The parish of Aldenham in the Rural District of Watford was transferred from South West Hertfordshire and the parishes of Colney Heath, London Colney and St Stephen in the Rural District of St Albans were transferred from St Albans. In turn, Harpenden and Redbourn were transferred from Hemel Hempstead to St Albans.

Hertford was also abolished, with the Municipal Borough and Rural District of Hertford being included in the new County Constituency of Hertford and Stevenage. The Urban District of Stevenage, which formed the greater part of the new constituency, was transferred from Hitchin and the Urban District of Ware was transferred from East Hertfordshire. The remaining parts of the Hertford constituency formed the new County Constituency of Welwyn and Hatfield.


The Third Review reflected the 1974 local government reorganisation arising from the Local Government Act 1972 and resulted in another significant redistribution. It saw the formation of Broxbourne, Hertford and Stortford, Hertsmere, North Hertfordshire, Stevenage and West Hertfordshire, replacing the abolished constituencies of East Hertfordshire, Hemel Hempstead, Hertford and Stevenage, Hitchin and South Hertfordshire – a net increase of one seat.

Broxbourne was formed as a Borough Constituency, primarily from southern parts of the abolished constituency of East Hertfordshire, mainly consisting of the former Urban Districts of Cheshunt and Hoddesdon which had been combined to form the District of Broxbourne under the local government reorganisation. The rest of East Hertfordshire, including Bishop's Stortford and Sawbridgeworth, together with Hertford and Ware from the abolished constituency of Hertford and Stevenage, formed the new County Constituency of Hertford and Stortford, with Stevenage being created as a separate County Constituency.

Hitchin was replaced by North Hertfordshire, with a small part in the south-east being included in Stevenage (Codicote and Knebworth); Hemel Hempstead was largely replaced by West Hertfordshire, with Berkhamsted being transferred to South West Hertfordshire; and South Hertfordshire was largely replaced by Hertsmere, with Colney Heath being transferred back to St Albans and St Stephens transferred to Watford. In order to balance the electorates, South West Hertfordshire transferred Bushey and Abbots Langley to Hertsmere and Watford respectively and Wheathampstead was transferred from St Albans to Welwyn and Hatfield (renamed Welwyn Hatfield), which in turn transferred Northaw to Broxbourne.


The Fourth Review saw another increase in the number of constituencies, with the creation of Hitchin and Harpenden and North East Hertfordshire and the re-establishment of Hemel Hempstead, replacing the abolished constituencies North Hertfordshire and West Hertfordshire.

Hitchin and Harpenden combined the two towns of Hitchin, previously part of North Hertfordshire, and Harpenden, transferred from St Albans. The remainder of North Hertfordshire (including Letchworth, Baldock and Royston), together with some rural areas of Hertford and Stortford and Stevenage, formed the new constituency of North East Hertfordshire. Hemel Hempstead was reformed from West Hertfordshire, with Tring being transferred to South West Hertfordshire.

To compensate for the loss of Harpenden, St Albans gained St Stephens and Park Street, Bedmond, and London Colney from Watford, South West Hertfordshire and Hertsmere respectively. Other movements included the transfer of Stanstead Abbotts and Amwell from Broxbourne to Hertford and Stortford; Kings Langley from South West Hertfordshire to Hemel Hempstead; Wheathampstead from Welwyn Hatfield to Hitchin and Harpenden; and three District of Three Rivers wards from South West Hertfordshire to Watford.


The Boundary Commission for England decided not to change Hertfordshire's representation in Parliament for the 2010 election. It did however suggest slight boundary changes to reduce electoral disparity. The recommendations, which became law with the Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007, also ensured that local government wards in Hertfordshire would no longer be split between two Parliamentary constituencies.[20][21]

No. on map Constituency Pre-2010 Boundaries Post-2010 Boundaries
1 Broxbourne
A map of a county, divided into eleven constituencies
The same map of a county. It is divided into eleven constituencies, some of which have slightly different boundaries.
2 Hemel Hempstead
3 Hertford and Stortford
4 Hertsmere
5 Hitchin and Harpenden
6 North East Hertfordshire
7 South West Hertfordshire
8 St Albans
9 Stevenage
10 Watford
11 Welwyn Hatfield

Proposed boundary changes[edit]

The Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies (the 2018 review) in September 2018. Although the proposals were immediately laid before Parliament they were not brought forward by the Government for approval. Accordingly, they did not come into effect for the 2019 election which took place on 12 December 2019, and which was contested using the constituency boundaries in place since 2010.

Under the terms of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, the Sixth Review was based on reducing the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and a strict electoral parity requirement that the electorate of all constituencies should be within a range of 5% either side of the electoral quota.

On 24 March 2020, the Minister of State for the Cabinet Office, Chloe Smith, issued a written statement to Parliament setting out the Government's thinking with regard to parliamentary boundaries. They propose to bring forward primary legislation to remove the statutory obligation to implement the 2018 Boundary Review recommendations, as well as set the framework for future boundary reviews in time for the next review which is due to begin in early 2021 and report no later than October 2023. It is proposed that the number of constituencies now remains at the current level of 650, rather than being reduced to 600, while retaining the requirement that the electorate should be no more than +/- 5% from the electoral quota.[22]

Results history[edit]

Primary data source: House of Commons research briefing - General election results from 1918 to 2019[23]


The number of votes cast for each political party who fielded candidates in constituencies comprising Hertfordshire in the 2019 general election were as follows:

Party Votes % Change from 2017 Seats Change from 2017
Conservative 317,018 52.7% Decrease1.6% 10 Decrease1
Labour 141,143 20.1% Decrease8.6% 0 0
Liberal Democrats 110,006 18.6% Increase8.4% 1 Increase1
Greens 15,132 3.3% Increase0.2% 0 0
Others 17,764 0.6% Increase1.6% 0 0
Total 601,063 100.0 11

Percentage votes[edit]

Election year 1974




1979 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017 2019
Conservative 40.4 41.3 51.1 50.3 52.0 53.3 40.6 41.8 44.8 50.4 52.6 54.3 52.7
Labour 35.0 38.5 34.4 19.0 19.8 25.5 39.7 38.9 30.2 19.0 22.4 32.1 23.5
Liberal Democrat1 24.4 19.8 13.2 30.2 27.8 20.3 16.0 16.9 21.4 24.0 8.7 9.9 18.3
Green Party - - - - * * * * * 0.8 3.6 2.3 2.5
UKIP - - - - - - * * * 3.3 12.5 1.2 *
Other 0.2 0.4 1.3 0.5 0.4 0.9 3.7 2.4 3.6 2.5 0.2 0.2 3.0

11974 & 1979 - Liberal Party; 1983 & 1987 - SDP-Liberal Alliance

* Included in Other


Election year 1974




1979 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017 2019
Conservative 7 5 9 10 10 10 6 6 9 11 11 11 10
Labour 2 4 0 0 0 0 5 5 2 0 0 0 0
Liberal Democrat1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

11974 & 1979 - Liberal Party; 1983 & 1987 - SDP-Liberal Alliance


Historical representation by party[edit]

A cell marked → (with a different colour background to the preceding cell) indicates that the previous MP continued to sit under a new party name.

1885 to 1945[edit]

  Anti-Waste League   Conservative   Independent   Liberal   Silver Badge

Constituency 1885 1886 1892 1895 98 1900 04 1906 Jan 10 Dec 10 11 16 1918 19 20 21 1922 1923 1924 1929 1931 33 1935 37 41 43
Hertford A. Smith E. Cecil A. H. Smith Rolleston Billing Sueter
Hitchin Dimsdale Hudson Bertram Hillier R. Cecil Kindersley Knebworth Wilson Berry
St Albans J. W. Grimston Gibbs Slack Carlile Fremantle J. Grimston
Watford Halsey Micklem Ward Herbert Helmore
Hemel Hempstead Talbot J. Davidson Dunn J. Davidson F. Davidson

1945 to present[edit]

  Conservative   Independent   Labour   Liberal Democrats

Constituency 1945 1950 1951 1955 1959 1964 1966 1970 Feb 1974 Oct 1974 1979 79 1983 1987 1992 1997 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017 19 2019
Barnet Taylor Maudling Transferred to Greater London
Hemel Hempstead (1945–83, 97-) / West Hertfordshire (1983) Davidson Allason Corbett Lyell Jones McWalter Penning
Hertford / & Stevenage (1974) / H & Stortford (1983) Walker-Smith Lindsay Williams Wells Prisk Marson
Hitchin / North Hertfordshire (1983) / NE Hertfordshire (1997) Jones Fisher Maddan Williams Stewart Heald
St Albans Dumpleton Grimston Goodhew Lilley Pollard Main Cooper
Watford Freeman Farey-Jones Tuck Garel-Jones Ward Harrington Russell
Hertfordshire SW Longden Dodsworth Page Gauke Mohindra
Hertfordshire E / Broxbourne (1983) Walker-Smith Roe Walker
Hertfordshire South / Hertsmere (1983) Parkinson Clappison Dowden
Welwyn and Hatfield Lindsay Hayman Murphy Evans Johnson Shapps
Stevenage Wood Follett McPartland
Hitchin and Harpenden Lilley Afolami

See also[edit]


  1. ^ BC denotes borough constituency, CC denotes county constituency.
  2. ^ The majority is the number of votes the winning candidate receives more than their nearest rival.
  3. ^ St Albans was abolished in 1852, but re-established in 1885.
  4. ^ Hertford began to send representatives to parliament in 1298, and became a permanent constituency in 1624.
  5. ^ St Albans was abolished in 1852, but re-established in 1885.
  6. ^ St Albans started sending members of parliament in 1307, and became a permanent constituency in 1554.


  • "Boundary Commission for England: Fifth Periodical Report" (PDF). Boundary Commission for England. Crown Copyright. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  • Craig, Frederick Walter Scott (1972). Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885–1972. Chichester, Sussex: Political Reference Publications. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  • Robinson, Gwennah (1978). Barracuda Guide to County History, Vol III: Hertfordshire. Barracuda Books. ISBN 0-86023-030-9.
  • Richard Hacker (13 February 2001). "Report on a local inquiry into the Parliamentary constituency boundaries for the county of Hertfordshire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 28, 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  1. ^ "Variation of election expenses limits for candidates at UK Parliamentary and local government elections" (PDF). The Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  2. ^ Baker, Carl; Uberoi, Elise; Cracknell, Richard (2020-01-28). "General Election 2019: full results and analysis". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ a b c "Constituencies A-Z - Election 2019". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  4. ^ "Constituency:Broxbourne". BBC News. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e f David Boothroyd. "Parliamentary Constituencies in the unreformed House". David Boothroyd. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d "Historic maps". David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  7. ^ a b "Full text of "The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes"". Internet Archive. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  8. ^ "UK General Election results July 1945". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  9. ^ "UK General Election results February 1950". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  10. ^ "UK General Election results May 1955". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  11. ^ "Edward I 'Longshanks' (r. 1272–1307)". The Royal Household. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  12. ^ Robinson p31.
  13. ^ "A parliamentary map of the British Isles showing the electoral divisions as described in the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885". David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  14. ^ "No. 37785". The London Gazette. 12 November 1946. p. 5536.
  15. ^ "No. 37875". The London Gazette. 7 February 1947. p. 664.
  16. ^ "No. 38299". The London Gazette. 25 May 1948. p. 3136.
  17. ^ "Women and the Vote". Parliamentary copyright. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  18. ^ Gay, Oonagh (2010-07-28). "The Rules for the Redistribution of Seats- history and reform". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ S., Craig, Fred W. (1972). Boundaries of parliamentary constituencies 1885–1972;. Chichester: Political Reference Publications. ISBN 0900178094. OCLC 539011.
  20. ^ Boundary Commission for England pp. 346–350.
  21. ^ "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007". Office of Public Sector Information. Crown copyright. 13 June 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  22. ^ "Update: Strengthening Democracy:Written statement - HCWS183". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
  23. ^ Watson, Christopher; Uberoi, Elise; Loft, Philip (2020-04-17). "General election results from 1918 to 2019". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)