Parnassiinae

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Parnassiinae
Parnassius phoebus2.jpg
Small Apollo (Parnassius phoebus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Clade: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Subfamily: Parnassiinae
Tribes

The Parnassiinae or snow Apollos are a subfamily of the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae. The subfamily includes about 50 medium-sized, white or yellow species.[1] The snow Apollos are high-altitude butterflies and are distributed across Asia, Europe and North America.[2]

The tribes recognized in the Parnassinae are Parnassiini, Zerynthiini and Luehdorfiini.

Gallery[edit]

Parnassinae

Parnassiini


Hypermnestra



Parnassius



Luehdorfiini



Archon



Doritites bosniackii




Luehdorfia



Zerythiini


Sericinus




Bhutanitis




Zerynthia



Allancastria






? Thaites



A proposed phylogeny of the Parnassius and related groups.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Butterflies of North America, James A. Scott, ISBN 0-8047-1205-0, 1986
  2. ^ Ackery PR (1975) A guide to the genera and species of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 31, 4 pdf
  3. ^ Nazari, V., Zakharov, E.V., and Sperling, F.A.H., 2007. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes. Molecular phylogenetics and Evolution, 42: 131-156. pdf Archived June 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

  • Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001)
  • Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia (2001)
  • James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011)
  • Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008)
  • Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)

External links[edit]